Mariupol

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Mariupol
Old Fire Tower, Mariupol City Theater, Skyline
Old Fire Tower, Mariupol City Theater, Skyline
Flag of Mariupol
Flag
Coat of arms of Mariupol
Coat of arms
Mariupol is located in Ukraine
Mariupol
Mariupol
Mariupol shown within Ukraine
Mariupol is located in Donetsk Oblast
Mariupol
Mariupol
Coordinates: 47°5′45″N 37°32′58″E / 47.09583°N 37.54944°E / 47.09583; 37.54944Coordinates: 47°5′45″N 37°32′58″E / 47.09583°N 37.54944°E / 47.09583; 37.54944
Country
Oblast
Raion
 Ukraine
Donetsk Oblast
Mariupol City Municipality
Founded 1778
Government
 • Mayor Yuri Khotlubey
Area
 • Total 244 km2 (94 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 461,810
 • Density 2,058/km2 (5,330/sq mi)
Postal code 87500—87590
Area code(s) +380 629
Website Marsovet
First Gymnasium founded 1876
Private house, early 1900s
Former Continental Hotel

Mariupol (Ukrainian: Маріу́поль, Маріюпіль,[1] Russian: Мариу́поль [mərʲɪˈupəlʲ]; Greek: Μαριούπολη, Marioupoli) is a city of oblast significance in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river. It is the tenth-largest city in Ukraine[2] and the second largest in the Donetsk Oblast.[3] Population: 461,810 (2013 population estimate)[4].

Originally founded as a Cossack fortress named Kalmius,[5] Mariupol has been a centre for the grain trade, metallurgy, and heavy engineering. It was granted city rights in 1778. The Ilyich Steel & Iron Works and Azovstal propelled Mariupol onto the European stage in the 20th century as one of the largest and most productive plants.[clarification needed] Mariupol played a key role in the industrialization of Ukraine. Today, Mariupol remains a centre for industry, as well as higher education and business, a legal centre,[clarification needed] and the economic engine of Pryazovia.

History[edit]

During the late Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within the a broader region that was largely devastated and depopulated through intense conflict among surrounding peoples, including the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. By the middle of the 15th century much of the region north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea was annexed to the Crimean Khanate and became a dependency of the Ottoman Empire. Laying near the Kalmius trail, the region about modern-day Mariupol was subject to frequent raids and plundering by the Tartars tribes which prevented the area’s permanent settlement, keeping it sparsely populated or an entirely uninhabited no-man’s land under Tartar rule known as the Wild Fields.[6][7]

In this region of the Eurasian steppelands the Cossacks emerged as a distinct peoples in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. In the area below the Dnieper rapids were the Zaporozhian Cassocks, composed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, as well as highly mobile groups that practiced both pastoral and nomadic living. Their independence from governmental and landowner authority enlisted large numbers of fugitive peasants and serfs fleeing Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy.

The isolation of the region was further by the Treaty of Constantinople of 1700 that provide that on the coast of the Azov Sea to the mouth of the Mius River there should be no settlements or fortifications. Moreover, in 1709 in response to a Cassock alliance with Sweden against Russia, Tsar Peter the Great ordered the destruction of the Zaporozhian central stockade (Sich) and their complete expulsion from the area, without allowance for their return. [8] In 1733, however, Russia was taking up preparations for a new military campaign against the Ottoman Empire, so it was open to negotiating the return of the Zaporozhians. The result was the Agreement of Lubny of 1734. Under the terms, the Zaporozhians regained all their former lands and in return, during war time they were to serve in the Russian army. Also, they were allow to build a new stockade in the region (called New Sich) on the Dnieper River.

Mariupol can trace its recorded history to the 16th century when the Cossack fortress called Kalmius[citation needed] was built at the mouth of Kalmius river for the purpose of protecting the hunting grounds, fisheries, and salt-works against the devastating raids of the Crimean Tatars.

In 1734 the garrison of 654 cossacks became the Kalmius palanka of the Zaporizhian Sich.

After the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), the great influx of Orthodox Greeks from Crimea to the area caused the local population growth. The governor of Azov Governorate Chertkov who planned the new city of Pavlovsk was reporting to Grigory Potemkin that in its place existed another fortress of Domakha (with the already standing Kalmius Fortress).[9] At that time the city was named Marianοpol (Greek: Μαριανόπολη) of Kalmius County. For the Russian authorities the city was named after Russian Empress Maria Feodorovna, but de facto the city was named after the Greek settlement Mariampol that was a suburb of Bakhchisaray, name of which derived from the hodegetria of Saint Theotokos and Virgin Mary.[10][11]

In 1782 it was an administrative seat of the county in the Azov Governorate of the Russian Empire with a population of 2948 inhabitants. In the early 19th century the customs, a church-parish school, the port authorities building, an county religious school, and two privately founded girls' schools appear in the city. In the 1850s the population grew to 4600 and the city had 120 shops and 15 wine cellars.

After construction of the railway line from Yuzovka in 1882, much of the wheat grown in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate and coal from the Donets Basin were exported via the port of Mariupol (the second largest after Odessa in the South Russian Empire), which served as a key funding source for opening a hospital, public library, electric power station, and urban water supply system.

Mariupol remained a local trading center until 1898, when the Belgian subsidiary SA Providence Russe opened a steelworks in Sartana near Mariupol (now the Ilyich Steel & Iron Works). The company incurred heavy losses and by 1902 went into bankruptcy, owing 6 million francs to the Providence company and needing to be re-financed by the Banque de l'Union Parisienne.[12] The mills brought cultural diversity to Mariupol as immigrants, mostly peasants from all over empire, moved to the city looking for a job and a better life. The number of workers employed increased to 5400 persons.

In 1914 the population of Mariupol reached 58,000. However the period from 1917 onwards saw a continuous decline in population and industry due to the February Revolution and the Civil War.

In 1933 a new steelworks (Azovstal) was built along the Kalmius river.

During World War II, the city was occupied by Nazi Germany from 8 October 1941 to 10 September 1943. During this time there was tremendous damage to the city and many people were killed.

From 1948 to 1989 the city was named Zhdanov after the Soviet politician Andrei Zhdanov.

After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the city saw lethal skirmishes between the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and government (and local police) forces resulting in a battle between the two sides.[13]

On June 13, 2014, the city was designated as the temporary capital of the Donetsk Oblast.[14]

Despite no fighting during June–August, another battle erupted in the city.

City features[edit]

Mariupol is the second most populous city in Donetsk oblast (after Donetsk), and is among the ten most populous cities in Ukraine. See the list of cities in Ukraine.

Architecture[edit]

Map of Mariupol

Old Mariupol, which is an area defined by the coast of the Sea of Azov to the south, by the Kalmius River to the east, to the north by Shevchenko Boulevard, and to the west by Metalurhiv Avenue, is built up mainly of a few storey houses and has kept its pre-revolutionary architecture. Only Artem Street and Lenin Avenue were built after the Great Patriotic War and are considered modern buildings.

The central area of Mariupol (from Metalurhiv Avenue up to Budivelnykiv Avenue) is made up almost entirely of administrative and commercial buildings, including a city council building, post office, the Lukov cinema, Mariupol Humanitarian University, Priazov State Technical University, the Korolenko central city library, and many large shops.

The architecture of other residential areas ("Zakhidny", "Skhidny", "Kirov", "Cheremushky", 5th, 17th catchment area, etc.) is not particularly distinct or original and consists of typical 5- or 9-storey houses. The term "Cheremushki" carries a special meaning in Russian culture and now also in Ukrainian; it usually refers to the newly settled parts of a city.

The city's residential area comprises 9.82 million square meters. The population density is 19.3 square meters per inhabitant. The share of privatized housing in 2003 was 76.3%.

Main streets[edit]

The house with a spike – one of the symbols of Mariupol
  • Avenues (“Prospects”): Lenin (the central highway), Metalurhiv (“Metallurgists”, one connects three right-bank areas of city), Budivelnykiv (“Builders”), Ilyich (after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin), Nakhimov, Peremohy (“Victory”), Lunin (after admiral Lunin), Leningradsky (in Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion)
  • Streets (“Vulitsi”): Artem, Torhova (“Trading”), Apatov, Kuprin, Uritsky, Bakhchivandzhi, Gagarin, Karpinsky, Mamin-Sibiryak, Taganrog, Olympic, Azovstal, Makar Mazay, Karl Libknekht
  • Boulevards: Shevchenko, Komsomol, Prymore (Sea), Khmelnytsky, etc.
  • Squares (“Ploscha”): Administrative (“Administrative”), Nezalezhnosti (“Independence”), Peremohy (“Victory”), Mashinobudivnykiv ("Mechanical engineers"), Lenin's Komsomol, Vyzvolennia ("Liberation").

In December 1991, by a decision of the city council of Mariupol, the following streets in an old part of the city reverted to their pre-revolutionary names:

Between 1990 to 2000 the following streets and areas changed their names:

  • Sergo Street – Jacob Gugel' Street (in Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion) – in honour of the head of construction and the first director of "Azovstal"
  • Republic Lane – University Street (in city centre)
  • Constitution Square – Mashinobudivnykiv ("Mechanical engineers") Square
  • Square near to "Neptune" swimming pool – Nezalezhnosti ("Independence") Square

See also the list of streets and squares of Mariupol.

Parks[edit]

City garden in winter
  • City Square (« the Theatrical Square »)
  • Extreme Park (new attractions near to the biggest in city of the Palace of Culture of Metallurgists)
  • Gurov's Meadow-park (former Meadow-park a name of the 200-anniversary of Mariupol)
  • City Garden (Russian: Горсад, «Children's Central Public Garden»)
  • Veselka Park (Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion), named as the rainbow
  • Azovstal Park (Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion)
  • Petrovsky Park (near the modern stadium "Illyichivets" and constructions of “Azovmash” basketball club, Illyichivsky Raion)
  • Primorsky Park (Prymorsky Raion)

Monuments[edit]

Statue of Taras Shevchenko
Main article: Monuments of Mariupol

Mariupol has monuments to Taras Shevchenko, Vladimir Vysotsky, Kuindzhi, Vladimir Lenin, and many other famous persons. Monuments in honour of the liberation of Donbass, the metallurgists, and others can also be found in the city.

There are also monuments to Makar Maza, Hryhoriy Yuriyovych Horban, K.P. Apatov, Tolya Balabukha, to seamen – commandos, pilots V.G. Semenyshyn and N.E. Lavytsky, to soldiers of the Soviet 9th Aviation Division, to victims of political repressions of 1930–1950, etc. During the Soviet period the central square of the city featured a monument to Andrei Zhdanov after whom the city was named for many years (1948-1990). The artists V. Konstantynov and L. Kuzminkov are the sculptors of some of the monuments, including the monument to Metropolitan Ignatiy, the founder of Mariupol.

City holidays[edit]

Fireworks on the day of the machine engineer

Holidays exclusive to Mariupol include:

  • Day of liberation of the city from fascist aggressors (on September 10)
  • Day of the city (the Sunday after the day of liberation of Mariupol in September)
  • Day of the metallurgist – a professional holiday for many citizens
  • Day of the machine engineer
  • Day of the seaman and other professional holidays

Hotels and night-clubs[edit]

Hotels in the city include Grand Hotel, Spartak, Guest Villa "Horosho", Nash Kutochok, Moryak, Chaika, Iris Hotel, and Brigantina.

Night-clubs in the city include Barbaris, Zebra, Coral, Imperial, Private club "Yes", Egoist, El Gusto, Holiday Romance, Ledo, Crazy Maam, and Divan.

Coat of arms[edit]

The modern coat of arms of Mariupol was confirmed in 1989. It is described in heraldic terms as: Per fess wavy argent and azure, on an anchor or, accompanied by the figure 1778 of the last. The gold anchor has a ring on top. The number 1778 indicates the year of the city’s founding. The argent represents steel; the azure, the sea; the anchor, the port; and the ring, metallurgy.

Administrative division[edit]

Mariupol administrative division

Mariupol is divided into four neighborhoods or "raions".

  • Ilyichivsky Raion (after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ) is the northern part of the city, the largest and most industrialized neighborhood in the city. It is commonly known as Zavod (“Factory”) of Ilyich.
  • Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion (after Sergo Ordzhonikidze) is the eastern part of the city, on the left bank of the river Kalmius. Its common name is the Left Bank.
  • Prymorsky Raion is the southern area of the city, on the coast of the Azov Sea. The everyday name of the central part this neighbourhood is simply "Port".
  • Zhovtnevy Raion (Russian: Oktyabrsky, after the Great October Revolution in 1917) is the central city raion. Its everyday name is simply "the Centre" or "the City".

The Kalmius river separates the Ordzhonekidzivsky Raion from the remaining three raions. The population is mostly concentrated in the Zhovtnevy and the Prymorsky Raions. The Ilyichivsky Raion houses the large Ilyich's steel mill and the Azovmash manufacturing plant. The Ordzhonekidzivsky (Left Bank) is home to the Azovstal metallurgic combine and the Koksohim factory. The map also shows that the settlements of Stary Krym and Sartana are located in close proximity to the city limits of Mariupol.

Demographics[edit]

As of June 1, 2010, the city's population was 490,063. Over the last century the population has grown nearly twelvefold. The city is populated by Ukrainians, Russians, Greeks, Belarusians, Armenians, Jews, etc. The main language is Russian.

Historical Populations[citation needed]
Year City proper Change Metropolitan Change
1778 168 168
1782 2,948 +1,655% 2,948 +1,655%
1850 4,579 +55.33% 4,579 +55.33%
1897 31,800 +594.47% 31,800 +594.47%
1913 58,000 +82.39% 58,000 +82.39%
1939 221,500 +281.90% 221,500 +281.90%
1941 241,000 +8.80% 241,000 +8.80%
1943 85,000 −64.73% 85,000 −64.73%
1959 283,600 +233.65% 299,100 +251.88%
1979 502,600 +77.22% 525,000 +75.53%
1987 529,000 +5.25% 552,300 +5.20%
1989 518,900 −1.91% 541,000 −2.05%
1994 520,700 0.35% 543,600 0.48%
1998 499,800 −4.01% 521,300 −4.10%
2001 492,200 −1.52% 514,500 −1.30%
2002 489,700 −0.51% 510,800 −0.72%
2005 481,600 −1.65% 502,800 −1.57%
2007 498,600 +3.53% - -
Mariupol population density

The population in 2007 was estimated at 496,700 for the city and 502,800 when including the subordinated territories (settlement Sartana, settlement Talakivka, settlement Stary Krym, village Hnutove, and village Lomakine). Its annual population drop has been 1.9%. The death rate is 15.5%.[citation needed]

Ethnic structure[edit]

Ethnic Ukrainians make up the largest percentage but less than half of the population; the second greatest ethnicity is Russian. The city is home to the largest Greek population in Ukraine ("Greeks of Priazovye") at 21,900, with 31,400 more in the six nearby rural areas, totaling about 70% of the Greek population of the area and 60% for the country.

Ethnic structure in 2002

Ethnicity Number of people Percent of population
Ukrainian 248,683 48.7
Russian 226,848 44.4
Greek 21,923 4.3
Belarusian 3,858 0.8
Armenian 1,205 0.2
Jews 1,176 0.2
Bulgarian 1,082 0.2
other 6,060 1.2
All population 510,835 100

Language structure[edit]

There is a large number of Greek-speaking people in the city, but the city is predominantly Russian speaking. From 60% to 80% of Ukrainian-language dwellers communicate through so-called Surzhyk, due to the large influence of Russian culture.

Most Greek-speaking villages in the region speak a dialect called Rumeíka. About 17 villages speak this language today. Modern scholars distinguish five subdialects of Rumeíka according to their similarity to standard Modern Greek. This was derived from the dialect of the original Pontic settlers from the Crimea. Although Rumeíka is often described as a Pontic dialect, the situation is more nuanced.

Arguments can be brought both for Rumeíka's similarity to Pontic Greek and to the Northern Greek dialects.

In the view of Maxim Kisilier, while the Rumeíka dialect shares some features with both the Pontic Greek and the Northern Greek dialects, it is better to be considered on its own terms as a separate Greek dialect, or even a group of dialects.[15]

The village of Anadol speaks Pontic proper, being settled from the Pontos in the 19th century.

Native language of the population as of the All-Russian Empire Census in 1897:[16]

Language The city of Mariupol
Russian 19,670
Ukrainian 3,125
Greek 1,590
Turkish 922
Total Population 31,116

Along with those speaking Rumeíka, there were and are a number of Tatar speaking Orthodox villages, the so-called Urums, which is the Tatar term for Romaios or Rumei. This subdivision had already occurred in Crimea before the settlement of the Azov Sea steppe region by Greeks which started in 1779, as part of the Russian policy to populate and develop the region while depriving the Crimea of an economically active part of its population.

Though Greek and Tatar-speaking settlers live separately, the language of the Urums was the lingua franca of the region for a long time, being called the language of the bazaar. There are a number of settlements of other communities also, including Germans, Bulgarians, and Albanians (though the meanings of all such terms in this context is open to dispute).

After the October Revolution of 1917, a Rumaiic revival occurred in the region. The Soviet administration established a Greek-Rumaiic theater, several magazines and a newspaper, and a number of Rumaiic language schools. The best Rumaiic poet Georgi Kostoprav created a Rumaiic poetic language for his work. This process was reversed in 1937 as Kostoprav and many other Rumaiics and Urums were killed as part of Joseph Stalin's national policies. A large percentage of the population was transported to Gulags.

A new attempt to preserve a sense of ethnic Rumaiic identity started in the mid-1980s. The Ukrainian scholar Andriy Biletsky created a new Slavonic alphabet for Greek speakers. Though a number of writers and poets make use of this alphabet, the population of the region rarely uses it. The Rumaiic language is declining rapidly, most endangered by the standard Modern Greek which is taught in schools and the local university. The latest investigations by Alexandra Gromova demonstrate that there is still hope that elements of the Rumaiic population will continue to use the dialect.[17]

Language structure in 2002[citation needed]

Language Number (person) Densities (%)
Russian 457,931 89.64
Ukrainian 50,656 9.92
Greek 1,046 0.20
Armenian 372 0.07
Belarusian 266 0.05
Bulgarian 55 0.01
other 509 0.10
All population 510,835 100

Employment[edit]

About 59% of the people whose occupation is in a national economy work in industry and 11% of them in transportation[citation needed]. As of July 1, 2009, the official rate of unemployment in the city stood at 2%.[18] The figure, however, only includes people registered as "unemployed" in the local job center. The real unemployment rate is therefore higher.

Historic Unemployment Rate in Mariupol (year end)[18][19][20][21]

Year Unemployment (% of labor force)
2006 0.4
2007 0.4
2008 1.2
2009* 2.0

* – as of July 1

Geography and ecology[edit]

Geography[edit]

Mariupol is to the south of the Donetsk area, on the coast of the Azov Sea, in a mouth of the river Kalmius. The city occupies an area of 166.0² (64 mi²) [with suburbs, i.e., the territories subordinated to the Mariupol city council, 244.0 km² (94.2 mi²)]. The downtown area is 106.0 km² (40.9 mi²), while the area of parks and gardens is 80.6 km² (31.1 mi²). The city is mainly built on land that is made of Solonetzic chernozems, with a significant amount of underground subsoil waters that frequently leads to landslides.

Climate[edit]

Mariupol has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with warm summers and cold winters. The average annual precipitation is 511 millimetres (20 in). Agroclimatic conditions allow the cultivation in suburbs of Mariupol thermophilic agricultural crops with long vegetative periods (sunflower, melons, grapes, etc.). However water resources in the region are insufficient, and consequently ponds and water basins are used for the needs of the population and industry.

In the winter, the wind direction is mainly east, while in the summer, the wind is from the north.

Climate data for Mariupol (1955–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.0
(68)
15.0
(59)
18.6
(65.5)
27.2
(81)
32.7
(90.9)
37.0
(98.6)
37.2
(99)
38.0
(100.4)
32.0
(89.6)
27.1
(80.8)
18.0
(64.4)
13.5
(56.3)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.9
(40.8)
13.1
(55.6)
19.7
(67.5)
24.4
(75.9)
27.2
(81)
26.5
(79.7)
20.7
(69.3)
13.2
(55.8)
5.9
(42.6)
1.0
(33.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.8
(27)
1.7
(35.1)
9.4
(48.9)
15.8
(60.4)
20.2
(68.4)
22.7
(72.9)
21.9
(71.4)
16.4
(61.5)
9.6
(49.3)
3.2
(37.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
9.6
(49.3)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−5.5
(22.1)
−1.1
(30)
5.8
(42.4)
11.5
(52.7)
15.3
(59.5)
17.6
(63.7)
16.8
(62.2)
11.7
(53.1)
5.9
(42.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −26.6
(−15.9)
−25
(−13)
−20
(−4)
−7.3
(18.9)
0.0
(32)
5.6
(42.1)
8.9
(48)
−1.0
(30.2)
−1.1
(30)
−8
(18)
−17
(1)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−26.6
(−15.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 35.1
(1.382)
33.0
(1.299)
37.5
(1.476)
44.5
(1.752)
44.0
(1.732)
52.9
(2.083)
44.2
(1.74)
43.0
(1.693)
39.4
(1.551)
28.6
(1.126)
47.8
(1.882)
60.5
(2.382)
510.5
(20.098)
Avg. precipitation days 17.7 14.9 15.4 10.4 8.1 8.0 5.2 4.1 6.9 9.5 12.7 15.9 128.8
 % humidity 89.0 86.2 83.0 73.9 70.0 67.5 65.6 61.2 67.4 79.0 86.7 88.9 76.5
Source: Climatebase.ru[22]

Ecology[edit]

Main article: Ecology in Mariupol
Air pollution levels in Mariupol

Mariupol leads Ukraine in the volume of emissions of harmful substances by industrial enterprises. Last year's ecology problems have started to be addressed by leading enterprises of city. For the last 15 years industrial emissions thus have fallen nearly in half.

Due to the stable work of the majority of the large enterprises, the city constantly collides with environmental problems. At the end of the 1970s, Zhdanov (Mariupol) placed third in the USSR (after Novokuznetsk and Magnitogorsk) in the quantity of industrial emissions. In 1989, including all enterprises of city, it had 5,215 sources of atmospheric pollution producing 752,900 tones of harmful substances a year (about 98% from metallurgical enterprises and "Markokhim"). Even during some easing activity of the industry in the state (the middle of the 1990s) of maximum-permissible concentrations (maximum concentration limit), many pollution limits of the environment have been exceeded:

In the residential areas adjoining industrial giants, concentrations of benzapiren reach 6–9 times the maximum concentration limits; fluoric hydrogen, ammonia, and formaldehyde reach 2–3 to 5 times the maximum concentration limits; dust and oxides of carbon, and hydrogen sulphide are 6-8 times the maximum concentration limits; and dioxides of nitrogen are 2-3 times the maximum concentration limits. The maximum concentration limit has been exceed on phenol by 17x, and on benzapiren by 13-14x.

Not well thought over arrangements of platforms for the construction of Azovstal and Markokhim (the economy in transport charges was assumed, both during construction in 30th, and during the subsequent operation) has led to the fact that the wind basically carries all emissions in the central areas of Mariupol. Intensity of these winds and geographical "flatness" offer relief that longtime pollutants do not accumulate, somewhat helping the situation.

The Sea of Azov near the city is in distress. The catch of fish in the area was reduced by orders of magnitude over the last 30–40 years.

The nature protection activity of leading enterprises in Mariupol cost millions of hrivnas, but it appears to have little effect on the environmental problems built up in the city over the years.

Government and politics[edit]

Main article: Politics in Mariupol

The Mariupol population traditionally supports the left and pro-Russian political forces. On last parliamentary elections (2006) city has voted for Party of Regions – 39,72% of votes, Socialist Party of Ukraine – 20,38%, Natalia Vitrenko Block – 9,53%, Communist Party of Ukraine – 3,29%.

Mayor of city (chairman, "head", cities and chairman of executive committee of city council) – Yuri Yuriyovych Khotlubey.

Mariupol in Verkhovna Rada is represented with four People's Deputies:

The city traditionally supports the left and pro-Russian political forces in Ukraine. In the presidential elections of 2004 the city voted for Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (91.1%) and for Viktor Andriyovych Yuschenko (5.93%).

At the turn of the 21st century in the City Council Party of Regions numerically prevails, followed by Socialist Party of Ukraine.

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Main article: Industry of Mariupol

In Mariupol there are 56 industrial enterprises under various patterns of ownership. The industry of the city is diverse, among which the city's heavy industry is dominant. Mariupol is home to the major steel mills (including some globally important) and chemical plants; there is also an important seaport and a railroad junction. The largest enterprises are Ilyich Iron and Steel Works, Azovstal, Concern Azovmash, and the Mariupol Sea Trading Port. There are also shipyards, fish canneries, and the various educational institutions relating to the study of metallurgy and science.

The total industrial production of the city for eight months in 2005 (January – August) was 21378.2 million hryvnas (4.233 billion USD), compared to 1999 – 6169.806 million hryvnas (1.222 billion USD). This is 37.5% of the total production for Donetsk Oblast. The leading business of the city is in ferrous metallurgy, which makes up 93.5% of the city's income from industrial production. The output estimates in millions tones of iron, steel, rolled iron, and agglomerate annually.

  • Open Society Azovstal is another integrated mill ("Combine"), the third largest in Ukraine in terms of gross revenue. Its production varies in millions of tones of pig-iron, steel, and rolled iron annually. The company's general director is Oleksiy Bilyi. Azovstal is closely connected with the Mariupol coke works "Markokhim", which serves as the supplier of coke.
Transportation in Mariupol

The above-mentioned enterprises and not including the plethora of others are located in the free economic zone Azov.

Transportation[edit]

Routes of urban electric transports in Mariupol
Daily passenger traffic intensity in Mariupol

Mariupol has transportation including bus transportation, trolley-buses, trams, and fixed-route taxis. The city is connected by railways, a seaport and the airport to other countries and cities.

Construction[edit]

Typical apartment building in Mariupol

Industrial construction prevails. Mass building of inhabited quarters in city has terminated in the 1980s. Mainly the comfortable habitation is under construction now. The construction organisations of city for nine months 2005 execute volume of contract civil and erection works on 304.4 million hrivnas (US$60 million). Densities of city on this parameter in city – 22,1%.

Communications[edit]

In city all leading Ukrainian operators of mobile communications work. During Soviet time in city ten automatic telephone exchanges worked, six digital automatic telephone exchanges recently were added.

Finances[edit]

The GDP of the city in 2004 was 22,769,400 ($4,510,400); they listed in the state budget of ₴83,332,000 ($16,507,400). The city is one of the largest donors to the state budget of Ukraine (after Kiev and Zaporizhia).

The GPA of the city is ₴1,262.04 (~US$250.00) a month – one of the highest in the country. The average pension in the city is ₴423.15 ($83.82). Commercial debts in the city were reduced for 2005 to 1.1% and made ₴5.1 million ($1.01 million).

Income from rendered services for 9 months in 2005 where ₴860.4 million ($107.4 million) and the volume of retail trade for the same term was ₴838.7 million ($166.1 million). The enterprises of the city for 9 months of 2005 received a positive financial result (profit) of ₴3.2 billion ($634 million), which is 23.6% more than the previous year (2004).

Culture[edit]

Cultural institutions[edit]

Donetsk regional Russian drama theatre at night

Theatres:

  • Donetsk regional Russian drama theatre. In 2003 the oldest theater of region celebrated the 125th anniversary. For contribution to spiritual education of theatre in 2000 became the laureate of the competition «Gold Scythian».

Cinemas:

  • Pobeda (“Victory”)
  • Savona
  • Multiplex

Palaces of Culture (Recreation centres) (together with so-called clubs – 16 units):

  • Metallurgov (“Metallurgists”) of Ilyich Steel & Iron Works
  • Azovstal of Azovstal Steel & Iron Works
  • Iskra (“Spark”) of Azovmash machine-builder Concern
  • MarKokhim (Mariupol Coke Chemistry)
  • Moryakov (“Sailors”)
  • Stroitel (“Builders”)
  • Palace of child's and youth art (“Palace of Children art”)
  • Municipal Palace of Culture
Extreme Park in Mariupol
Chernobyl disaster memorial

Showrooms and museums:

  • Mariupol Museum of Regional
  • Kuindzhi Art Exhibition
  • Museum of ethnography (in the past the museum of Andrey Zhdanov)
  • Museum halls of the industrial enterprises and their divisions, establishments and the organisations of city and so on.

Libraries (only 35 units):

  • Korolenko Central Library;
  • Gorky Central Children’s Library;
  • Serafimovich Library (The oldest library of city);
  • And also: Gaydar Library, Honchar Library, Hrushevsky Library, Krupskaya Library, Kuprin Library, Lesya Ukrainka Library, Marshak Library, Morozov Library, Novikov-Priboy Library, Pushkin Library, Svetlov Library, Turgenev Library, Franko Library, Chekhov Library, Chukovsky Library, the libraries of industrial enterprises, establishments and the organisations of city.

In the environs of city on the shore of Sea of Azov the monument of archaeology is opened neolithic burial ground of end of the third millennium AD. During excavations here over 120 skeletons were discovered. Near them stone and bone instruments and beads are found, shell-works the shellfishes, teeth of animal.

Art and literature[edit]

Creative organisations of artists, union of journalists of Mariupol, the literary union «Azovye» (from a 1924, about 100 members) and others. Works of Mariupol poets and writers: N. Berilov, A. Belous, G. Moroz, A. Shapurmi, A. Savchenko, V. Kior, N. Harakoz, L. Kiryakov, L. Belozerova, P. Bessonov, A. Zaruba are written in the Russian, Ukrainian, Greek languages. Presently 10 members of National Union of writers of Ukraine live in a city.

Religious communities[edit]

St. Nicholas church
  • 11 churches of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchy.
  • 3 churches of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchy.
  • 52 various religious communities.

The city is adorned by the St. Nicholas Cathedral (in the Zhovtnevy borough) and other churches of the city, namely:

  • St. Nicholas (Primorsky borough)
  • St. Michael (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
  • St. Preobrazheniye (“Transfiguration”) (Primorsky borough)
  • St. Ilya (Ilyichevsky borough)
  • Uspensky (“Assumption”) (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
  • St. Vladimir (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
  • St. Amvrosy Optinsky (Illyichevsky borough, Volonterobvka)
  • St. Varlampy (Illyichevsky borough, Mirny)
  • St. George (Illyichevsky borough, Sartana)
  • Nativity of the Virgin Mary (Illyichevsky borough, Talakovka)
  • St. Boris & Gleb (Prymorsky borough, Moryakov)
  • St. Crimeajewel

In addition to churches, there are 3 Mosques around the city.

Media and entertainment[edit]

More than 20 local newspapers work mostly Russian language based, including:

  • «Priazovsky Rabochy» («Priazovsky worker»)
  • «Mariupolskaya Zhizn» («Mariupol life»)
  • «Mariupolskaya Nedelya» («Mariupol week»)
  • «Ilyichevets»
  • «Azovstalets»
  • «Azovsky Moryak» («Azov Seaman»)
  • «Azovsky Mashinostroitel» («Azov Machine-builder») etc.

12 wireless stations, 7 regional television companies and channels:

  • Broadcasting Company «Sigma»
  • Broadcasting Company «MTV» («Mariupol television»)
  • Broadcasting Company «TV 7»
  • Broadcasting Company «Inter-Mariupol»
  • Broadcasting Company «Format» and others

Retransmitting about 15 state channels («Inter», «1+1», «STB», «NTN», «5 Channel», «ICTV», «First National TV», «New Channel», TV Company «Ukraina», etc.)

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Beach in Mariupol

A tourists interest of mainly coast of Sea of Azov. Around of city the strip of resort settlements was pulled: Melekino, Urzuf, Yalta, Sedovo, Bezymennoye, Sopino, Belosaray Kosa etc. Travel companies work («Azov-voyag-tour», «Azovintur»,«Limpopo» and others).

The first sanatoriums are opened in a city in 1926. Along a sea here during 16 the narrow bar of sandy beaches stretches to the one km. Temperature of water in summer 22–24 °C (72–75 °F). Duration of bathing season 120 days.

Sports[edit]

A football match in progress in Illichivets Stadium.

Mariupol is the hometown of the nationally famous swimmer Oleksandr Sydorenko who lives in the city.

The city's steel industry (Ilyich Steel & Iron Works ) sponsors the Illichivets football club, with a great sport traditions and a history of participation at the European level competitions.

Water polo team «Ilyichevets» is the absolute champion of Ukraine. It has won the Ukrainian championship for 11 times. Every year it plays in the European Champion Cup and Russian championship.

Azovstal' Canoeing Club on the river Kalmius. Vitaly Yepishkin – 3rd place in World Cup on 200m K-2.

Azovmash Basketball Club similarly to "Ilichevets" Water-polo club has numerous national champion's titles. Serious successes were obtained as well by the Mariupol schools of boxing, Greek-Roman fighting, artistic gymnastics and other types of sport.

Sport building of city (only 585):

  • «Ilyichevets» stadium
  • «Azovstal» sports complex
  • «Azovets» stadium (in the past the «Locomotive»)
  • «Azovmash» sports complex
  • «Sadko» Sports complex
  • «Vodnik» Sports complex
  • «Neptune» public pool
  • «Azovstal» chess club etc.

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Mariupol

81 general educational establishment work, including: 67 comprehensive schools (where 48 500 pupils study), 2 grammar schools, 3 lyceums, 4 evening replaceable schools, 3 boarding schools, 2 private schools, 11 professional educational institutions (6 274 pupils), 94 children's preschool establishments (12 700 children).

Three higher educational establishments:

Public organizations[edit]

There are about 300 public associations, including 22 trade-union organisations, representation about 40 political parties, 16 youth, 4 female organizations, 37 associations of veterans and invalids, 134 national & cultural societies.

There is a General Consulate of the Republic of Greece in as well as the Republic of Cyprus in Mariupol.

Health service[edit]

There are 70 medical, medical-health and medical establishments in a city — hospitals, policlinics, the station of blood transfusion, station of urgent medicare, sanatoriums, sanatoriums-preventive clinics regional centre of social maintenance of pensionaries and invalids, city centers: gastroenterology, thoracal surgery, bleedings, pancreatic, microsurgery of eye. Central pool-hospital on a water-carriage etc.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Collection of laws and orders of the Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine. "Radianske Budivnytstvo i Pravo". State archives. February 29, 1932
  2. ^ List of cities in Ukraine – List of cities in Ukraine
  3. ^ [1] - All-Ukrainian population census '2001
  4. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України" (in Ukrainian). State Service of Statistics. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/365548/Mariupol
  6. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. “A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples,” p. 197
  7. ^ Wilson, Andrew. “The Donbas between Ukraine and Russia: The Use of History in Political Disputes,” Journal of Contemporary History 1995 30: 265 “
  8. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. “A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples,” p. 197.
  9. ^ Verenikin, V. Yet how old is our city? Vecherniy Mariupol Newspaper website.
  10. ^ Plotnikov, S. Mariupol icon of Theotakos "Hodegetria". Saint-Trinity Temple of Mariupol website. 9 August 2012
  11. ^ Dzhuvaha, V. One of the first deportation of the Empire. How Crimean Greeks populated Wild Fields. Ukrayinska Pravda. 17 February 2011
  12. ^ John P. McKay (1970). Pioneers for profit; foreign entrepreneurship and Russian industrialization, 1885-1913. University of Chicago Press. pp. 170, 230, 393. 
  13. ^ Blair, David (10 May 2014) Ukraine: Security forces abandon Mariupol ahead of referendum Telegraph.co.uk.
  14. ^ http://www.president.gov.ua/en/news/30513.html
  15. ^ Kisilier, Maxim, Is Rumeíka a Pontic or a Northern Greek Dialect? 
  16. ^ The First General Census of the Russian Empire of 1897.
  17. ^ Kissilier, Maxim, ed. (2009), Language and Ethno-Cultural Situation in Greek Villages of Azov Region, St. Petersburg . The work is based on field research in the Greek villages in Mariupolis region. The expeditions were carried out in 2001–2004 and were organised by St. Petersburg State University
  18. ^ a b "City's Economy in H1 2009" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
  19. ^ "City's Economy in 2006" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  20. ^ "City's Economy in 2007" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  21. ^ "City's Economy in 2008" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  22. ^ "Mariupol Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 

External links[edit]

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