Alternative Democratic Pole

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Alternative Democratic Pole
President Clara Lopez
Senate leader Jorge Enrique Robledo
Founded December 2005 (December 2005)
Headquarters Bogotá, Colombia
Ideology Social democracy[1][2]
Political position Centre-left[3][4][5] to Left-wing[6][7]
International affiliation Foro de São Paulo, Socialist International (observer)
Colours Yellow
Seats in the Chamber of Representatives
3 / 164
Seats in the Senate
5 / 100
Website
www.polodemocratico.net
Politics of Colombia
Political parties
Elections

The Alternative Democratic Pole (Spanish: Polo Democrático Alternativo or PDA) is a social democratic and democratic leftist[8] political party in Colombia.

It was founded as an electoral alliance of the Independent Democratic Pole (PDI) and the Democratic Alternative (AD) in December 2005. Both parties opposed the neoliberal economic program, securitization and (para-)militarization of Colombia under then-President Álvaro Uribe.[6] Nowadays, it is the only parliamentary party that has declared opposition to government of Juan Manuel Santos. A considerable part of PDA politicians consists of former guerilla fighters who gave up armed struggle and demobilized during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[9]

Political development[edit]

The PDI and AD initially had their own pre-candidates for the 2006 presidential race. PDI had nominated Antonio Navarro (former leader of M-19) and AD had nominated Carlos Gaviria.

In a primary election held on March 12, 2006, Gaviria won the presidential nomination of the PDA.

In the simultaneous legislative elections of 2006, the party won 9 out of 166 Deputies and 11 out of 100 senators.

At the presidential elections of 28 May 2006, Carlos Gaviria came second with 22.04% of the vote, 2,613,157 votes.[10] This was the highest ever result for a left-wing candidate in Colombia's history.[8] Thus, the party replaced the long-standing Liberal Party as the country's second force and main opposition party.[4]

After the election, the PDA was successful in gaining the support of groups representing the indigenous movement which affiliated with the coalition.[3] Also, on its fourth national congress, the guerilla group National Liberation Army (ELN) commented favorably about the PDA's electoral performance and declared that political action should take precedence over armed struggle.[11] The PDA could further consolidate its organization and gain support on a local level.[12]

In October 2007, the PDA's candidate, Samuel Moreno Rojas won the mayoral election in Colombia's capital Bogotá. He served for four years until 2011.[7] Moreover, the alliance won the mayoral election in the country's second and third largest city, Medellín and Cali, routing the candidates of the parties that supported the administration of President Álvaro Uribe.[13]

In the 2010 congressional election, PDA's support declined. It won 7.8% of votes and 8 of 100 seats in the Senate, and 5.9% of the vote and 4 of 164 seats in the House of Representatives, demoting it to the sixth rank among parliamentary parties. Before the election, a faction of the PDA had split off and joined the Green Party.[14]

Clara Lopez was the party's candidate for the 2014 presidential election;[15][16] she placed fourth in the first round of the election, receiving 1,958,414 votes, representing 15.23%. [17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schirmer, Jennifer (2009), "A Norwegian-Supported Peace Builing Project: Conversations among Security Forces, Former Guerillas, and Civil Society", United States Institute of Peace: 407 
  2. ^ Rochlin, James F. (2007), Social Forces and the Revolution in Military Affairs: The Cases of Colombia and Mexico, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 90 
  3. ^ a b Houghton, Juan (2008), "Colombia", The Indigenous World 2008 (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)): 136 
  4. ^ a b Taylor, Steven L.; Botero Jaramillo, Felipe; Crisp, Brian F. (2008), "Precandidates, Candidates, and Presidents: Paths to the Colobian Presidency", Pathways to Power (Pennsylvania State University Press): 291 
  5. ^ Roldán, Mary (2010), "End of Discussion: Violence, Participatory Democracy, and the Limits of Dissent in Colombia", Violent Democracies in Latin America (Duke University Press): 64 
  6. ^ a b Hristov, Jasmin (2009), Blood & Capital: The Paramilitarization of Colombia, Ohio University Press, p. 144 
  7. ^ a b Hudson, Rex A. (2010), Colombia: A country study (Fifth ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, p. xxvi 
  8. ^ a b Rochlin, James F. (2007), Social Forces and the Revolution in Military Affairs: The Cases of Colombia and Mexico, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 83 
  9. ^ Schirmer, Jennifer (2009), "A Norwegian-Supported Peace Builing Project: Conversations among Security Forces, Former Guerillas, and Civil Society", United States Institute of Peace: 406 
  10. ^ National Registry of Civil Status, results of the 2006 presidential election. http://www.registraduria.gov.co/resprelec2006/0528/index.htm
  11. ^ Valencia, León (2009), "The ELN's Halting Moves toward Peace", United States Institute of Peace: 99 
  12. ^ Hudson, Rex A. (2010), Colombia: A country study (Fifth ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, p. xli 
  13. ^ Hudson, Rex A. (2010), Colombia: A country study (Fifth ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, p. lxii 
  14. ^ Kline, Harvey F. (2012), Historical Dictionary of Colombia, Scarecrow Press, p. 404 
  15. ^ (Spanish) "Clara López es la candidata a la Presidencia por el Polo Democrático". El Tiempo (Bogotá, Colombia). November 9, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  16. ^ (Spanish) "Clara López, candidata del Polo para presidenciales de 2014". El Espectador (Bogotá, Colombia). November 9, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Resolución No. 10368: Por la cual se establece el calendario Electoral para las elecciones de Presidente y Vicepresidente de la República (primera vuelta) para el período Constitucional 2014–2018". Registraduría Nacional del Estado Civil. October 10, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 

External links[edit]