Autostrada A3 (Italy)
|Autostrada Napoli-Reggio Calabria|
|Length:||494.9 km (307.5 mi)|
|Existed:||1974 – present|
|South end:||Reggio Calabria|
|Regions:||Campania, Basilicata, Calabria|
The Autostrada A3 Napoli-Reggio Calabria is a motorway in the south of Italy, which runs from Naples to Reggio Calabria via Salerno. It runs through three regions: Campania (171 km), Basilicata (30 km) and Calabria (293,9 km).
Due to sections not being originally constructed to anywhere near Motorway standard and to the notoriously poor conditions of maintenance, and also to the extremely difficult terrain along some of the route, EG Sfalassa Gorge, the motorway has been often taken as a symbol of the backwardness and economical problems of southern Italy. Italian historian Leandra D'Antone has defined it "a true Italian shame". The European Union declines to classify the road as a “motorway” due to the decades-long roadwork restrictions on a supposedly modern road and seeks recompense for its financial contributions.
The first stretch of the road to be completed was the Naples-Pompeii section, finished on 22 June 1929. The connection onward to Salerno was completed on 16 July 1961.
In 1964 the Italian government decided to build a motorway which connected the rest of Italy to Calabria, so far considered a kind of "Third Island" (together with Sicily and Sardinia), due to the nature of its terrain, which made it problematic to reach the region. The new motorway was built in a total of 8 years, the works being delivered on 13 June 1974.
The road built by 1974 is more similar to a sub-standard freeway (Italian: strada statale, "state road") than to the other autostrade (motorways) in Italy. Queues became a common feature, especially in summer. To solve the situation, the Italian government funded renovation works in 1997. As of 2010[update], many of them are still ongoing, despite it being announced in 1993 that the works would be completed by 2003. but the EU antifraud investigation of works undertaken between 2007 and 2010 together with the repayment of over €300m to the EU in July 2012 have delayed completion of the upgrade works even further.
The cost of the upgrade to date (August 2013) is projected to reach over €10bn by the time it is eventually completed, perhaps by 2018. The section from Salerno and Reggio Calabria alone, 442 km long, will cost €10bn with the rest spent on widening/upgrades already completed between Naples and Salerno. €7.443 Bn has been spent so far on parts of the 442 km section beteeen Salerno and Reggio Calabria 
The entire road was a substandard freeway when the upgrade programme from Naples to Reggio Calabria started in the early 1990s. The only sector with three lanes has a length of 50 km. The section of the road from the interchange with the A1 motorway in Naples to the Pompeii exit, built during the 1920s, originated as a local turnpike and only later was retrofitted to motorway standard. Many of the junctions along the route have very tight corners and extremely limited deceleration fields; this is especially significant on the now at least 50 year old Naples - Salerno section, where at some junctions there are stop-signs for traffic entering the motorway. Hard shoulders are only recently apparent along the entire route, with only occasional emergency bays at infrequent locations on the sections that have not been upgraded yet. Generally speaking, most of the route is often congested even where upgraded.
The southern segment (Salerno-Reggio Calabria) is toll-free and is maintained by ANAS, the state agency for public routes. Located in a mountainous area, it is famous for being prone to very high levels of traffic (especially at the start and at the end of vacation periods) and for the bad state of maintenance compared to other Italian motorways. ANAS has been slowly upgrading this segment for the better part of the last three decades.
The motorway is currently undergoing heavy modernisation, in many cases a completely new parallel motorway is being built alongside the original A3 and involving in most cases a complete rebuilding or replacement of the road where the alignment is retained.
In July 2011, works on 237 km of the road (53%) were completed with 25 km opening in July 2011 alone. 147 more km of rebuilding/modernization was then due to be completed.
By November 2012 the completed sections totalled 272 km and  with a further 93 km then under construction and tenders requested for another 20 km. This totalled 385 km of road completed or under way or tendered out of an intended 433 km
In August 2013 that situation had changed again with 322 km now complete, 50 km since November 2012.
The last few Km at the end of the current Motorway in Reggio Calabria are not to be upgraded and the new sections are frequently straighter than the old thereby reducing the intended motorway length between Salerno and Reggio Calabria to 433 km from the original 442 km overall upon eventual completion of the upgrade in 2017 or 2018.
Of the intended 433 km the completed (as of August 2013) 322 km represents a linear 73% of the overall planned upgrade to the road with 27% remaining to open, some of which 27% or 111 km is currently under construction and some not yet tendered.
A number of new junctions are also to be constructed, in some cases to service certain towns with no direct access at present.
|A3 NAPOLI - REGGIO CALABRIA|
|Napoli San Giovanni a Teduccio||2,5||46,1||NA|
|Roma, Firenze, Bologna, Milano||2,5||4,1||NA|
|Napoli Ponticelli-S.Giorgio Nord||5,5||45,2||NA|
|San Giorgio a Cremano||6,4||45,2||NA|
|Torre del Greco (Nord)||11,5||40,1||NA|
|Torre Annunziata Nord||15,0||36,6||NA|
|Torre Annunziata Sud||20,0||31,6||NA|
|Castellammare di Stabia||22,5||29,1||NA|
|Cava de' Tirreni||42,9||8,7||SA|
|Vietri sul Mare||48,4||3,2||SA|
| RA02 Avellino
Napoli - Canosa
|San Mango Piemonte||7,3||435,7||SA|
| Sicignano - Potenza
|Padula - Buonabitacolo||104,0||338,9||SA|
| Cosenza Nord
|Rogliano - Grimaldi||273,0||169,9||CS|
|San Mango d'Aquino||294,0||148,9||CZ|
| Lamezia Terme
SGC Jonio-Tirreno: Marina di Gioiosa Ionica
|Service area "Rosarno"||390,0||56,9||RC|
|Santa Trada of Cannitello (cancelled from 2008)||423,0||RC|
|Service area "Villa San Giovanni"||433,0||10,0||RC|
| Villa San Giovanni
Car ferry to Sicily
|Reggio Catona - Arghillà||436,0||6,9||RC|
| Reggio maritime port - Promenade
Car ferry to Sicily
|RA04 Reggio Calabria - SS106||442,5||0,4||RC|
|Reggio Calabria Nord||442,9||0,0||RC|
- (Italian) ...una vera e propria «vergogna italiana», in La storia della Salerno Reggio Calabria, book about Salerno-Reggio Calabria
- Organised crime may be behind problems with southern motorway: Awkward questions remain about Italian infrastructure, in 
- (Italian) l'autostrada, completamente statale e senza pedaggio, con le sue due corsie, somiglia più ad una strada statale Salerno-Reggio Calabria: L’autostrada che non c'è, La Soria siamo noi, Rai Educational, in which the A3 is defined "the most devastated motorway stretch in Italy".
- Completion of the upgrade work has been, as of 2010, postponed to 2012-2013, see: (Italian)Autostrade: Salerno-Reggio Calabria pronta per 2012-2013, ItaliaInformazione, July 8, 2009
-  Italy Repays €307m to EU after Road Project Mafia Corruption.
- (Italian) Stradaneanas Works Update (in Italian)
- (Italian)repubblica.it Around €10bn projected for Salerno = Reggio upgrade 06 March 2011 (in Italian)
- Photos and videos of the Salerno-Reggio Calabria "scandal" at A3 Salerno-Reggio Calabria:uno Scandalo!, radicalweb.org, January 23, 2010
- (Italian) Viaggio dall’A3 al traghettamento sullo Stretto, terrelibere.org, August 7, 2009
- (Italian) Salerno Reggio Calabria ed il General Contractor unico, Le strade, may 2007
- (Italian)ANAS Update Summer 2011 as per Internet Archive
- Pietro Ciucci ANAS CEO Speech in Brussels 14 November 2012 (English)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to A3 Motorway.|
- SAM SpA (Italian)
- ANAS SpA (Italian)
- http://radicalweb.org/2010/01/a3-salerno-reggio-calabriauno-scandalo-nazionale-il-dossierle-fotoi-video/ Historical perspective and state of the Salerno-Reggio Calabria] (Italian)