Battle of Peregonovka (1919)
|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (March 2014)|
|Battle of Peregonovka|
|Part of the Ukrainian War of Independence and the Russian Civil War|
|Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine||Volunteer Army|
|Commanders and leaders|
|7,000-8,000||6,000-7,000 rifles & sabres
27-40 artillery pieces
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown||Hundreds surrendered, 23 artillery pieces and 100 machine guns captured|
In the Battle of Peregonovka (or Perehonivka) in September 1919, part of the Russian Civil War, the (Makhnovist) Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine routed elements of the (White) Volunteer Army. The battle involved several major engagements, near Pomoshna, Yelyzavethrad, Tashliche, Krutenke, Uman, Perehonovka, and Kryvyi Rih.
In mid-August 1919, with the Ukrainian People's Army and the White Volunteer Army converging on Kiev, the Red Army around Odessa (including elements of the 12th and 14th RKKA) abandoned the city and retreated northwest. In early September Makhnovists linked up with other 12th Red Army forces west of Kiev.
Other formations, including most of the largely anarchist 7th Insurgent Rifle Division and one brigade of the 58th Rifle Division (the Crimean Rifle Division) left the Red army and reconstituted the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine at Pomoshna.
Simultaneously, units of the Ukrainian People's Army conquered Uman and the surrounding area while units of the White Volunteer army after landing at Odessa and marching north occupied Yelyzavethrad and then marched west.
The Volunteer Army sought to destroy the Makhnovist forces and secure the rail line from Odessa to Yelyzavethrad. The Makhnovist forces sought to preserve their army and return to their home base (in Yekaterinoslav Governorate, behind the White lines).
Composition of Forces
Composition of the Makhnovist forces
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, led by Nestor Makhno, comprised four corps and army units:
- 1st Donets Corps, led by Kalashnikov
- 2nd Azov Corps, led by Vdovychenko
- 3rd Yekaterinoslav Corps, led by Havrylenko
- 4th Crimean Corps, led by Pavlovsky
Each corps included three to four reinforced infantry regiments and three to four smaller cavalry regiments with only a small artillery contingent. In the main battle, the 1st and 2nd corps were covering the eastern sector (front) around Perehonovka along the Yatran river; the 4th corps was covering the southern sector (right flank); the cavalry forces, detached from their parent corps, were on the northern sector (left flank), while the 3rd corps was covering the western sector (rear).
Composition of the White forces
The Volunteer Army committed the 4th Crimean Infantry Division and various independent brigades in the battle. The regiments of the 4th Crimean Infantry Division (of the Volunteer Army) were named after the regiments of the 13th and 34th Infantry Division (of the prewar Russian Army).
Composition of the Ukrainian Directory forces
Tiutiunnyk's Group of the Ukrainian People's Army, comprised two divisions, one brigade, and some supporting units:
- 5th Infantry Division
- 12th Infantry Division
- 1st Galician Infantry Brigade of the Ukrainian Galician Army
- Several Armored Trains
Each division or brigade had 2-3 regiments of infantry and supporting artillery. By the end of August, the 5th Infantry Division and 1st Galician Infantry Brigade had deployed around Uman, and the 12th Infantry Division had deployed around Talne and Shpola, supported by the armored trains.
- According to Arshinov, the armies met at Krutenke on September 25, Perehonovka one day after Krutenke, and Kryvyi Rih one day after Perehonovka.
- According to Voline, the armies met at Krutenke on September 25 and Perehonovka on the 26th.
- According to Belash, the armies met at Krutenke on September 25, Perehonovka on the 27th, and Kryvyi Rih on October 1.
- Anarchy’s Cossacks Banquetdesgeneraux.com
Belash, Aleksandr & Belash, Viktor. Dorogi Nestora Makhno (Friends of Nestor Makhno). ISBN 5-7707-3814-6