Activities of daily living
Activities of daily living (ADLs) is a term used in healthcare to refer to daily self-care activities within an individual's place of residence, in outdoor environments, or both. Health professionals routinely refer to the ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of the functional status of a person, particularly in regards to people with disabilities and the elderly.
ADLs are defined as "the things we normally do...such as feeding ourselves, bathing, dressing, grooming, work, homemaking, and leisure." A number of national surveys collect data on the ADL status of the U.S. population. While basic categories of ADLs have been suggested, what specifically constitutes a particular ADL in a particular environment for a particular person may vary.
Basic ADLs 
Basic ADLs (BADLs) consist of self-care tasks, including:
- Bathing and showering (washing the body)
- Bowel and bladder management (recognizing the need to relieve oneself)
- Eating (including chewing and swallowing)
- Feeding (setting up food and bringing it to the mouth)
- Functional mobility (moving from one place to another while performing activities)
- Personal device care
- Personal hygiene and grooming (including washing hair)
- Sexual activity
- Toilet hygiene (completing the act of relieving oneself)
A useful mnemonic is DEATH: dressing, eating, ambulating, toileting, hygiene.
Instrumental ADLs 
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not necessary for fundamental functioning, but they let an individual live independently in a community:
- Taking medications as prescribed
- Managing money
- Shopping for groceries or clothing
- Use of telephone or other form of communication
- Using technology (as applicable)
- Transportation within the community
A useful mnemonic is SHAFT: shopping, housekeeping, accounting, food preparation/meds, telephone/transportation.
Occupational therapists often evaluate IADLs when completing patient assessments. The American Occupational Therapy Association identifies 12 types of IADLs that may be performed as a co-occupation with others:
- Care of others (including selecting and supervising caregivers)
- Care of pets
- Child rearing
- Communication management
- Community mobility
- Financial management
- Health management and maintenance
- Home establishment and maintenance
- Meal preparation and cleanup
- Religious observances
- Safety procedures and emergency responses
Evaluation of ADLs 
Most models of health care service use ADL evaluations in their practice, including the medical (or institutional) models, such as the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing, and the resident-centered models, such as the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE).
See also 
- Assisted living
- Care of residents
- Global Assessment of Functioning
- Long-term care
- Long term care insurance
- Nursing home
- Occupational therapy
- Transgenerational design
- "Activities of Daily Living Evaluation." Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health. ed. Kristine Krapp. Gale Group, Inc., 2002. eNotes.com. 2006.Enotes Nursing Encyclopedia Accessed on: 11 Oct, 2007
- MedicineNet.com Medical Dictionary
- National Center for Health Statistics
- Roley SS, DeLany JV, Barrows CJ, et al. (2008). "Occupational therapy practice framework: domain & practice, 2nd edition". Am J Occup Ther 62 (6): 625–83. PMID 19024744.
- "Activities of Daily Living". 2011-08-26.
- Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L., & Reisner, E. (2007). Family Caregiver Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Katz ADL scale
- Lawton IADL scale