Blessing of same-sex unions in Christian churches

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The blessing of same-sex marriages and same-sex unions is an issue about which Christian churches are in ongoing disagreement. These disagreements are primarily centered on the interpretation of various scripture passages related to homosexuality, and in some churches on varying understandings of homosexuality in terms of psychology, genetics and other scientific data. While various Church bodies have widely varying practices and teachings, individual Christians of every major tradition are involved in practical (orthopraxy) discussions about how to respond to the issue.

Terminology[edit]

Blessing of a same-sex union

Theological differences between support and opposition[edit]

Views of those who support same-sex unions and/or marriages[edit]

Those Christians and Churches which support blessing of same-sex unions do so from several perspectives:

  • It is an affirmative good that stands alongside straight marriage and committed monastic celibacy as a revelation of God's self in the world.[1]
  • The logical coherence of the core Christian doctrines such as the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection and the Ascension is improved through the integration of gay marriage into the Christian conception of marriage.[1]
  • Our understanding of marriage as a metaphor of Christ’s relationship with the Church is strengthened by assimilating gay marriage into that metaphor.[1]
  • Some scholars maintain that scripture in the original languages contains no prohibition of homosexuality, but does record same-sex marriage.[2] "But if we take a closer look, reading the scripture in the original Hebrew and Greek, we discover that God never condemned homosexuality, and that same-sex marriage existed in Bible times." [3] "To tell a homosexual that the Bible is Good News, (but that) it says that their ability to love on a one to one basis (mate level) means they are sinful and perverted in God's eyes is a gross contradiction in terms. What's more, God is not saying this to gay people. God's Word is this: For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16, KJV). And that is the Good News for modern gays." [4]
  • The biblic references to homosexuality were uttered in the context of promiscuous same-sex practices of Hellenistic cultures (Paul) and cultures surrounding the people of Israel (Deut). This kind of sex without love was often practiced in lieu of going to female prostitutes, also by heterosexual men. It is a discriminating misconception of our times to transfer that prohibition of such promiscuous practice without love to what we discuss here: durable, long term, choosy same-sex unions.[5]

Churches favorable to same-sex union and/or same-sex marriage[edit]

Episcopalian polities[edit]

Anglicanism[edit]

In 2004, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, asked the Lambeth Commission on Communion to produce a report looking into the legal and theological implications flowing from decisions related to homosexuality that were apparently threatening the Anglican Communion, including decisions relating to the blessing of same-sex unions. Once published the Windsor Report led to the calling by the Lambeth Commission for a moratorium on the blessing of same-sex unions, and recommended that bishops who have authorised such rites in the United States and Canada "be invited to express regret that the proper constraints of the bonds of affection were breached by such authorisation." The report was roundly condemned by supporters of the gay and lesbian community, as well as by a number of theologians for its partiality.[6][7]

Anglican Church of Canada[edit]

The General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in 2004 voted to defer a decision of same-sex blessings until 2007, but also to "Affirm the integrity and sanctity of committed adult same-sex relationships".[8] In 2007, a resolution enabling diocesan bishops to authorize the blessing of same-gender unions narrowly failed, but a statement adopted by General Synod in 2010 "acknowledge[d] diverse pastoral practices as dioceses respond to their own missional contexts,"[need quotation to verify]effectively devolving decisions about blessings to local dioceses.

The Anglican Church of Canada does not distinguish theologically between a marriage solemnized in church and a civil marriage subsequently blessed by a priest. Currently, three dioceses – New Westminster, Niagara, and Montréal – extend the blessing of civil marriages to same-sex couples. Procedures for blessings are in development in Ottawa and Toronto. In 2010 the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada voted to study a proposal to bless only those marriages that have been civilly registered, even where marriage is reserved to heterosexual couples, abrogating the role of clergy as delegates of the provincial registrar altogether.

The blessing of same-sex unions became a subject of media attention in the Vancouver area in May, 2003 when Bishop Michael Ingham of the Anglican Diocese of New Westminster announced that he had given priests in some parishes the authority to bless gay and lesbian unions.[8] Bishop Ingham issued a rite of blessing of people in committed same-sex unions on May 23, 2003.[9] This was done in response to requests by three consecutive Diocesan Synods, culminating in June, 2002. The diocese considers that the blessing of same-sex couples is one part of their work of community outreach and care for parishioners. The blessing is a way that some priests use to ensure that homosexual people who seek to be included in the Anglican Communion feel safe and respected.[10]The blessing is a “pastoral tool”.[10] Some priests in some parishes (six out of 80) bless permanent faithful relationships. Permission is granted by the bishop only when a priest requests it, and a parish has decided by majority vote, that they want to be a place of blessing. Ingham says of the practice: I insist only that those on all sides of the issue respect one another and that everyone should maintain the order of the church. Our goal in the Anglican Church in the Greater Vancouver area is to be a church that accommodates differences.[10]

In 2009, the Anglican Diocese of Niagara in southwestern Ontario became the second diocese to authorize the blessing of same-sex unions when Bishop Michael Bird approved a gender-neutral rite for the blessing of civil marriages. The rite will be permitted for use in consultation with the diocesan bishop beginning September 1, 2009.[11]

In 2009, the Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Ottawa authorized the blessing of same-sex unions in a single parish: the Church of St John the Evangelist. Rather than issuing a specific rite, Bishop Chapman authorized an existing rite already in use for the blessing of civil marriages between opposite-sex couples.[12]

In 2010, the Rt Rev'd Barry Clarke, Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal, authorized the blessing of same-sex unions. He issued a rite and guidelines to permit the blessing of civil marriages regardless of the gender of the spouses. The rite had been adapted from an existing rite already in use for the blessing of civil marriages between opposite-sex couples.[13]

A limited number of parishes in the Anglican Diocese of Toronto have been authorized to bless same-sex unions. Rather than crafting a specific rite of blessing, the Archbishop of Toronto issued guidelines setting rules and restrictions on blessings. Blessings must not resemble too closely a marriage rite, with the specific proviso that no form of blessing used for marriage in the official rites of the Anglican Church of Canada or other parts of the Anglican Communion may be used with same-sex couples.[14]

Episcopal Church of the USA[edit]

At its 2006 General Convention the Episcopal Church rejected a resolution allowing the solemnization of same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, where same-sex marriage is recognized by civil law.

In July 2009, the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America adopted a resolution allowing individual bishops to choose whether or not to allow the blessing of same-sex unions within their bishoprics. The resolution was seen as a compromise between those who call for an official rite for the blessing of same-sex unions, and those who oppose any recognition of such unions. However, the resolution also left the door open for the creation of such an official rite in the future, calling on bishops to "collect and develop theological and liturgical resources" for possible use for such a purpose at the 2012 General Convention.[15][16]

On July 9, 2012, the Episcopal Church passed a resolution approving an official liturgy for blessing same-sex unions. This liturgy, called “The Witnessing and Blessing of a Lifelong Covenant” offers a blessing close to marriage, but the church is clear that it is not marriage. According to Rev. Ruth Meyers, chairwoman of the Standing Commission on Liturgy and Music, “There are a lot of similarities. The couple give their consent to being joined in lifelong commitment, they exchange vows. There’s the possibility of exchanging rings, or, for couples who have been together for some time and already have rings, to have their rings blessed. There is a blessing over the couple. But we’re clear at this point that this is not a marriage because the Episcopal Church is not in agreement in its understanding of marriage.” The resolution enables priests to bestow the church’s blessing on gay couples even if they live in a state where same-sex marriage is illegal; however, bishops who do not approve of the liturgy can prohibit their priests from using it. The resolution is provisional and will be reviewed in three years.[17]

England[edit]

In 2013, Church of England indicated that it plans the blessing of same-sex unions.[18] It is, however, forbidden by law to conduct same-sex marriages within its churches.

Old Catholic, Reformed Catholic Churches and Liberal Catholic Church[edit]

Four churches of the Union of Utrecht, which shares full communion with the Anglican Churches through the Bonn Agreement, also permit such blessings: namely, Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (the mother church) permits blessings of gay civil marriages, and the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland,[19] and Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany permit blessings of homosexual civil unions. The Old Catholic Church of Austria also permits such blessings. Because of this (as well as the ordination of women), the Polish National Catholic Church (USA) seceded from the Union in 2004.

Many smaller denominations, such as the Eucharistic Catholic Church, the Old Catholic Church (in Sweden)[20] and TOCCUSA[21] also solemnize same-sex marriages.

Church of Sweden and Denmark[edit]

The Lutheran Church of Sweden has performed full same-sex marriages beginning since November 2009. It previously blessed same-sex couples using a different ceremony.[22]

In November 2011, the Government of Denmark announced that there will be same-sex religious marriage available in the Church of Denmark as part of the broader legislative move to recognise same sex marriage[23] A similar debate is currently underway in the Church of Iceland following legislation to permit same sex marriage in Iceland.[24]


Argentina[edit]

The Danish Church in Buenos Aires performs marriages between same-sex couples.[25] In late 2006, the tabernacle performed the first religious wedding between a lesbian couple in Latin America.[26]

Austria[edit]

Canada[edit]

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada has permitted the blessing of same-sex unions since July 2011. The Lutheran Church–Canada does not permit the blessing of same-sex unions. The LC-C stance is consonant with that of its American sister church, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

The governing council of The United Church of Canada welcomes same-sex marriage, but individual United Church congregations are responsible for making decisions locally. Marriages are performed with the permission and under the responsibility of the local congregation.[28]

Denmark[edit]

The Church of Denmark (in full communion with the Anglican Churches of the British Isles through the Porvoo Communion) performs blessings of same-sex couples.[29]

Germany[edit]

In addition, many Lutheran, United and Reformed churches within the Evangelical Church in Germany[30]

Iceland[edit]

Within the Church of Iceland, the blessing of same-sex couples are allowed.

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Sweden[edit]

The Church of Sweden performs blessings of same-sex couples.[29] Following the legalization of same-sex marriage in Sweden in May 2009, the Church of Sweden decided in October 2009 to start conducting same-sex weddings in their churches.[47]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 2011, the United Reformed Church allowed blessings of same-sex couples.[48]

United States[edit]

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America began officially allowing blessings of same-sex couples in late August, 2009—though there were no explicit prohibitions before this point. Studies and dialogue had been under way during the past decade and continued until the 2009 Churchwide Assembly, during which the ELCA passed a resolution by a vote of 619–402 reading “Resolved, that the ELCA commit itself to finding ways to allow congregations that choose to do so to recognize, support and hold publicly accountable lifelong, monogamous, same-gender relationships.”[49] That Assembly also affirmed that sexual orientation, in itself, is not to be a qualification or exclusion for ordained ministry.[50] As marriage policy is a congregation matter in the ELCA, same-sex partnership blessings and marriages had been performed by many Lutheran pastors prior to the 2009 actions. In 1993 the ELCA Conference of Bishops stated it did not approve of such ceremonies, but made no comment about same-sex marriage. (The Conference of Bishops is an advisory body of the ELCA.)[51]

Lutheran congregations which so choose may register their public affirmation for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people may register with Lutherans Concerned/North America, a church advocacy group, as "Reconciling in Christ."[52] This registry includes not only congregations, but synods, organizations, Lutheran colleges, campus ministries, social ministry institutions, Lutheran health care organizations, campus ministries, church colleges, regional synods and districts, and other groups which openly welcome gays and lesbians in their communities. The national Lutheran organization which advocates for equality for gays and lesbians inside and outside the church is known as "Lutherans concerned North America".[53] Founded in 1974 Local chapters are found throughout the USA and Canada.

Presbyterian polities[edit]

Church of Scotland[edit]

The 2006 General Assembly of the Church of Scotland voted that blessing civil partnerships should be a matter of conscience for individual ministers. Conservatives in the Kirk argued that the reform would have to be ratified by local presbyteries.[54] When the 45 Presbyteries were consulted, only nine voted in favour of allowing ministers to bless civil-partnered (same-sex) couples, and the remaining 36 were against the innovation. Therefore, it was defeated, and is due to be addressed again at the 2013 General Assembly. At its 2011 General Assembly, the Church of Scotland voted to allow openly gay and lesbian Ministers and Diaconal ministers who live in civil unions, provided that they were already ordained and had declared their sexuality before the Scott Rennie case on 23 May 2009. There remains, however, a Moratorium (legal term for a ban) on accepting those in same-sex relationships for training, ordination or induction into the Ministry or Diaconate, which may be lifted by the General Assembly of 2013.[55] When asked to respond to the Scottish Government's consultation on same-sex marriage, the Church's Legal Questions Committee submitted a response which upheld a biblical and traditional understanding of marriage as a voluntary lifelong union between one man and one woman (December 2011). After this, the Church's first openly gay minister, Revd. Scott Rennie, claimed to the press that such ostracisation of homosexuals will empty churches.[56]

Presbyterian Church in Ireland[edit]

The presbyterian church in Ireland is strongly opposed to same sex marriage. [57]

Presbyterian Church (USA)[edit]

The Presbyterian Church USA General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commission (PJC) has ruled that same-sex ceremonies are not forbidden, as long as they are not considered to be the same as marriage services.[58] The subject continues to be a matter of some debate. In 2000, the General Assembly approved the following language for the church Constitution: “Scripture and our Confessions teach that God’s intention for all people is to live either in fidelity within the covenant of marriage between a man and a woman or in chastity in singleness. Church property shall not be used for, and church officers shall not take part in conducting, any ceremony or event that pronounces blessing or gives approval of the church or invokes the blessing of God upon any relationship that is inconsistent with God’s intention as expressed in the preceding sentence.” The presbyteries of the PC(USA) however, did not ratify the language by a majority vote in the following year, so this language was not added.

On June 19th, 2014, the 221st General Assembly passed constitutional amendments changing the definition of marriage in the Directory for Worship to "two persons.[59]" This amendment is, however, still pending ratification by the presbyteries. The General Assembly also passed an Authoritative Interpretation permitting pastors to sign marriage licences for same gender couples where permitted by civil law. This provision takes immediate effect.[60]

Connexional polities[edit]

Methodism[edit]

In 2005, the Methodist Church of Great Britain voted to allow a local option for ministers who wish to perform same-sex blessings, with a Church spokesperson stating that “We have decided, with the law changing in December, we as a Church need to provide guidance to our ministers, who will be allowed to take an individual decision as to whether or not they want to bless gay couples.”[61] However, in 2006, the Church reversed itself and prohibited the blessing of same-sex unions on or off church property.[62] Ministers are still at liberty to offer informal, private prayers for such couples.

The United Methodist Church currently prohibits celebrations of same-sex unions by its elders and in its churches.[63] However, in May 2011 a resolution was passed in the Baltimore-Washington annual conference which seeks to change the church’s Book of Discipline to be amended “to allow pastors to perform same-sex marriages and ceremonies in member churches in jurisdictions where legislatures already have approved gay marriage laws, such as the District.” A vote at the General Conference in 2012 is still required.[64]

Congregational polities[edit]

Baptist Churches[edit]

The Alliance of Baptists has in the past supported the legal right to marry;[65] its position on corollary church services is unclear.

Quakers[edit]

The first recorded same sex marriage by a Quaker meeting in the US was in 1987. In January, 1987, Morningside Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends became the first Quaker Meeting to take a same-sex marriage (using the word marriage, rather than "commitment ceremony") under its care with the marriage of John Bohne and William McCann on May 30, 1987.[66]

Same-sex couples have been married under the care of many "unprogrammed" Quaker meetings in Canada since 1992.[67] In Australia, Canberra Quaker meeting celebrated the marriage of two gay men on 15 April 2007.[68][69][70][71] Australian Quakers are prepared to celebrate same-sex marriages despite the lack of legal recognition.[72] See Quaker views of homosexuality

In 2009, the Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man decided to authorise same-sex marriage, having previously performed blessings for same-sex civil partnerships.[73][74] In Australia, the 2010 Yearly Meeting called on the Federal Government to amend the Australian Marriage Act to give full and equal legal recognition to all marriages, regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the partners. Australlian Quakers had been blessing same-sex unions since 1994.[75] The Canada Yearly Meeting stated in 2003 that Canadian Quakers "support the right of same-sex couples to a civil marriage and the extension of the legal definition of marriage to include same-sex couples." [76] Since then a number of same-sex marriages have been performed at Canadian Monthly Meetings. In New Zealand, the Aotearoa Quaker Meeting in 1995 pledged “to seek formal ways of recognizing a variety of commitments, including gay and lesbian partnerships.” [77]

United Church of Christ[edit]

Varies by church. The General Synod of the United Church of Christ has passed a resolution affirming "equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender and declares that the government should not interfere with couples regardless of gender who choose to marry and share fully and equally in the rights, responsibilities and commitment of legally recognized marriage".[78] At its 25th General Synod in 2005, the UCC passed the resolution, "Equal Marriage Rights for All".[79] However, the polity of the UCC is congregationalist, so of each church has a different way of operating. (The General Synod does not have authority over Local Churches to determine or enforce denominational doctrine)[80]

Canadian Unitarian Council[edit]

Canadian Unitarian churches perform same-sex marriage as well.[81]

Unitarian Universalist Association[edit]

Unitarian Universalists perform same-sex marriages, and have supported marriage equality since 1973,[82] reaffirming with a formal resolution in 1996.[83]

Metropolitan Community Church[edit]

The predominantly gay Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches performs same-sex marriages.[84]

Mennonite Church[edit]

The Mennonite Church in the Netherlands offers marriage to both heterosexual and same-gender couples.[85]

Pentecostalism[edit]

Most Pentecostal churches do not affirm gay marriage. [86]

The Affirming Pentecostal Church International and the Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals are US based denominations of Oneness Pentecostals that will perform weddings for both heterosexual and same-sex couples.[87]

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)[edit]

In mainline Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) blessing of same-sex unions are allowed.[88][89]

Mixed-polity and other polity[edit]

Moravian Church (North America)[edit]

The Moravian Church in North America's Northern Province has passed several liberal resolutions on homosexuality, but has not yet been able to "address the issue of a marriage covenant between homosexual persons".[90]

Swedenborgianism[edit]

The Swedenborgian Church of North America allows ministers to choose whether to perform same-sex marriages.[91]

Uniting Church in Australia[edit]

In Australia the Uniting Church in Australia allows blessing of same-sex unions.[92]

Protestant Church in the Netherlands[edit]

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands has chosen not to address marriage in its post-merger canon law; however, the by-laws of the church allow for the blessing of relationships outside of marriage.[93]

United Church[edit]

Due to its "local option", a number of congregations and ministers of the United Church of Canada (a merger of Congregationalist, Presbyterian and Methodist congregations in Canada following presbyterian polity) officiate at same-sex marriages, which are fully legal in Canada.

New Apostolic Church[edit]

Since 2011 in Europe the New Apostolic Church allows blessings in a prayer for same-sex unions.[94]

Debate on the meaning of 'Blessing'[edit]

By nature of this religious understanding of marriage, when churches use the term "Union" in a same-sex blessing ceremony, they may or may not be blessing this union in an equivalent way as they would bless a "marriage" as opposed to blessing the commitment between the two individuals. Some Christian bodies are exploring the manner in which same-sex couples could or should be blessed (or not) by the church.[95] Because same-sex religious unions are not widespread and because civil unions do not require religious officiation, documentation of the incidence of church blessing of same-sex couples is difficult.

Roman Catholic Church[edit]

During the 1990s, a discussion began in the Roman Catholic Church about blessings for same-sex unions. In the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen in Germany, five same-sex unions received a blessing in German town of Mönchengladbach.[96] In 2007, one same-sex union received a blessing in German town of Wetzlar in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg.[97]

Churches with no policy on the unions[edit]

The United Church of Christ has no formal rules requiring or prohibiting solemnization of wedding vows, but owing to its Congregational polity and constitution,[98] each Local Church is "autonomous in the management of its own affairs" and has the "right to operate in the way customary to it"; it cannot be "abridge[d] or impair[ed]" by other UCC agencies, and so each congregation has the freedom to bless or prohibit any kind of marriage or relationship in whatever way they discern appropriate. Thus a congregation may choose at their discretion to solemnise same-sex marriages, to bless same-sex unions, or refuse to perform any ceremony for same-sex couples, or refuse to perform any kind of marriage for anyone. There are no available statistics on how many UCC congregations solemnize same-sex relationships, but there are documented cases where this happens[99] and documented cases where congregations have taken stands against marriage between same-gender couples.[100]

See also[edit]

List of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality LGBT-affirming religious groups

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Institute for Progressive Christianity (instituteforprogressivechristianity.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=36) link inactive as of 2008-05-10
  2. ^ Hope Remains
  3. ^ Gay and Christian? Yes!, pp. 1–70, Rev. William H. Carey, 2006, 2008 Lulu.com
  4. ^ Good News for Modern Gays, pp. 1–213, Rev. Sylvia Pennington, 1985 Lambda Lite Productions
  5. ^ Streitfall Liebe - Biblische Plädoyers wider die Ausgrenzung homosexuelller Menschen, Valeria Hinck, Mering : Pro-Literatur-Verlag 2007 http://d-nb.info/984453415
  6. ^ The Windsor Report was the subject of a special issue of the Anglican Theological Review (Volume 87, no. 4, 2005), which contained sharp criticism, historical analysis, and more appreciative articles from a broad spectrum of theologians.
  7. ^ "The Lambeth Commission on Communion". Anglican Communion. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  8. ^ a b Colin Coward (11 June 2004). "Canadian Church defers blessing decision and affirms adult same-sex relationships". Changing Attitude – Anglican Communion News. Retrieved 2007-05-13. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Chronology of Actions taken by the Anglican Church Of Canada & the Diocese of New Westminster in regard to the Issue of Same-Sex Unions". Diocese of New Westminster (Anglican). Retrieved 2007-05-13. [dead link]
  10. ^ a b c Michael Ingham, Bishop. "Welcome from the Bishop". Diocese of New Westminster (Anglican). Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  11. ^ Marites N. Sison, Staff Writer. "Diocese of Niagara to Offer Same-Sex Blessings". Anglican Journal. Retrieved 2011-09-03. [dead link]
  12. ^ John Chapman, Bishop. "Same-Gender Blessings - Excerpt from the Bishop's Charge to Synod 2009". Montreal Anglican. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  13. ^ Staff. "Bishop approves liturgy for blessing civil marriages". Montreal Anglican. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  14. ^ College of Bishops. "Pastoral Guidelines for the Blessing of Same Gender Commitments". Anglican Diocese of Toronto. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  15. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (2009-07-16). "Episcopal Bishops Give Ground on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ "Gays make advances at Episcopal confab". Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (2012-07-10). "Episcopalians Approve Rite to Bless Same-Sex Unions". The New York Times. 
  18. ^ Advocate.com:Church England plans blessing gay couples
  19. ^ Christkatholiken: Segnung für homosexuelle Paare (German)[dead link]
  20. ^ "Nu även för nya katoliker". Gammalkatolik.se. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  21. ^ "same-gender couples are welcome to celebrate the sacrament of matrimony". 
  22. ^ Sweden church allows gay weddings
  23. ^ Copenhagen Post, 23 November 2011: http://www.cphpost.dk/news/national/88-national/52556-church-weddings-for-gays-proposed.html
  24. ^ Name *. "Making gay life in Iceland richer". Star Observer. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  25. ^ Jastreblansky, Maia (2 June 2010). "Una iglesia bendice a parejas gays que quieren dar el sí ante Dios" [A church blesses gay couples who want to marry before God]. La Nación (in Spanish) (Buenos Aires). Retrieved 25 July 2012. "Sin embargo, no todas las iglesias protestantes tienen la misma postura. Este es el caso de los luteranos daneses, en cuyos templos se bendicen las uniones de parejas de un mismo sexo y desde la que que se apoya el casamiento gay en la Argentina. De hecho, en Buenos Aires, el pastor Andrés Roberto Albertsen, celebró de manera religiosa cinco uniones civiles entre personas de un mismo sexo y espera hacer lo mismo con los casamientos, en el caso de que sean habilitados en materia civil." 
  26. ^ Jastreblansky, Maia (2 June 2010). "Una iglesia bendice a parejas gays que quieren dar el sí ante Dios" [A church blesses gay couples who want to marry before God]. La Nación (in Spanish) (Buenos Aires). Retrieved 25 July 2012. "Cuando en la ciudad de Buenos Aires se sancionó la ley de la unión civil de parejas homosexuales, adoptaron la misma postura que con el matrimonio civil heterosexual y, sin haberlo buscado, realizaron la primera ceremonia religiosa por la unión entre dos lesbianas de América latina. Aquel acontecimiento tuvo lugar a fines de 2006, cuando Virgina Cortés y Jessica Schmukler sellaron su amor de manera espiritual." 
  27. ^ HuK
  28. ^ "Sexual Orientation | The United Church of Canada". United-church.ca. 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  29. ^ a b queer:Homoehen in schwedischen Kirchen (German)
  30. ^ HUK (german)
  31. ^ EKHN[dead link]
  32. ^ Protestant Church of Bremen[dead link]
  33. ^ Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick[dead link]
  34. ^ North Elbian Evangelical Church
  35. ^ Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg[dead link]
  36. ^ Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (german)
  37. ^ EKVW:Lebenspartnerschaften[dead link] (german)
  38. ^ Protestant Church of the Palatinate (german)[dead link]
  39. ^ EKVW[dead link]
  40. ^ Mitteldeutsche Zeitung:Gleichgeschlechtliche Paare können Verbindung segnen lassen (german)
  41. ^ Evangelical Church in Central Germany (german)
  42. ^ Wiesbadener Tagblatt:Synode billigt Segnung homosexueller Paare (german)[dead link]
  43. ^ Osthessen-News:Synode für öffentliche Segnung von Paaren in eingetragenen Lebenspartnerschaft
  44. ^ Grafschafter Nachrichten:Die Kirche hat ein Zeichen gesetzt
  45. ^ Protestantchurch
  46. ^ Norway Moves To Legalize Gay Marriage[dead link]
  47. ^ Church of Sweden says yes to gay marriage, The Local.
  48. ^ United Reformed Church:United Reformed Church votes to host same-sex civil partnerships
  49. ^ Brief Summary of Actions, Eleventh ELCA Churchwide Assembly[dead link]
  50. ^ ELCA:Faithfuljourney
  51. ^ Later ELCA Assemblies Address Hunger, Stewardship, Sexuality
  52. ^ LC/NA: Reconciling in Christ Participants
  53. ^ Lutherans Concerned/North America
  54. ^ Hamilton, Fiona (2006-05-28). "Row over samesex marriage rages on". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  55. ^ "Special Commission on Same-Sex Relationships and the Ministry - Frequently Asked Questions". The Church of Scotland. 
  56. ^ "Church of Scotland 2012 General Assembly: Gay marriage to expose Kirk divisions". Scotland on Sunday. 20 May 2012. 
  57. ^ https://www.presbyterianireland.org/News/Article/2013-(1)/Presbyterians-Make-Clear-Their-Opposition-To-Same?feed=cfd8e3f5-88c6-46c8-9f48-6f31a698b9b7
  58. ^ wfn.org | [PCUSANEWS] Austin pastor won't be tried on gay 'marriage' accusation
  59. ^ http://www.pc-biz.org/PC-Biz.WebApp_deploy/(S(zbcely2njokyzcp51e0oharv))/IOBView.aspx?m=ro&id=4593
  60. ^ http://www.pc-biz.org/PC-Biz.WebApp_deploy/(S(zbcely2njokyzcp51e0oharv))/IOBView.aspx?m=ro&id=4599
  61. ^ Gledhill, Ruth (1 July 2005). "Methodists (in UK) will bless gays". The Times (of London) (News Corporation). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  62. ^ "British Methodists reject blessing of same-sex relationships". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2007-09-08. [dead link]
  63. ^ "What is the denomination’s position on homosexuality?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  64. ^ Pink News, May 2011 http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2011/06/01/united-methodist-church-votes-in-favour-of-same-sex-resolution/
  65. ^ Same Sex Union
  66. ^ Leuze, Sarah (May 2002). "Morningside Meeting: A Historical Sketch". Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  67. ^ [1][dead link]
  68. ^ Canberra Quakers: Newsletter of the Religious Society of Friends Canberra Region, May 2007, p2
  69. ^ First Quaker gay marriage in Australia
  70. ^ Australian Quakers and homosexuality[dead link]
  71. ^ Gay and lesbian people in the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Australia[dead link]
  72. ^ Quakers call for legal recognition of same sex marriages
  73. ^ Guardian:Quakers make the right decision
  74. ^ "Quakers 'to allow gay marriages'". BBC News. 2009-07-30. 
  75. ^ Canadian Friends Service Committee (Quakers). "Letter to Members of the House of Commons and of the Senate". Retrieved 07/10/2012.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  76. ^ Religious Tolerance.org. "Statements by the Society of Friends (Quakers)". Retrieved 07/10/2012.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  77. ^ http://www.ucc.org/assets/pdfs/2005-equal-marriage-rights-for-all-1.pdf
  78. ^ "Marriage Equality". Ucc.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  79. ^ UCC Constitution and Bylaws. Paragraph 9 in Article V (Local churches) of the UCC Constitution states that "The basic unit of the life and organization of the United Church of Christ is the Local Church." Paragraph 18 in the same article enshrines local church autonomy, and says: "Nothing in this constitution and the Bylaws of the United Church of Christ shall destroy or limit the right of each Local Church to continue to operate in the way customary to it; nor shall be construed as giving to the General Synod, or to any Conference or Association now, or at any future time, the power to abridge or impair the autonomy of any Local Church in the management of its own affairs."
  80. ^ Weddings | Canadian Unitarian Council
  81. ^ UUA: Marriage Equality
  82. ^ UUA: Support of the Right to Marry for Same-Sex Couples – 1996 Resolution of Immediate of Witness
  83. ^ MCC:Marriage=Equality[dead link]
  84. ^ [2][dead link]
  85. ^ "Otherwise, their beliefs and practices are similar to those of other conservative Christians. They strongly oppose abortion access, equality for sexual minorities, and same-sex marriage."
  86. ^ GAAAP
  87. ^ Welt.de:Lesbisches Paar heiratet nach 72 Jahren (german)
  88. ^ Queer.de:Zum Heiraten ist es nie zu spät (german)
  89. ^ [3][dead link]
  90. ^ Swedenborg.org[dead link]
  91. ^ UnitingNetworkAustralia
  92. ^ ProtestantChurch.nl, the Church's official website
  93. ^ NAK:Segensgebet für eingetragene Partnerschaften (german)
  94. ^ Report to the General Convention on the Blessing of Same-Sex Relationships[dead link]
  95. ^ Spiegel:Riskanter Segen für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare (German)
  96. ^ Frankfurter Rundschau:Dakan muß gehen wegen Trauung eines homosexuellen Paares (German)
  97. ^ See http://www.ucc.org/aboutus/constitution.htm#LOCAL
  98. ^ [4][dead link]
  99. ^ See http://www.southernconrenew.org/lex%20confession.html

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]