Alstroemeria

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Alstroemeria
Alstroemeria aurantiaca.jpg
Peruvian lily (Alstroemeria aurea)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Alstroemeriaceae
Genus: Alstroemeria
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Ligtu Adans.
  • Lilavia Raf.
  • Priopetalon Raf.
  • Schickendantzia Pax
  • Taltalia Ehr.Bayer
Alstroemeria × hybrida in the Lalbagh Botanical Gardens
An Alstroemeria cultivar.
An Alstroemeria seed pod opening.
Alstroemeria 'Saturne'

Alstroemeria (/ˌælstrɨˈmɪəriə/; syn. Alstremeria),[2] commonly called the Peruvian lily or lily of the Incas, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Alstroemeriaceae. They are all native to South America although some have become naturalized in the United States, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Madeira and the Canary Islands.[3][1] Almost all of the species are restricted to one of two distinct centers of diversity, one in central Chile, the other in eastern Brazil. Species of Alstroemeria from Chile are winter-growing plants while those of Brazil are summer-growing. All are long-lived perennials except A. graminea, a diminutive annual from the Atacama Desert of Chile.

Etymology[edit]

The genus was named after the Swedish baron Clas Alströmer (1736 – 1794) by his close friend Carolus Linnaeus.[4]

Description[edit]

Plants of this genus grow from a cluster of tubers. They send up fertile and sterile stems, the fertile stems of some species reaching 1.5 meters in height. The leaves are alternately arranged and resupinate, twisted on the petioles so that the undersides face up. The leaves are variable in shape and the blades have smooth edges. The flowers are solitary or borne in umbels. The flower has six tepals each up to 5 centimeters long. They come in many shades of red, orange, purple, green, and white, flecked and striped and streaked with darker colors. There are six curving stamens. The stigma has three lobes. The fruit is a capsule with three valves.[5]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Many hybrids and at least 190 cultivars have been developed, featuring many different markings and colors, including white, yellow, orange, apricot, pink, red, purple, and lavender. The most popular and showy hybrids commonly grown today result from crosses between species from Chile (winter-growing) with species from Brazil (summer-growing). This strategy has overcome the florists' problem of seasonal dormancy and resulted in plants that are evergreen, or nearly so, and flower for most of the year. This breeding work derives mainly from trials that began in the United States in the 1980s. The flower, which resembles a miniature lily, is very popular for bouquets and flower arrangements in the commercial cut flower trade.

Most cultivars available for the home garden will bloom in the late spring and early summer. The roots are hardy to a temperature of 23 °F (−5 °C). The plant requires at least six hours of morning sunlight, regular water, and well-drained soil.[6]

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

  • 'Orange Gem'[10]
  • 'Orange Glory'[11]
  • 'Yellow Friendship'[12]

Ecology[edit]

Some alstroemerias have escaped cultivation and become weeds, such as Alstroemeria pulchella.[13] and A. aurea,[14] which are now weeds in Australia.

Diversity[edit]

Species accepted as of July 2014:[1]

  1. Alstroemeria achirae - Maule
  2. Alstroemeria albescens - Rio Grande do Sul
  3. Alstroemeria altoparadisea - Goiás
  4. Alstroemeria amabilis - Brazil
  5. Alstroemeria amazonica Ducke - Pará, Bolívar
  6. Alstroemeria andina - Chile, Argentina
  7. Alstroemeria angustifolia - Chile
  8. Alstroemeria annapolina - Goiás
  9. Alstroemeria apertiflora Baker - Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
  10. Alstroemeria aquidauanica - Mato Grosso
  11. Alstroemeria arnicana - Goiás
  12. Alstroemeria aulica - Valparaíso
  13. Alstroemeria aurea - Chile, Argentina; naturalized in New Zealand, Victoria (Australia)
  14. Alstroemeria bahiensis - Bahia
  15. Alstroemeria bakeri - Catamarca
  16. Alstroemeria bilabiata - Santiago de Chile
  17. Alstroemeria brasiliensis - Brazil
  18. Alstroemeria burchellii - Goiás
  19. Alstroemeria cabralensis - Minas Gerais
  20. Alstroemeria caiaponica - Goiás
  21. Alstroemeria calliantha - Minas Gerais
  22. Alstroemeria cantillanica - O'Higgins
  23. Alstroemeria capixaba - Espírito Santo
  24. Alstroemeria caryophyllaea - Brazil
  25. Alstroemeria chapadensis - Mato Grosso
  26. Alstroemeria chorillensis - Peru
  27. Alstroemeria crispata - northern Chile
  28. Alstroemeria cuiabana - Mato Grosso
  29. Alstroemeria cultrifolia - Brasília
  30. Alstroemeria cunha - Brazil
  31. Alstroemeria decora - Valparaíso
  32. Alstroemeria diluta - Chile
  33. Alstroemeria discolor - Valparaíso
  34. Alstroemeria douradensis - Goiás
  35. Alstroemeria espigonensis - Bahia
  36. Alstroemeria exserens - Chile, Argentina
  37. Alstroemeria fiebrigiana - Bolivia
  38. Alstroemeria firmulifolia - Minas Gerais
  39. Alstroemeria foliosa - Brazil, Paraguay
  40. Alstroemeria fuscovinosa - Brazil
  41. Alstroemeria garaventae - Chile
  42. Alstroemeria gardneri - Brazil
  43. Alstroemeria glaucandra - Valparaíso
  44. Alstroemeria gouveiana - Minas Gerais
  45. Alstroemeria graminea - Chile
  46. Alstroemeria hookeri - Chile
  47. Alstroemeria huemulina - Bío Bío
  48. Alstroemeria ibitipocae - Minas Gerais
  49. Alstroemeria igarapavica - São Paulo
  50. Alstroemeria inodora - Brazil
  51. Alstroemeria isabellana - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay
  52. Alstroemeria itabiritensis - Minas Gerais
  53. Alstroemeria jequitiana - Minas Gerais
  54. Alstroemeria jocunda - Santiago de Chile
  55. Alstroemeria julieae - Minas Gerais
  56. Alstroemeria kingii - Chile
  57. Alstroemeria lactilutea - Tarapacá
  58. Alstroemeria landimana - Brasília
  59. Alstroemeria leporina - Chile
  60. Alstroemeria ligtu - St. Martin's flower - Peru, Chile, Argentina
  61. Alstroemeria litterata - Mato Grosso
  62. Alstroemeria longaviensis - Maule
  63. Alstroemeria longistaminea- Brazil
  64. Alstroemeria longistyla - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  65. Alstroemeria lutea - Tarapacá
  66. Alstroemeria magna - Valparaíso
  67. Alstroemeria magnifica - Chile
  68. Alstroemeria malmeana -Brazil
  69. Alstroemeria modesta - Chile
  70. Alstroemeria mollensis - Coquimbo
  71. Alstroemeria monantha - Chile
  72. Alstroemeria monticola - Bahia, Minas Gerais
  73. Alstroemeria nidularis - Maule
  74. Alstroemeria nivea - Coquimbo
  75. Alstroemeria ochracea - Minas Gerais
  76. Alstroemeria orchidioides - Brasília, Goiás
  77. Alstroemeria pallida - Chile
  78. Alstroemeria paraensis - Pará
  79. Alstroemeria patagonica - southern Argentina, southern Chile
  80. Alstroemeria paupercula - Peru, northern Chile
  81. Alstroemeria pelegrina - Peruvian lily - Peru, Chile
  82. Alstroemeria penduliflora - Minas Gerais
  83. Alstroemeria philippii - northern Chile
  84. Alstroemeria piauhyensis - Brazil
  85. Alstroemeria plantaginea - Brazil, Venezuela
  86. Alstroemeria poetica - Chile
  87. Alstroemeria polpaicana - Santiago
  88. Alstroemeria polyphylla - Chile
  89. Alstroemeria presliana - Chile, Argentina
  90. Alstroemeria pseudospathulata - Chile, Argentina
  91. Alstroemeria pubiflora - Goiás
  92. Alstroemeria pudica - Santiago
  93. Alstroemeria pulchella - New Zealand Christmas-bell - Brazil, Argentina; naturalized in Australia, New Zealand, Southeastern United States, southern Mexico, Madeira, Canary Islands
  94. Alstroemeria pulchra - Chile
  95. Alstroemeria punctata - Brasília, Goiás
  96. Alstroemeria pygmaea - Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
  97. Alstroemeria radula - Brazil
  98. Alstroemeria recumbens - Chile
  99. Alstroemeria revoluta - Chile
  100. Alstroemeria ribeirensis - Paraná
  101. Alstroemeria roseoviridis - Mato Grosso do Sul
  102. Alstroemeria rupestris - Minas Gerais
  103. Alstroemeria sabulosa - Valparaíso
  104. Alstroemeria schizanthoides - Chile
  105. Alstroemeria sellowiana - Brazil
  106. Alstroemeria spathulata - Chile, Argentina
  107. Alstroemeria speciosa - São Paulo
  108. Alstroemeria spectabilis - Santiago
  109. Alstroemeria stenopetala - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  110. Alstroemeria talcaensis - Maule
  111. Alstroemeria timida - Santiago
  112. Alstroemeria tombolatoana - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  113. Alstroemeria umbellata - Chile, Argentina
  114. Alstroemeria variegata - Minas Gerais
  115. Alstroemeria venusta - Chile
  116. Alstroemeria versicolor - Chile
  117. Alstroemeria virginalis - Coquimbo
  118. Alstroemeria viridiflora - Brazil
  119. Alstroemeria werdermannii - Chile
  120. Alstroemeria xavantinensis - Mato Grosso
  121. Alstroemeria yaelae - Santiago
  122. Alstroemeria zoelneri - Chile

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book 1995. 606–607.
  3. ^ Sanso, A. M. and C. C. Xifreda. (2001). Generic delimitation between Alstroemeria and Bomarea (Alstroemeriaceae). Annals of Botany 88(6) 1057-69.
  4. ^ Blunt, W. The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus. Frances Lincoln, Ltd. 2001. pg. 192. ISBN 978-0-7112-1841-3.
  5. ^ Alstroemeria. Flora of North America.
  6. ^ Alstroemeria. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Apollo' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Coronet' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Friendship' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Orange Gem' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Orange Glory' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Alstroemeria 'Yellow Friendship' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  13. ^ Parrot Alstromoeria/Peruvian Lily (Alstroemeria pulchella). Sydney Weeds Committees.
  14. ^ Yellow alstroemeria (Alstroemeria aurea). University of Queensland. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland. 2011.