Paraná (state)

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State of Paraná
State
Flag of State of Paraná
Flag
Coat of arms of State of Paraná
Coat of arms
Location of State of Paraná in Brazil
Location of State of Paraná in Brazil
Coordinates: 24°0′S 51°0′W / 24.000°S 51.000°W / -24.000; -51.000Coordinates: 24°0′S 51°0′W / 24.000°S 51.000°W / -24.000; -51.000
Country  Brazil
Capital and Largest City Curitiba
Government
 • Governor Beto Richa
 • Vice Governor Flávio Arns (PSDB)
Area
 • Total 199,314.9 km2 (76,955.9 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2007)[1]
 • Total 10,279,545
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Demonym Paranaense
GDP
 • Year 2006 estimate
 • Total R$ 136,681,000,000 (5th)
 • Per capita R$ 13,158 (7th)
HDI
 • Year 2011
 • Category 0.823 – high (7th)
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Postal Code 80000-000 to 86990-000
ISO 3166 code BR-PR
Website pr.gov.br

Paraná (Portuguese pronunciation: [paɾaˈna][2]) is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. Cut by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage site and the spectacle of the Cataratas do Iguaçu attracts about 700 thousand tourists per year. At only 40 km (25 mi) from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu (Itaipu Hydroelectric Dam). The State Park of Vila Velha near the city of Ponta Grossa, is another attraction, with great rocky formations sculpted by the erosion of rain and wind. Curitiba, the capital, is famous for its high quality of life, compared to the Brazilian average, and the Ilha do Mel, next to the historical Paranaguá, is another destination for ecotourists.

History[edit]

Historic Center of Curitiba

Colonisation of the state by settlers started in the 16th century, but was mainly confined to the coasts. In the 1940s, the northern part of the state was settled as a result of the expansion of the São Paulo coffee industry. The south-eastern part of the state was settled as a result of migration from Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

By the early 20th century, the state had two railway systems: the Paranaguá to Curitiba (69 mi, 111 km) with an extension to Ponta Grossa (118 mi, 190 km) and branches to Rio Negro (55 mi, 89 km), Porto Amazonas (6 mi, 10 km) and Antonina (10 mi, 16 km); and the São Paulo and Rio Grande, which crosses the state from northeast to southwest from União da Vitória, on the Iguaçu, to a junction with the Sorocabana line of São Paulo at Itararé. The junction of the two systems was at Ponta Grossa, northwest of Curitiba.

Geography[edit]

Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.

The state can be separated into five main topographic areas, from east to west: a coastal zone, the mountains of Serra do Mar, and then three plateaus, each lower than the other, until the Paraná River is reached.[4]

The largest rivers in the state comprise the Paranapanema and its tributaries the Cinza and Tibaji, the Ivaí, Piquiri, Jejuy-guassu, and the Iguaçu with its principal tributary the Rio Negro. The Paranapanema and a small tributary, the Itarare', form the boundary line with São Paulo west of the Serra do Mar, and the Iguaçu and Negro, the boundary line with Santa Catarina and Argentina - both streams having their sources in the Serra do Mar and flowing westward to the Paraná. The other streams have shorter courses, and all are obstructed by falls and rapids. Twenty miles above the mouth of the Iguaçu are the Iguaçu Falls, 215 ft. (66 m) high, broken into twenty or more falls separated by rocks and islands, and surrounded by a wild, unsettled and wooded country. The surface of the plateau is undulating and the greater part is adapted to agricultural and pastoral purposes.

Demographics[edit]

Botanical Garden of Curitiba Population of Curitiba's Metropolitan area: 3,168,980 (IBGE 2010)

According to the IBGE, as of 2010, the state population was 10,439,601. The population density was 51.48 inhabitants per square kilometre (133.3 /sq mi).

Urbanization: 84.5% (2006); population growth: 1.4% (1991–2000); houses: 3,177,000 (2006).[5]

The 2005 IBGE survey gave the following breakdown by race for the state: White (Branca) (73.0%), Pardos (Multiracial) (23.3%), Black (Preta) (2.5%), Amerindian (1.2%).[6]

City of Campo Mourão.

Parana's population is primarily of Eastern European origin, but Germans, Portuguese, and Japanese also settled in the state.[7] A variation of German known as Paraná-Wolga-Deutsch originates in the area.[8]

Largest cities[edit]

Economy[edit]

Since the 1950s, Paraná has been one of Brazil's agriculture powerhouses. The state started out as a major producer of coffee, which dominated the state's agriculture, particularly in the highly cultivated northern part of the state. That situation remained until a big natural disaster, a major frost in 1975, destroyed most of the coffee trees. After that, the sector diversified its plantations, and soybeans, corn, sugarcane, cattle, pork, and chicken became the main products. Coffee lost most of the land dedicated to its production, but remains an important item the state exports. Today, the Paraná state production of each of these commodities ranks among the top five in the country.

The state industry at first was created based in agrobusiness: meat, coffee, dairy, lumber, tea, and chicken processing were the first industries created in the state, some already in the end of 19th century, but most after the 1940s. Still today they are responsible for a large part of the industrial production. The 1970s inauguration of the Volvo Factory in Curitiba began a car manufacturing industry, which today is huge. Plants of several different brands and industries are located around metropolitan Curitiba, producing around 450.000 cars, buses, and trucks a year. The whole industry today is very diversified; the Curitiba Metropolitan Area has a whole range of industries some of then the top in the country, including computers, freezers and cosmetics. There are also several industries around the main cities, in particular Ponta Grossa (Soybean products), Londrina (Coffee and Cattle), Maringá (Soybeans and Cattle), Telemaco Borba (Lumber and Cellulose) and Cianorte (Textiles and Clothing).

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 38.6%, followed by the industrial sector at 36%. Agriculture represents 25.4% of GDP (2008).[citation needed]

Paraná's per capita GDP in 2005 was R$12,339, or US$5,400, eighth in Brazil and comparable to that of Turkey.[10]

Statistics[edit]

  • Vehicles: 3,808,298 (March 2007)
  • Mobile phones: 12 million (August 2011)
  • Telephones: 2.7 million (April 2007)
  • Cities: 399 (2007)[11]

Education[edit]

Educational institutions[edit]

Federal universities:

Infrastructure[edit]

Afonso Pena International Airport in Metropolitan Region of Curitiba

International airports[edit]

Afonso Pena International Airport is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport.

Foz do Iguaçu International Airport. Brazil's main airlines serve the city daily, connecting it with the rest of the country and foreign cities. Regional routes also serve local traffic.

Social care[edit]

Paraná has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil, with relatively low crime levels, a special attention given to education and health, and a HDI of about 0.820, the fifth-highest in Brazil.

Sports[edit]

Two of the biggest football sides in the state are Clube Atlético Paranaense and Coritiba Foot Ball Club, who play the AtleTIBA derby.[12]

Curitiba is one of the 12 host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Album[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE, EM 1o DE ABRIL DE 2007, SEGUNDO AS UNIDADES DA FEDERAÇÃO" (in Portuguese). IBGE. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  2. ^ In Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [pɐɾɐˈna].
  3. ^ "Supporting the Contribution of HEIs to Regional Development". Secretariat of Science, Technology and Higher Education, State of Parana. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Paraná". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  5. ^ Source: PNAD.
  6. ^ "Tabela 9.1 - População total e respectiva distribuição percentual, por cor ou raça, segundo as Grandes Regiões, Unidades da Federação e Regiões Metropolitanas - 2005". Síntese de indicadores sociais 2006 (in Portuguese). IBGE. p. 248. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Higher Education in Regional and City Development: State of Paraná, Brazil. OECD. 2011. p. 38. ISBN 978-92-64-089020. 
  8. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20051231112918/http://www.linguasphere.org/auswanderungs_deutsch.pdf
  9. ^ "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 1º DE JULHO DE 2011" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  10. ^ * IBGE (November 2007). "Regional Accounts 2005" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  11. ^ Source: IBGE.
  12. ^ "Atlético-PR VS Coritiba: Atletiba, the rivalry that went national". Rivalries. FIFA. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]