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There are two main types of artillery tractors, depending on the type of traction. Wheeled tractors are usually variations of lorries adapted for military service. Tracked tractors run on caterpillar track, and in some cases are built on a modified tank chassis with the superstructure replaced with a compartment for the gun crew or ammunition. The idea of half-track tractors was mostly discontinued after the World War II.
World War I
The first such devices were designed prior to the outbreak of World War I, often based on agricultural machines such as the Holt tractor. Such tractors allowed the tactical use of heavier guns to supplement the light horse drawn field guns. "Horseless artillery" available prior to World War I weighed 8 tons, had 70 horsepower and could go 8 mph. For example in the British Army it allowed the heavy guns of the Royal Garrison Artillery to be used flexibly on the battlefield.
World War II
In World War II the draft horse was still the most common source of motive power in many armies. Most nations were economically and industrially unable to fully motorise their forces. One compromise was to produce general purpose vehicles which could be used in the troop transport, logistics and prime mover roles, with heavy artillery tractors to move the heaviest guns. The Royal Artillery however, persisted with specialist artillery tractors (known as Field Artillery Tractors or 'FAT's) such as the Morris "Quad" and AEC Matador throughout World War II, rather than adopt a general purpose vehicle. Artillery tractors were different from GS vehicles by having a compartment for the gun detachment immediately behind the cab and separated from the cargo space containing ammunition and gun stores.
German forces used half-tracks as artillery tractors such as the Sd.Kfz. 7. Half-track were not commonly used in this role in other nations. Compared to wheeled vehicles they had better off-road capabilities, but were slower on roads and were more prone to breakdowns. (Horses remained the most common way of towing artillery throughout the war for Germany.)
In modern warfare towed artillery has given way in part to self-propelled artillery, it is also common to find auxiliary power units built into the gun carriage to provide limited battlefield mobility. Traditional towed artillery can still be found in units where complexity and weight are liabilities: e.g. airmobile, amphibious and other light units. In such units, where organic transport is usually limited, any available transport can double as artillery tractors in order to reposition guns when needed. For example engineer vehicles of a different primary purpose such as the U.S. Marines' Light Capacity Rough Terrain Forklift (LCRTF), a versatile telehandler forklift capable of towing gear from either end.
List of artillery tractors
- Dragon, Medium Mark IV' – British army, 1928; developed from the Vickers 6-Ton mark E.
- T-24 chassis
- M3 Lee chassis
- M33 Prime Mover - converted by removing turret and recovery gear from M31 TRV. 109 converted in 1943-44.
- M4 Sherman chassis
- M34 Prime Mover - converted by removing recovery gear from M32B1 TRV (M4A1 Sherman tank chassis built as an Armoured recovery vehicle) and adding air brakes to tow heavy artillery. 24 converted by Chester Tank Depot in 1944.
- M35 Prime Mover - converted by removing turret from M10A1 tank destroyer (M4A3 Sherman tank chassis) and adding air brakes to tow 155 mm and 240 mm artillery.
- Sherman Gun Tower - British field conversion in Italy by removing turrets from old M4A2 Sherman tanks to tow 17 pdr AT gun and carry crew with ammunition
- Wolverine Gun Tower - British M10 (M4A2 chassis) or M10A1 (M4A3 chassis) converted by removing turret, 1944–45
- Crusader II, Gun Tractor Mk I – British army, variant of the Crusader tank
- Renault UE Chenillette – France, 1932
- C7P – Poland, 1934
- Universal Carrier – British, 1936; "Bren Gun Carrier", armored utility tractor
- Lloyd carrier - UK, 1940
- M4 High Speed Tractor – USA, 1943
- M5 High Speed Tractor – USA, 1942
- M6 High Speed Tractor – USA, 1944
- M8 High Speed Tractor – USA, 1950
- Raupenschlepper, Ost (RSO) - Nazi Germany, 1942
- Snow Trac – 1957, UK Royal Marines Light WOMBAT gun carrier
- AT-L - Soviet Union
- ATS-59 - Soviet Union
- AT-S - Soviet Union
- AT-T - Soviet Union
- MT-LBT - Soviet Union, mid-1970s, variant of the MT-LB armoured personnel carrier.
- Hitachi Type 73 – Japan, 1974
- Unic P107 – France, 1934; towed the French 75 and short 105 mm field guns
- SOMUA MCG – France; towed the French long 105 and short 155 mm field guns
- SdKfz 7 – Germany, 1938; 8-ton half track often towed the Flak 36 88 mm
- SdKfz 10 - Germany, 1938; also basis for the SdKfz 250 armored light half-track
- M2 Half Track Car – USA, 1940
- M3 Half-track – USA, 1940
- Thornycroft "steamer" - UK, Second Boer War
- Thornycroft Gun Tractor - UK, World War I
- Latil - France, World War I
- Thornycroft Hathi - UK, 1924; early 4x4
- Krupp Protze – Germany, 1933; towed the 3.7 cm PaK
- Scammell Pioneer – British, 1937; lorry used for the largest guns
- Morris C8 – UK, 1938; the "Quad" British tractor; towed the QF 25 pdr, 6-pr Anti-tank gun, and 40-mm Bofors Light AA gun.
- Bedford 4 x 4 Gun Tractor, introduced in the late 1950s to tow 25-pr.
- AEC Matador – UK, WWII; lorry used for pulling mediumartillery such as the 5.5 inch gun and 3.7 inch heavy AA Gun
- FV1103, Medium Artillery Tractor, 10-ton, 6 x 6 Leyland, replaced Matador in the late 1950s.
- Laffly V15T – France, WWII; towed 25 mm AT guns
- Laffly S15T – France, WWII; towed the French 75 and short 105 mm field guns
- White Scout Car – USA, 1941; 4x4 utility armored car
- CMP FAT – Canada, WWII
- Karrier KT4 – UK; for the British Indian Army
- Pinzgauer High Mobility All-Terrain Vehicle – UK, 1971
- Land Rover 101 Forward Control – UK, 1972
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Artillery tractors.|
- "Horseless Artillery". The Independent. Jul 13, 1914. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- TM 9-2800 military vehicles