In the singles competition, Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams were the defending champions. Williams was able to retain her title with a win over Justine Henin, 6–4, 3–6, 6–2 in the final, while Nadal retired in his quarterfinals match against Andy Murray owing to a quadriceps injury. Roger Federer was the men's champion, defeating finalist Andy Murray in straight sets 6–3, 6–4, 7–6(11).
In doubles, the 2009 champion pairs were successful in their respective title defenses – Bob and Mike Bryan in men's doubles and Serena and Venus Williams in women's doubles. Sania Mirza and Mahesh Bhupathi were not able to defend their mixed doubles title because they withdrew from the event beforehand. In mixed doubles, Cara Black and Leander Paes won the title, which made a mixed doubles career grand slam for Black.
This was Federer's first title of the year and his 62nd overall. It was his 16th career Grand Slam title, and his 4th Australian Open title tying Andre Agassi for most Australian Open titles in the Open Era (Novak Djokovic has since surpassed this record winning his 5th title in 2015). This was Federer's 5th final at the Australian Open that tied him with Stefan Edberg for the Open Era record.
This was Williams' first title of the year, a record 5th Australian Open title in the Open Era. The title was Williams' 12th major title, which tied her for 6th all-time with Billie Jean King and Suzanne Lenglen, and in the Open Era solo 4th having surpassed Court's 11 mark, which Williams' is behind Graf (22), Evert and Navratilova with (18) each.
This was the pair's 3rd consecutive grand slam final and the 4th overall. The victory makes Paes India's joint-lead grand slam winner alongside his ex- doubles partner Mahesh Bhupathi with a total of 11 grand slam doubles titles. This title gave Black a career mixed doubles grand slam, which Black has won one of each slam in mixed doubles.