The Russian–Circassian War
was the period of hostilities between the Russian Empire
and the inhabitants of Circassia
during the Russian invasion and occupation of the Circassian region. Circassia was a region in Caucasia
which consisted of the coastline and most of the interior of the current territory of Krasnodar Krai
. The historical region, now mainly North Ossetia–Alania
, was named after the traditional inhabitants, the Circassians
or Adiga, along with a number of smaller ethnic groups and tribes. The Russian–Circassian conflict began with the initial arrival of Russian occupation forces in 1763, and ended with the signing of several Russian loyalty oaths by Circassian leaders on June 2, 1864 (May 21
). While the Russian–Circassian War began as an isolated conflict, Russian expansion through the entire region soon brought it into conflict with a number of other nations in what later became known as the Caucasian War
, and of which the Russian–Circassian War became a part. Both came to an end with the signing of the loyalty oaths to Russia, and with the total occupation of the region by Russian forces, which involved the mass migration of millions of indigenous Circassians to areas of the Ottoman Empire
), with some Circassian historians citing that up to 4,000,000 civilians perished during the exodus.
Wreckage of the RMS Titanic's bow as seen from the Russian submersible MIR I. The shipwreck had been underwater for just under 95 years at the time of the photo, and has decayed considerably. It was discovered in 1985 at a depth of 12,500 feet (3800 m), 13 nmi (24 km) from where the Titanic was originally thought to rest. The bow section, which had split from the stern, had embedded itself more than 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor and was mostly intact.
Visits by tourists in submersibles and the recovery of artifacts are hastening the decay of the wreck. It is estimated that the hull and structure of the ship may collapse to the ocean floor within the next 50 years.