Angolan general election, 1992

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General elections were held in Angola on 29 and 30 September 1992 to elect a President and National Assembly, the first time multi-party elections had been held in the country. They followed the signing of the Bicesse Accord on 31 May 1991 in an attempt to end the 17-year-long civil war.[1] Voter turnout was 91.3% for the parliamentary election and 91.2% for the presidential election.[2]

The ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) won both elections, however eight opposition parties, in particular the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), rejected the 1992 election as rigged. An official observer wrote that there was little UN supervision, that 500,000 UNITA voters were disenfranchised and that there were 100 clandestine polling stations. UNITA sent negotiators to the capital, but at the same time prepared measures to resume the civil war. As a consequence, hostilities erupted in Luanda and immediately spread to other parts of the country. Several thousand to tens of thousands of UNITA members or supporters were killed nationwide by MPLA forces in a few days, in what is known as the Halloween Massacre. War resumed immediately. [3][4][5] [6]

Presidential election[edit]

In the first round President José Eduardo dos Santos officially received 49.57% of the vote and Jonas Savimbi of UNITA won 40.6%. Savimbi said the election had neither been free nor fair and refused to participate in the second round.[7]

Results[edit]

Candidate Party Votes %
José Eduardo dos Santos MPLA 1,953,335 49.57
Jonas Savimbi UNITA 1,579,298 40.07
António Alberto Neto Angolan Democratic Party 85,249 2.16
Holden Roberto National Liberation Front 83,135 2.11
Honorato Lando Liberal Democratic Party of Angola 75.789 1.92
Luís dos Passos Democratic Renewal Party 58,121 1.47
Bengui Pedro João Social Democratic Party 38,243 0.97
Simão Cacete Front for Democracy 26,385 0.67
Daniel Chipenda Independent 20,845 0.52
Anália de Victória Pereira Liberal Democratic Party 11,475 0.29
Rui Pereira Social Renewal Party 9,208 0.23
Invalid/blank votes 460,455
Total 4,401,339 100
Registered voters/turnout 4,828,468 91.2
Source: African Elections Database

According to the constitution adopted in 1992, these results meant that nobody had won the election, because in the first round an absolute majority would have been necessary. As a consequence, a second round was required, with José Eduardo dos Santos and Jonas Savimbi as sole candidates. However, because of the Civil War this second round never took place, and José Eduardo dos Santos continued as President, even without the constitutionally necessary democratic legitimation.

National Assembly election[edit]

A total of 12 parties won seats, with the ruling MPLA winning nearly 54% of the total votes and 129 of the 220 seats, whilst UNITA won 70 seats.

Results[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
MPLA 2,124,126 53.74 129
UNITA 1,347,636 34.10 70
National Liberation Front 94,742 2.40 5
Liberal Democratic Party 94,269 2.39 3
Social Renewal Party 89,875 2.27 6
Democratic Renewal Party 35,293 0.89 1
Democratic Angola – Coalition 34,166 0.86 1
Social Democratic Party 33,088 0.84 1
Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola 13,924 0.35 1
Angolan Democratic Forum 12,038 0.30 1
Democratic Party for Progress – Angolan National Alliance 10,608 0.27 1
Angolan National Democratic Party 10,281 0.26 1
National Democratic Convention of Angola 10,237 0.26 0
Social Democratic Party of Angola 10,217 0.26 0
Independent Angolan Party 9,007 0.23 0
Liberal Democratic Party of Angola 8,025 0.20 0
Democratic Party of Angola 8,014 0.20 0
Angolan Renewal Party 6,719 0.17 0
Invalid/blank votes 458,310
Total 4,410,575 100 220
Registered voters/turnout 4,828,468 91.3
Source: African Elections Database

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angola: The Bicesse Accords EISA
  2. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, pp71-74 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  3. ^ National Society for Human Rights, Ending the Angolan Conflict, Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000 (opposition parties, massacres); John Matthew, Letters, The Times, UK, November 6, 1992 (election observer); NSHR, Press Releases, September 12, 2000, May 16, 2001 (MPLA atrocities).
  4. ^ National Society for Human Rights, Ending the Angolan Conflict, Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000.
  5. ^ John Matthew, Letters, The Times, UK, November 6, 1992 (election observer).
  6. ^ Angola: Resumption of the civil war EISA
  7. ^ Rothchild, Donald S., Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation, 1997. Pages 134.