Angolan general election, 1992
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politics and government of
General elections were held in Angola on 29 and 30 September 1992 to elect a President and National Assembly, the first time multi-party elections had been held in the country. They followed the signing of the Bicesse Accord on 31 May 1991 in an attempt to end the 17-year-long civil war. Voter turnout was 91.3% for the parliamentary election and 91.2% for the presidential election.
The ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) won both elections, however eight opposition parties, in particular the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), rejected the 1992 election as rigged. An official observer wrote that there was little UN supervision, that 500,000 UNITA voters were disenfranchised and that there were 100 clandestine polling stations. UNITA sent negotiators to the capital, but at the same time prepared measures to resume the civil war. As a consequence, hostilities erupted in Luanda and immediately spread to other parts of the country. Several thousand to tens of thousands of UNITA members or supporters were killed nationwide by MPLA forces in a few days, in what is known as the Halloween Massacre. War resumed immediately.  
In the first round President José Eduardo dos Santos officially received 49.57% of the vote and Jonas Savimbi of UNITA won 40.6%. Savimbi said the election had neither been free nor fair and refused to participate in the second round.
|José Eduardo dos Santos||MPLA||1,953,335||49.57|
|António Alberto Neto||Angolan Democratic Party||85,249||2.16|
|Holden Roberto||National Liberation Front||83,135||2.11|
|Honorato Lando||Liberal Democratic Party of Angola||75.789||1.92|
|Luís dos Passos||Democratic Renewal Party||58,121||1.47|
|Bengui Pedro João||Social Democratic Party||38,243||0.97|
|Simão Cacete||Front for Democracy||26,385||0.67|
|Anália de Victória Pereira||Liberal Democratic Party||11,475||0.29|
|Rui Pereira||Social Renewal Party||9,208||0.23|
|Source: African Elections Database|
According to the constitution adopted in 1992, these results meant that nobody had won the election, because in the first round an absolute majority would have been necessary. As a consequence, a second round was required, with José Eduardo dos Santos and Jonas Savimbi as sole candidates. However, because of the Civil War this second round never took place, and José Eduardo dos Santos continued as President, even without the constitutionally necessary democratic legitimation.
National Assembly election
A total of 12 parties won seats, with the ruling MPLA winning nearly 54% of the total votes and 129 of the 220 seats, whilst UNITA won 70 seats.
|National Liberation Front||94,742||2.40||5|
|Liberal Democratic Party||94,269||2.39||3|
|Social Renewal Party||89,875||2.27||6|
|Democratic Renewal Party||35,293||0.89||1|
|Democratic Angola – Coalition||34,166||0.86||1|
|Social Democratic Party||33,088||0.84||1|
|Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola||13,924||0.35||1|
|Angolan Democratic Forum||12,038||0.30||1|
|Democratic Party for Progress – Angolan National Alliance||10,608||0.27||1|
|Angolan National Democratic Party||10,281||0.26||1|
|National Democratic Convention of Angola||10,237||0.26||0|
|Social Democratic Party of Angola||10,217||0.26||0|
|Independent Angolan Party||9,007||0.23||0|
|Liberal Democratic Party of Angola||8,025||0.20||0|
|Democratic Party of Angola||8,014||0.20||0|
|Angolan Renewal Party||6,719||0.17||0|
|Source: African Elections Database|
- Angola: The Bicesse Accords EISA
- Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, pp71-74 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
- National Society for Human Rights, Ending the Angolan Conflict, Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000 (opposition parties, massacres); John Matthew, Letters, The Times, UK, November 6, 1992 (election observer); NSHR, Press Releases, September 12, 2000, May 16, 2001 (MPLA atrocities).
- National Society for Human Rights, Ending the Angolan Conflict, Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000.
- John Matthew, Letters, The Times, UK, November 6, 1992 (election observer).
- Angola: Resumption of the civil war EISA
- Rothchild, Donald S., Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation, 1997. Pages 134.