List of academic ranks

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This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars in academia. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema.

Afghanistan[edit]

  • Pohand
  • Pohanwal
  • Pohandoi
  • Pohanmal
  • Pohanyar
  • Pohyalai
  • Namzade Pohyalai

Argentina[edit]

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Dutch speaking community[edit]

  • Gewoon hoogleraar (full professor) (professor ordinarius)
  • Buitengewoon hoogleraar (full professor) (professor extraordinarius)
  • Hoogleraar (professor)
  • Hoofddocent (associate professor)
  • Docent (assistant professor)
  • Doctor-assistant (postdoc research assistant)
  • Assistent (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rector
  • Vice-Rector
  • Decaan (dean, i.e. head of a faculty)

French community[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (visiting professor in Switzerland, part-time professor in Belgium)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (associate professor, tenured)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de Conférences (senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant, with Ph.D.)
  • Chargé de recherche (researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

  • Asistent - assistant (Must hold at least Masters Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold PhD, Doctorate or pre-Bologna Magister Degree with evidence of further study to doctoral level. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Vanredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
  • Profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty or school at the university
  • Šef katedre - head of department

Honorary ranks

  • Profesor emeritus - professor emeritus

Brazil[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

  • Assistant professor – Асистент
  • Chief assistant professor – Главен Асистент
  • Docent – Доцент – associate professor
  • Professor – Професор – full professor
University
  • Assistant professor – Асистент
  • Chief assistant professor – Главен Асистент
  • Docent – Доцент – associate professor
  • Professor – Професор – full professor
Academy of Sciences
  • Scientist III: after Master thesis or Diploma, equal to Assistant
  • Scientist II: after Doctoral thesis/PhD/Dissertation, after Dr. Grade (3–5 or 7 years work after Master), equal Chef Assistant, *Associate or Post Doc
  • Scientist I: After second Post Doc (1 or 2 years work after PhD/Dr), equal Senior Assistant or Senior Associate.
  • Senior Scientist I: after PhD (USA, UK....) or Doctoral dissertation/thesis (France, Germany, Russia...) and some years of *Post-Doc, equal of Assoc. Prof.
  • Senior Scientist II: after Habilitation, equal to Professor
  • Full Professor
Higher administration of the academy of sciences
  • Member of correspondence for the Academy of Science (after professor/habilitation), very rare
  • Academic: after member of correspondence (for the entire of Bulgaria).
Administrative ranks
  • Rector
  • Vice-rectors
  • Assistant rector
  • Secretary general
  • Academic ombudsman

Canada[edit]

Faculty appointment

  • Distinguished professor or university professor (distinguished professor emeritus, university professor emeritus)
  • Professor or full professor (research professor, professor of practice, visiting professor, adjunct professor, professor emeritus; Fr professeur titulaire)
  • Associate professor (research associate professor, visiting associate professor, adjunct associate professor; Fr professeur agrégé)
  • Assistant professor (research assistant professor, adjunct assistant professor; Fr professeur adjoint)
  • Lecturer or instructor (sessional lecturer or sessional instructor; Fr chargé de cours)

Assistant professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty.

Non-faculty teaching and research personnel

Administrative ranks

  • Dean (often also full professors)
  • Associate dean (often also full professors)
  • Directors of administrative departments
  • Associate/assistant directors of administrative departments
  • Chairs of academic departments (usually full professors)
  • Graduate Coordinators
  • Undergraduate Coordinators

China[edit]

Colombia[edit]

Croatia[edit]

  • Redoviti professor u trajnom zvanju equivalent to distinguished professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Redoviti professor equivalent to full professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Izvanredni professor equivalent to associate professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Docent equivalent to assistant professor (doc. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Viši asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, PhD (dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, usually a PhD student
  • Viši predavač equivalent to senior lecturer
  • Predavač equivalent to lecturer

Honorary academic rank

  • Professor emeritus - awarded to some full professors in retirement

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor equivalent to rector, head of university (in USA equivalent to president of university)
  • Prorektor equivalent to prorector, assistant to head of university (in USA equivalent to vice-president of university)
  • Dekan equivalent to dean, head of faculty or school in university
  • Prodekan equivalent to vice-dean, assistant to dean
  • Pročelnik odsjeka equivalent to department chair
  • Predstojnik zavoda equivalent to head of department
  • Predstojnik katedre equivalent to head of chair

Cuba[edit]

Tenured:

  • Professor (Profesor Titular)(full/part time, PhD required)
  • Auxiliary Professor (Profesor Auxiliar)(full/part time)
  • Teaching Assistant (Asistente)(full/part time)
  • Lecturer (Instructor)(full/part time)

Cyprus[edit]

Tenure-track faculty positions

  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer

Non-tenure track positions

  • Special teaching personnel
  • Special scientists

Czech republic[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Estonia[edit]

  • Emeriitprofessor (professor emeritus)
  • Professor
  • Dotsent (associate professor)
  • Lektor (lecturer)
  • Õpetaja (teacher)

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Faculty Research-only Teaching-only Part-time
Tenured positions Professeur des universités or Directeur d'études Directeur de recherche Professeur des universités associé
Maître de conférences Chargé de recherche professeur agrégé or professeur certifié Maître de conférences associé
Non-tenured positions Attaché temporaire d'enseignement et de recherches (ATER) Post-doctorant Chargé d'enseignement
Doctorant contractuel chargé d'enseignement Doctorant contractuel

Germany[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • Professor emeritus
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Adjunct lecturer or adjunct assistant professor (a temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct lecturers are sometimes called simply as "407", after the number of the Decree)
  • Teaching assistant (This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain teaching assistants until retirement.)

Administrative ranks

  • rector
  • Vice-rector
  • Secretary general
  • Dean
  • Deputy dean
  • Chairman of the department
  • Deputy chairman of the department
  • Director of the section

The holders of administrative ranks must be professors or associate professors. The only exception is secretary general, who is not a faculty member.

Guyana[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus (on retirement)
  • Professor
  • Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer II
  • Lecturer I
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Tutor
  • Laboratory Demonstrator

Administrative ranks

Hong Kong[edit]

Academic ranks
In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor, associate professor, and assistant professor). Institutions established in the 1980s and 1990s almost entirely follows the North American system, while older ones, notably The University of Hong Kong is in the process of transition.[1] Depending on institutions, the title of "professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above.

  • Chair professor
  • Emeritus professor
  • Honorary professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer
  • Research assistant professor
  • Post-doctoral fellow
  • Adjunct (associate/assistant) professor
  • Professional consultant or teaching consultant/fellow
  • Research associate
  • Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator)
  • Postgraduate or graduate
  • Undergraduate

Administrative ranks

Hungary[edit]

Iceland[edit]

  • Prófessor
  • Dósent (associate-professors)
  • Lektor (assistant-professors)

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Academic ranks There are 4 academic ranks which can be categorized to 9 main levels with one or more rates within each rank.

  1. Asisten Ahli (Associate Lecturer, rates: 100, 150)
  2. Lektor (Lecturer, rates: 200, 300)
  3. Lektor Kepala (Senior Lecturer, rates: 400, 550, 700)
  4. Guru Besar (professor)
    • Guru Besar Madya (Associate Professor) - Rate 850
    • Guru Besar (Professor) - Rate 1050

Administrative ranks (university)

  • Rektor (Rector)
  • Wakil Rektor (Vice Rector)

Fakultas-Fakultas (University Schools)

  • Dekan (Dean)
  • Wakil Dekan (Vice Dean)
  • Ketua Jurusan (Head of Department)
  • Kepala Program Studi (Head of Programme)

Iran[edit]

  • Ostád Tamám استاد تمام (full professor)
  • Ostád استاد (professor)
  • Dánešyár دانشیار (associate professor)
  • Ostádyár استادیار (assistant professor)
  • Morabbi مربی (lecturer)

Emeritus ranks

Administrative ranks

  • Chancellor
  • Dean
  • Head of department

Iraq[edit]

  • استاذ equivalent to professor.
  • استاذ مساعدequivalent to associate professor.
  • مدرس equivalent to assistant professor in American Universities (with PhD) or with researchs.
  • مدرس مساعد Assistant lecturer (without PhD).

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

Faculty (all these positions are tenured or tenure-track):

  • Professore Emerito (full professor after retirement age whose high importance in academic field has been credited by the faculty council and approved by the Ministry of Higher Education: it is just an honorific title, although, in some cases, a Professore Emerito is allowed to keep his/her office for up to two years)
  • Professore Ordinario, but more precisely: Professore di I fascia (full professor; tenured position)
  • Professore Straordinario (a professor taking his/her three years of testing before being confirmed as full professor)
  • Professore Associato, but more precisely: Professore di II fascia (associate professor; tenured position)
  • Professore Associato non confermato : Professore di II fascia taking his/her three years of testing before being confirmed as Professore Associato
  • Professore aggregato (a faculty researcher with a temporary appointment for a given course)
  • Ricercatore confermato (assistant professor or researcher; tenured position)
  • Ricercatore non confermato (assistant professor or researcher in tenure-track; a researcher taking his/her three years of testing before being confirmed as researcher; ; no position of Ricercatore can be created after an Italian university reform in 2010, but whoever achieved this role before will keep his right to be tenured after the first three years)
  • Assistente (The former entry level of permanent positions before Ricercatore replaced it in the early 1980s. No position of Assistente were created since then, but some personnel kept the title, though most of them became Ricercatore confermato)

Non-faculty and temporary:

  • Professore a contratto (professor with a temporary appointment for a given course or lecture series)
  • Professore incaricato (former name, before 1980, for Professore a contratto)
  • Assegnista di Ricerca (research fellow with a temporary position, usually holding a Ph.D. title)
  • Dottorando di Ricerca (Ph.D. student)

Notice that as of January 2011, some changes have been introduced in the above system, in particular faculties have been abolished in all Italian state universities substituted by larger departments in charge of both teaching and research. Therefore, the role of the "Preside" is now extinguished.

Administrative ranks

  • Rettore (rector)
  • Prorettore (vice-rector)
  • Preside (dean of faculty)
  • Presidente di Consiglio di Corso di Laurea (head of a Bachelor/Msc curriculum on a given topic)
  • Direttore di Dipartimento (head of department)

Japan[edit]

Tenured or non-tenured faculty[note 1]

  • Professor emeritus, Meiyo Kyōju (名誉教授?)
  • Professor, Kyōju (教授?)
  • Associate professor, Joukyuujunkyōju (上級准教授?)
  • Assistant professor, Junkyōju (准教授?) (previously, Jokyōju (助教授?))
  • Lecturer/ Instructor, Kōshi (講師?)
  • Research associate / assistant lecturer, Jokyō (助教?)

Kōshi (講師?)andJokyō (助教?) are likely to be non-tenure (most kōshi in the national university system are, however, tenured). fellow,Kenkyūin (研究員?) and assistant,Joshu (助手?) Tenured or non-tenured faculty[note 1]

Jordan[edit]

Korea[edit]

Protected job titles (aka tenure positions):

  • (Full) professor (정교수/교수)
  • Associate professor (부교수)
  • Assistant professor (조교수)
  • Full-time instructor (전임 강사) : In some universities, this rank is missed and full-time academic career begins with the assistant professor rank.

Other positions:

  • Part-time instructor (시간 강사)
  • Research professor (연구 교수)
  • Clinical professor (임상 교수)
  • Adjunct professor (겸임 교수)
  • Visiting professor (객원 교수/초빙 교수)
  • Chaired professor (석좌 교수)
  • Emeritus professor (명예 교수)

Latvia[edit]

Administrative positions:

  • Rektors (male), Rektore (female) (rector)
  • Dekāns (male), Dekāne (female) (dean), head of a faculty (human sciences, natural sciences etc.)
  • Nodaļas vadītājs (male) Nodaļas vadītāja (female) (department manager), head of a department (computer science, mathematics etc.)

Academic positions:

  • Profesors (male) Profesore (female) Professor
  • Asociētais profesors (male) Asociētā profesore (female) associate professor
  • Docents (male), Docente (female) (assistant professor), usually almost the same teaching/research/administration division as professor, Doctoral Degree required
  • Lektors (male), Lektore (female) Lecturer. Requires MA degree
  • Asistents (male), Asistente (female) research or teaching assistant

Lebanon[edit]

Academic positions at the Lebanese American University:

  • Instructor
  • Senior Instructor
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Professor
  • Distinguished Professor

Libya[edit]

  • Professor (أستاذ)
  • Associate professor (أستاذ مشارك)
  • Assistant professor (أستاذ مساعد)
  • Lecturer (محاضر)
  • Assistant lecturer (محاضر مساعد )

Macau[edit]

At the University of Macau there are nine levels of faculty rank, namely

  • Chair professor,
  • Distinguished professor,
  • Professor,
  • Associate professor,
  • Assistant professor
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Senior instructor
  • Instructor

At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels

  • professor (professor coordenador)
  • associate professor (professor adjuncto)
  • lecturer (assistente)

Macedonia[edit]

  • Demonstrator, Демонстратор-(Graduate employee in a university)
  • Younger assistant, Помлад Асистент-(B.Sc.)
  • Assistant, Асистент-(M.Sc.)
  • Docent, Доцент-(Ph.D.)
  • Vonreden Professor, Вонреден Професор-(associate professor)
  • Professor, Професор-(full-time professor)
  • Professor emeritus, Пензиониран Професор-(retired professor)
  • Academic, Академик-(academician)

Administrative positions:

  • Pomlad referent, Помлад референт- (Younger Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Referent, Референт- (Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Postar Referent, Постар Референт- (Senior Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Pomlad Sorabotnik, Помлад Соработник- (Younger Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Sorabotnik, Соработник- (Аssociate) -Associate Degree
  • Postar Sorabotnik, Постар Соработник- (Senior Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Rakovoditel na studentski prasanja, Раководител на студентски прашања- (Head of Students Affairs) -Bachelors Degree
  • Rakovoditel na katedra/institut, Раководител на катедра/институт- (Head of Department/Institute) -Ph.D.
  • Prodekan, Продекан- (Vice Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Dekan, Декан- (Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Prorektor, Проректор- (Vice Rector) -Ph.D.
  • Rektor, Ректор- (Rector) -Ph.D.

Malaysia[edit]

Academic positions (in descending hierarchy)[note 2]

  • Profesor DiRaja (royal professor, usually retired professors, title bestowed by King)
  • Profesor emeritus (usually retired professors)
  • Senior professor (a newly introduced rank mainly to denote salary and hierarchical difference)
  • Professor
  • Professor Madya (associate professor)
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant lecturer/ Tutor
  • Instructor (with pre-degree qualifications)

Administrative (in descending hierarchy)

  • Chancellor (federal/state ruler)
  • Pro chancellor (non-executive)
  • Vice chancellor
  • Deputy vice chancellor
  • Assistant vice chancellor
  • Deans of faculties
  • Head of Programme

Malta[edit]

  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer

Mexico[edit]

  • Assistant professor
  • Associate professor
  • Full-time professor
  • Research professor
  • Professor emeritus

Full time Part time

President Provost Registrar´s Officer Director of College

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

See under Australia and New Zealand (above)

Nigeria[edit]

Academic Positions

  • Emeritus Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor / Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer I
  • Lecturer II
  • Assistant Lecturer

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor
  • Vice-chancellor
  • Deputy vice-chancellor
  • Pro-vice-chancellor
  • Deans of faculties(some are referred to as provost)
  • Heads of departments/schools
  • Department/school directors of studies

Norway[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Meritorious Professor/ Distinguished National Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer
  • Lab Engineer

Philippines[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Full professor VI
  • Full professor V
  • Full professor IV
  • Full professor III
  • Full professor II
  • Full professor I
  • Full professor
  • Associate professor
  • Aggregate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Instructor II
  • Instructor I

Dedication rank

  • Exclusive dedication professor
  • Full-time professor
  • Contracted professor

Administrative ranks (public national)

  • Chancellor
  • Vice Chancellor for Planning and Development
  • Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension
  • Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs
  • Vice Chancellor for Finance and Management
  • University secretary or registrar
    • Dean
    • Assistant Dean
        • Department Chairman
          • Faculty Members and Staff

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher
  • Researcher
  • Professor Emeritus
  • Ad honorem professor

Poland[edit]

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • (pl 'asystent') - research-and-teaching assistant / research-and-teaching fellow (hold master degree)
  • (pl 'adiunkt') - assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • (pl 'docent') - senior lecturer (requires PhD or habilitation), (a new position, since 2007 optional and only in some universities, does not involve any research duties and is meant mainly for teaching). Until 1987 a position between assistant professor and associate professor.
  • (pl 'profesor nadzwyczajny') - associate professor (requires habilitation), according to German nomenclature sometimes called "professor extraordinarius"
  • (pl 'profesor zwyczajny') - full professor (requires the professor title, which is an academic title, not an academic position), sometimes called "professor ordinarius"

and also for a special purpose:

  • (pl 'profesor wizytujący')- visiting professor
  • (pl 'profesor emerytowany')- professor emeritus

Teaching staff: (lower rank)

  • (pl 'instruktor') - instructor (sport)
  • (pl 'lektor') - instructor, foreign language teacher
  • (pl 'wykładowca') - lecturer
  • (pl 'starszy wykładowca') - senior lecturer

Elected or nominated posts

  • Rector (Rektor) - the principal head of the university (one per university); usually assisted by several deputy rectors (pl prorektor)
  • Dean (Dziekan); the principal head of the faculty (one per faculty), usually assisted by several deputy deans (pl prodziekan);
  • Head (Kierownik) - the head of the institute/department/chair (one per organizational unit)

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Administrative ranks

  • Rector ("rector"; one per university; usually assisted by a vice-rector "prorector")
  • Dean ("decan"; one per faculty; assisted by a vice-dean "prodecan")
  • Head of department ("șef de departament"; one per department)

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • Professor ("profesor")
  • Associate professor ("conferenţiar")
  • Assistant professor or lecturer ("lector" or "şef de lucrări")

and also for a special purpose:

  • Visiting professor ("profesor vizitator")
  • Professor emeritus ("profesor emerit" or "profesor consultant")

Teaching staff (lower rank)

  • Teaching assistant or assistant lecturer ("asistent")
  • Junior teaching assistant ("preparator") - this position type will become obsolete in 2015 (according to the current Romanian legislation)

Russia, Belarus, Ukraine[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

  • Profesor (professor), both degree (written prof. before name) and position. Professors are appointed by the president after a successful accomplishment of the process of awarding a professorship. One of the requirements is an already accomplished docent degree.
  • Docent (associate professor), both degree (written doc. before name) and position. The degree is awarded by the rector after a certain amount of years of teaching and after a successful accomplishment of habilitácia (a process concluded by a defense of a reviewed research manuscript and a public lecture).
  • Odborný asistent (lecturer / researcher), this title covers positions from lecturers to researchers. Requirements for lecturers / researchers vary, usually a Ph.D. / Th.D. is required
  • Asistent (assistant lecturer), at least Master degree is required

Special

  • Hosťujúci profesor (hosting professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of professor
  • Hosťujúci docent (hosting associate professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of associate professor
  • Mimoriadny profesor (adjunct professor; sometimes also translated as associate professor, but it is not same position as docent), associate professor temporarily appointed to the position of professor at a faculty while being an expectant to professor degree (written mimoriadny profesor after name)

Administrative

  • Rektor (rector), head of the university
  • Prorektor (vice-rector), typically 3 to 5 people are vice-rectors; the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-rector is responsible for (e. g. study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, development, information technology)
  • Kvestor (registrar, bursar), senior professional financial administrator of the university
  • Dekan (dean), head of a faculty
  • Prodekan (vice-dean); the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-den is responsible for (e. g. admissions, study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, information technology)
  • Riaditeľ (director), head of a sub-unit at the university or a faculty (institute, research center), e. g. Institute of Life-Long Learning of the Slovak University of Technology, Institute of Physical Education and Sport at the Pavol Jozef Šafárik University
  • Vedúci katedry (departmental chair), head of a katedra (department) – sub-unit at a faculty
  • Zástupca vedúceho katedry (deputy departmental chair), deputizes department chair if necessary

Honorary ranks

  • Emeritný profesor (professor emeritus), may be awarded by the rector on the proposal of the scientific council of the university for significant contributions in the field of science, art or education to professor older than 65 years who is no longer employment at the university, but is still active in research and teaching
  • Doctor honoris causa (honorary doctor for the sake of the honor), honorary doctorate of the university or a faculty awarded for special merit (written Dr.h.c. before name)

Slovenia[edit]

  • Asistent - assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Asistent-raziskovalec - research assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Lektor (usually a native speaker of a taught language)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold Doctorate / PhD. Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well.)
  • Izredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
  • Redni profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Predstojnik oddelka - head of department; several per faculty, academy or school at the university

Honorary ranks

  • Zaslužni profesor - distinguished professor, a title bestowed to professors for their extraordinary achievements

South Africa[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • Professor emeritus (on retirement)
  • Senior professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor (rare)
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant lecturer
  • Instructor/ demonstrator
  • Student instructor (undergrad)

Administrative ranks

  • Chancellor (titular)
  • Vice-chancellor/president
  • Registrar
  • Deans of faculties
  • Heads of departments/schools

Sweden[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

German-language universities[edit]

[note 3]

  • Hilfassistent/innen: Undergraduate research assistant / Undergraduate teaching assistant
  • Assistent/innen: research assistant (typically a PhD student)
  • Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter/innen: Scientific Staff (Note: typically synonymous with "Assistent/innen")
  • Postdoc: Postdoc (i.e., after PhD)
  • Oberassistent/innen: senior researcher/lecturer (typically after 1–2 years as a postdoc)
  • Lehrbeauftragte: lecturer / adjunct professor
  • Gastdozent/innen: visiting lecturer
  • Assistent professor: assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • Privatdozent/innen: senior lecturer (has the habilitation but not professorship)
  • Professor: full professor (ordinary and extraordinary)

French-language universities[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor, chair)
  • Professeur extraordinaire
  • Professeur invité
  • Professeur associé (associate professor literally, yet functions as full professor or reader, non-chair, tenured)
  • Professeur assistant (assistant professor literally, yet functions as associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours (senior lecturer, yet functions as associate professor, tenured)
  • Privat docent (has the habilitation but not professorship)
  • Maître-Assistant (assistant professor or lecturer, non-tenured)
  • Assistant (lecturer, usually a graduate student)
  • Moniteur (undergraduate student)

Taiwan[edit]

  • Professor emeritus
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor (assistant professor and above are mainly for people who hold a PhD degree. Some are promoted to this rank by distinctive industrial performance.)
  • Lecturer
  • Adjunct professor
  • Adjunct associate professor
  • Adjunct assistant professor (According to the contract work, and less welfare. Usually 1 to 2 years.)
  • Adjunct researcher

Thailand[edit]

Tunisia[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (assistant professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (associate professor, tenured)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de Conférences (senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant, with Ph.D.)
  • Chargé de recherche (researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Turkey[edit]

Academic ranks

  • Profesör(Full professor)
  • Doçent, (Associate professor)
  • Yardımcı Doçent, (Assistant professor)
  • Öğretim Görevlisi, (Lecturer)
  • Okutman, (Instructor)
  • Araştırma Görevlisi, (Research/teaching assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektör, rector or president (professors)
  • Rektör Yardımcısı, vice-rector or vice-president (professors)
  • Fakülte Dekanı, dean of the faculty (associate professor or above)
  • Enstitü müdürü, Director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Dekan Yardımcısı, vice-dean or associate dean (associate professor or above)
  • Enstitü müdür yardımcısı, Deputy director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Bölüm Başkanı, head of department (assistant professor or above)
  • Ana Bilim Dalı Başkanı, chair of academic programs (assistant professor or above)

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

  • Titular professor (Professor Titular)
  • Associated professor (Professor Asociado)
  • Aggregate professor (Professor Agregado)
  • Assistant professor (Professor Assistante)
  • Instructor (Instructor)

Dedication rank

  • Exclusive dedication professor (Professor a Dedicación Exclusiva)
  • Full-time professor (Professor a Tiempo Completo)
  • Contracted professor (Professor a Tiempo Convencional - academic rank is usually optional)

Administrative ranks (public national)

  • University council (Consejo Universitario - Órgano Colegiado)
  • Rector or chairman (Rector)
  • University secretary or registrar (Secretario)
  • Academic vice rector (Vicerrector Académico)
  • Administrative vice rector (Vicerrector Administrativo)
    • Faculty council (Concejo de Facultad - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean (Decano - one per faculty)
    • Vice-dean (vicedecano - one per faculty - optional)
    • Academic council (Concejo Académico - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean's council (Concejo Decanal - Órgano Colegiado)
      • School council (Concejo de Escuela - Órgano Colegiado)
      • Principal (Director - one per school)
      • Vice-principal (Subdirector - one per school - optional)
        • Chief of Departament (Jefe de Departamento)
          • Chief of chair (Jefe de Cátedra)

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher (Professor Investigador)
  • Researcher (Investigador)
  • Retired professor (Professor Retirado)
  • Ad honorem professor (Professor Ad Honorem)
  • Consultant professor (Professor Consultante)
  • Visiting professor (Professor Visitante)
  • Emergency teacher (Emergencia Docente)

Auxiliary and Lab assistants

  • Auxiliary teacher I (Auxiliar Docente I)
  • Auxiliary teacher II (Auxiliar Docente II)
  • Auxiliary teacher III (Auxiliar Docente III)
  • Auxiliary teacher IV (Auxiliar Docente IV)
  • Auxiliary teacher V (Auxiliar Docente V)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Japan has been taking steps to make its academic rankings similar to that of America. But whereas only PhDs can acquire the rank of "assistant professor" in the US, many Japanese "assistant professors" (and in the past, "associate professors") have only masters degrees and do not advance beyond that.
  2. ^ Staff ranking in Malaysian public universities are based on the British system as a legacy of the British colonising the country. There are only slight variations among the universities but the general ranking is as follows[citation needed]
  3. ^ The title of "Oberassistent" is comparable to the German "Akademischer Rat" (see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akademischer_Rat for a German language article on the topic), a postdoctoral position that today has mostly been replaced by the position of "Juniorprofessor" (see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniorprofessur for a German language article on the topic). It is typically non-tenured and does not imply faculty rank (i.e., one would not participate in faculty meetings of professors).

References[edit]

External links[edit]