Banu Ifran

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Banu Ifran
الإفرنيون (ar)
Tribe

790–1066
 


Flag

Capital Tlemcen
Languages Berber
Religion Sufri Islam
Government Tribal confederacy, Monarchy
President Abu Qurra
History
 -  Established 790
 -  Disestablished 1066

The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.

The tribe originated from the Aurès, with Tlemcen in present-day north-west Algeria as their capital.

The Banu Ifran resisted or revolted against the foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri in revolting against the Arab Umayyads and Abbasids. In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids and the Maghraoua. The Banu Ifran were defeated by the Almoravids and the invading Arabs (the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym)[1] to the end of the 11th century. The Ifranid dynasty[citation needed] was recognized as the only dynasty that has defended the indigenous people of the Maghreb, by the Romans referred to as the Africani.[2]

In 11th century Iberia, the Banu Ifran conquered and built the city of Ronda in Andalusia and governed from Cordoba for several centuries.

History[edit]

Tlemcen, a capital of Banu Ifran

The Banu Ifran were one of the four major tribes of the Zenata or Gaetulia [3] confederation, and were known as expert cavalrymen. According to Ibn Khaldoun, "Ifrinides" or "Ait Ifren" were successfully resisting Romans, Vandals and Byzantines who sought to occupy North Africa before the arrival of the Muslim armies. According to Corippus in his Iohannis,[4] during the reign of Justinian I between 547 and 550, the Banu Ifran challenged the Byzantine armies under John Troglita to war.[5][6][7][8] Their chief Abu Qurra rebuilt the city of Tlemcen in Algeria in 765 (formerly, it was a Roman city named Pomaria). They opposed the Egyptian Fatimid Caliphate, aligning themselves with the Maghrawa tribe and the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, although they themselves became Kharijites. Led by Abu Yazid, they surged east and attacked Kairouan in 945. Another leader, Ya'la ibn Muhammad captured Oran and constructed a new capital, Ifgan, near Mascara. Under the leadership of their able general Jawhar, who killed Ya'la in battle in 954,[9] the Fatimids struck back and destroyed Ifgan, and for some time afterward the Banu Ifran reverted to being scattered nomads in perpetual competition with their Sanhaja neighbours. Some settled in regions of Spain, such as Malaga. Others, led by Hammama, managed to gain control of the Moroccan province of Tadla. Later, led by Abu al-Kamāl, they established a new capital at Salé on the Atlantic coast, though this brought them into conflict with the Barghawata tribes on the seaboard.

The dynasty of the Ifrinids[citation needed]

During the 11th century, the Banu Ifran contested with the Maghrawa tribe for the control of Morocco after the fall of the Idrisid dynasty. Ya'la's son Yaddū took Fes by surprise in January 993 and held it for some months until the Maghrawa ruler Ziri ibn Atiyya returned from Spain and reconquered the region.

In May or June 1033, Fes was recaptured by Ya'la's grandson Tamīm. Fanatically devoted to religion, he began a persecution of the Jews,[10] and is said to have killed 6000 of their men while confiscating their wealth and women. Sometime in the period 1038-1040 the Maghrawa tribe retook Fes, forcing Tamīm to flee to Salé.

Soon after that time, the Almoravids began their rise to power and effectively eliminated and exterminated both the Banu Ifran and their brother-rivals the Maghrawa.

Etymology[edit]

Ifran is a plural for Afar, Efri or Ifri; it is probably derived from the last of these, which means "cave" in Berber. Other possibilities are that their name is derived from one of the major gods of the pagan Berbers, Ifrou, or that the name is derived from the region of Yifran in present day north-west Libya[11] where they may have originated.

The name of the Ifran tribe has many alternative spellings, such as Ifuraces or Afar in Latin, or Ifrinidi, Iforen, Fren, Wafren, Yefren, Yafren, or Yafran, but all of the names mean simply "The Sons of Ifri". The banu- was added by the Arab writers, who called them "ben ifren" or "Ifrinid".

Religion[edit]

Before Islam[edit]

As d'Hadrien (136), représent Africa

Among the Ifran, animism was the principal spiritual philosophy. Ifri was also the name of a Berber deity, and their name may have an origin in their beliefs.[12] [12] Ifru rites symbolized in caves were held to gain favor or protection for merchants and traders. The myth of this protection is befittingly depicted on Roman coins.[13][14]

Ifru was regarded as a sun goddess, cave goddess and protector of the home.[15][16] Ifru or Ifran was regarded as a Berber version of Vesta.

Dehia, usually referred to as The Kahina was the Dejrawa Berber queen, prophetess, and leader of the non-Muslim response to the advancing Arab armies. Some historians claim Kahina was Christian,[17] or a follower of the Judaic faith,[10][18][19] though few of the Ifran were Christians, even after more than half a millennium of Christianity among the urban populations and the more sedentary tribes. Ibn Khaldun simply states that Ifran were Berbers, and says nothing of their religion before the advent of Islam.

During Islam[edit]

The Banu Ifran were opposed to the Sunnis of the Arab armies. They eventually converted, but summoned under the Kharidjite movement within Islam. Ibn Khaldun claimed that the "Zenata people say they are Muslims but they still oppose the Arab army.".[20][21] After 711, the Berbers were systematically converted to Islam and many became devout members of the faith.

Dynasty[edit]

Preceded by
Rustamid and Umayyad Dynasty
Ifrinid Dynasty
950- 1066
Succeeded by
Almoravid dynasty

Ifran in Spain[edit]

Ronda was built by Abu Nour in 1014

The Banu Ifran were influential in Spain in the 11th century AD. The Ifran house of Corra ruled the Andalusian city Ronda in Spain. Yeddas was the military leader of the Berber troops who were at war against the Christian king and El Mehdi. Abu Nour or Nour of the house of Corra became lord of Ronda and then Seville in Andalusia from 1023 to 1039 and from 1039 to 1054. The son of Nour bin Badis Hallal ruled Ronda from 1054 to 1057, and Abu Nacer from 1057 to 1065.[22]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Histoire des BerbУres et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique ... - ʻAbd al-Raḥman b. Muḥammad Ibn Khaldчn - Google Livres". Books.google.dz. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Compleḿent de l'Encycloped́ie moderne: dictionnaire abreǵe ́ des sciences, des ... - Noel̈ Desverges, Lжon Renier, Edouard Carteron, Firmin Didot (Firm). - Google Livres". Books.google.dz. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  3. ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province , Société archéologique [1]
  4. ^ Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae , Barthold Georg Niebuhr
  5. ^ Corripus, la Johannide
  6. ^ Monographie de l'aurès , Delartigue
  7. ^ The Golden Age of the Moor, Ivan van Sertima, [2]
  8. ^ Itineraria Phoenicia , Edward Lipiński
  9. ^ So says the Rawd al-Qirtas. But according to Ibn Khaldun, Yala died assassinated by a member of the Fatimides in 958.
  10. ^ a b Relations judéo-musulmanes au Marocperceptions et réalités , Michel Abitbol [3]
  11. ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, edited by Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, p43
  12. ^ a b Archives des missions scientifiques et littéraires , France Commission des missions scientifiques et littéraires, France, [4]
  13. ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique, historique, du département de Constantine , Arnolet, 1878
  14. ^ "Recueil des notices et mщmoires de la Sociщtщ archщologique, historique, et ... - Google Livres". Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  15. ^ Les cultes païens dans l'Empire romain , Jules Toutain, page 416, p635 and p636
  16. ^ "Les cultes paяens dans l'Empire romain - Jules Toutain - Google Livres". Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  17. ^ Gabriel Camps, Berber encyclopaedia
  18. ^ The FalashasA Short History of the Ethiopian Jews , David Kessler
  19. ^ Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique septentrionale, traduction de William McGuckin de Slane, éd. Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1978, tome 1, pp. 208-209 .
  20. ^ Ibn Khaldun, Histoire des berberes, Traduction Slane, édition Berti
  21. ^ La Berbérie et L'Islam et la France , Eugène Guernier, party 1, édition de l'union française, 1950
  22. ^ [5] list of leaders in arabic

References[edit]

  • Ibn Abi Zar, Rawd al-Qirtas. Annotated Spanish translation: A. Huici Miranda, Rawd el-Qirtas. 2nd edition, Anubar Ediciones, Valencia, 1964. Vol. 1 ISBN 84-7013-007-2.
  • C. Agabi (2001), article "Ifren" in Encyclopédie Berbère vol. 24, p. 3657-3659 (Édisud, Aix-en-Provence, ISBN 2-85744-201-7)
  • Ibn Khaldun, Kitab el Ibar, French translation (ISBN 2-7053-3638-9)
  • Le passé de l'Afrique du Nord. Écrit par E.F. Gautier. Édition Payot, Paris
  • KITAB EL-ISTIQÇA. TRADUCTION A. GRAULLE. Auteur AHMED BEN KHALED EN-NACIRI ES-SLAOUI
  • Ibn Khaldoun Les prolégomènes El Mokadima
  • Gisèle Halimi. Title: La Kahina.

External links[edit]