Box office bomb
The term box office bomb or flop generally refers to a film that is viewed as highly unsuccessful or unprofitable during its theatrical run, sometimes preceding hype regarding its cost, production, or marketing efforts. To earn this dubious distinction, the film must also fail to earn more than the reported cost of its production, distribution, and marketing by a wide margin.
Gauging the financial success of a film is difficult, and because there is no definitive definition, what makes a box-office bomb can be very subjective. Not all films that fail to earn back their estimated costs during their theatrical runs are bombs, and the label is generally applied to films that miss earnings projections by a wide margin, particularly when they are very expensive to produce, and sometimes in conjunction with middling or poor reviews (though critical reception has an imperfect connection to box office performance).
- 1 Possible success of flops
- 2 Studios pushed into financial ruin
- 3 Causes of a film's failure
- 4 Examples
- 5 Independent films
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Possible success of flops
If a studio recoups the production and marketing costs of a film, then it can be considered a success. Otherwise, if it does not do so by a significant margin, it is referred to as a box office bomb, even though international distribution, sales to television syndication, and home video releases often mean some films that are considered flops in North America eventually make a profit for their studios. Waterworld is an example of a movie that does not appear on lists of box office bombs, despite enormous budget overruns, because the film broke even after making huge revenues from foreign box office, rentals, pay-per-view fees, cable outlays, and other revenue streams that exist independently of the North American theatrical system. Head, a 1968 film featuring The Monkees, was a flop that became profitable for its studio years later when its cult film status led to its sale to Rhino Entertainment and its re-release in various video formats. The popularity and profitability of DVD sales has added further opportunities for films to recoup losses and eventually become profitable, leading to doubts over the significance of US domestic grosses as a predictor of a film's overall success.
In 2012 Dredd earned $23,153,028 from international markets and $13,414,714 from North America, for a total of $36,567,742. Dredd was considered a flop on these returns. In the UK it grossed £1.05 million ($1.7 million) from 415 cinemas during its opening weekend. This made it the weekend's number-one film, the first film restricted to audiences over 18 years of age to do so since Saw 3D in 2010. In home media during its first week on sale in the UK, Dredd was the number 1 selling DVD and Blu-ray. During the week of its release in North America, it was the number 1 selling DVD and Blu-ray with approximately 650,000 units sold, and Blu-ray units accounting for nearly 50% of that figure. It was also the best-selling digital download for that period bringing it into profit, and it also sold out from many retailers due to lack of expected sales demand based on the box office performance compared to actual demand for it on home media, showing non box office returns of films is important in considering if a film is a flop.
The Golden Compass, based on the first novel in Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials series, is considered a flop in North America due to its $180 million budget coupled with New Line Cinema's decision to sell all of the international distribution rights, but the unique circumstances of its international success have made the film's overall success a point of contention; it was the first film ever to make more than $300 million internationally but less than $100 million in the United States. New Line studio co-head Michael Lynne (who has since resigned) said, "The jury is still very much out on the movie..."
Different standards of success
Different genres of film are subject to different standards of success. Action movies typically have higher production costs and promotion budgets than romantic movies. Typically, the most notorious flops are attempts at creating summer blockbusters, which often incur enormous production costs in a highly competitive market. The 2004 film Catwoman was released in July of that year to poor reviews, and went on to gross $40,202,379 domestically against a budget of $100 million. Advertising and marketing costs not included in a film's production costs can make a bomb even more harmful to the studio.
Studios pushed into financial ruin
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In extreme cases, a single film's poor performance can push a studio into financial losses, bankruptcy or closure, as happened with RKO Pictures (The Conqueror), United Artists (Heaven's Gate), Carolco Pictures (Cutthroat Island, once listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the biggest box office flop of all time), Fox Animation Studios (Titan A.E.), The Ladd Company (Twice Upon a Time and The Right Stuff), Fleischer Studios (Mr. Bug Goes to Town), and ITC Entertainment (Raise the Titanic). The failure of The Golden Compass was seen as a significant factor in influencing Warner Bros.' decision to take direct control of New Line Cinema.
When a failed attempt to revive a genre is particularly costly, all studios may subsequently balk at producing similar films, as was the case with Gold Circle Films' horror-comedy Slither, which made less than a quarter of its $29.5 million budget. Some failures have changed a company's agenda, such as Walt Disney Pictures' decision to make only computer-animated features, which stemmed from several disappointing traditionally-animated releases, including Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet. (However, this decision was reversed a few years later.) Similarly, Warner Bros. Animation went nearly bankrupt in December 2003 due to the disasters of Cats Don't Dance, Quest for Camelot, Osmosis Jones, and Looney Tunes: Back in Action, but it continues to operate after shifting from theatrical features to television shows; however, recently it has produced some Looney Tunes theatrical shorts. Also, The Jim Henson Company was sold by Jim Henson's children to EM.TV as The Adventures of Elmo in Grouchland and Muppets from Space underperformed commercially, and after the Henson Company was sold back to Henson's children, they have focused primarily on non-Muppet franchises such as Sid the Science Kid and Dinosaur Train since. However, Disney released The Muppets theatrically in 2011 to universal acclaim and major box office success leading to a Sesame Street film revival in the works.
In 2001, Square Pictures released its first film, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, an animated motion picture inspired by the Final Fantasy series of video games. However, despite relatively mixed reviews from critics, it lost over $52 million, and Square Pictures ceased producing feature films. In 2011, Mars Needs Moms which was the last film released by ImageMovers Digital before it got absorbed by ImageMovers to a loss of nearly $140 million—the largest box office loser of all time unadjusted for inflation. Despite this loss, the decision to close the production company had been made a year prior to the film's release.
Causes of a film's failure
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Negative word of mouth
Beginning in the 1980s, cinemas began to drop movies that suffered a poor opening weekend. This made the performance of a film on its opening weekend much more crucial to its perception. With the growth of the Internet during the 1990s, chat rooms and websites enabled negative word of mouth to spread rapidly. The 1998 movie The Siege was originally a critical and commercial failure after Muslim and Arab organizations ridiculed it over its insensitive matter.
A troubled production history is sometimes also the case, as it was with Heaven's Gate, which famously went three months over schedule and saw its budget mushroom from $7.5 million to $36 million. These facts caught the ears of journalists and critics who were refused access to the film's set by director Michael Cimino, and upon its release was abhorred by the American press. (Such a predicament would have occurred for Apocalypse Now had the film not been received so warmly at Cannes.)
Lack of promotional partnership
Promotional partnership is one of the factors in a film's success; however, studios sometimes fail to partner with other companies to promote certain films. When a studio has the ability to promote a film and does not, it may be due to an earlier management team's having left the studio, leaving a new management team uninterested in the project. January is an infamous "dump" timeslot, when films are expected to bomb, and get premiered without fanfare. (January can also be a "counter-programming" month like the months of October and November, though, with lighter films released to compete with more serious films that are up for awards.)
20th Century Fox and Warner Bros. released many animated films but did little to no promotional partnership for them. As a result of the failures from the films produced by both studios' feature animation departments, the WBFA studio shut down after producing Looney Tunes: Back in Action after Fox did so after Titan A.E. Warner's later animated releases, such as The Polar Express and Happy Feet, along with Fox's Ice Age series, Rio, and The Simpsons Movie fared better. The earlier films, however, garnered later praise and cult followings, such as Batman: Mask of the Phantasm and The Iron Giant. Another example of a wide release production failing to see any significant promotion was the animated film Delgo, which despite opening on over 2000 screens, only grossed $694,782 domestically (against a $40 million budget). In certain cases the lack of promotion is due to business circumstances; Cats Don't Dance, a 1997 animated film, made barely a tenth of its budget largely because its production company, Turner Entertainment, was merging with Time Warner while it was released.
The 2006 Mike Judge comedy Idiocracy was delayed repeatedly and eventually opened in only 125 theaters in seven cities, with few trailers, premieres, TV commercials, or press kits. In addition, the film was not screened for critics. This led to speculation that 20th Century Fox was not promoting the film due to its subject matter and its mocking of numerous corporations, including Fox and Fox News Channel themselves; the film later gained a cult following after its DVD release.
Films may attract low ticket sales if they are released against heavy competition from other movies also in theaters at the same time. A notable example of this was 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life. The film was a financial loss for RKO because it was pitted against the highly successful films Miracle on 34th Street and The Best Years of Our Lives. However, it became largely popular during the television era, and is now considered a Christmas classic.
While it is rare, films which might otherwise have fared well may fail due to issues unrelated to the film itself, with the timing of the film's release being perhaps the most common. This was one of several reasons for the commercial failure of one of Hollywood's first flops, Intolerance. Due to production delays, the film was not released until late 1916, by which time the widespread anti-war sentiment it reflected had started to shift in favor of U.S. entry into World War I. While the film would later be considered groundbreaking, its failure drove D. W. Griffith's production company, Triangle Studio, out of business. Other examples include MGM's The Wizard of Oz and Walt Disney's Pinocchio, Fantasia and Bambi all of which underperformed merely due to the fact they were released during World War II, which cut off 60% of Hollywood's international release market. However, these films became popular and critically acclaimed in later years, especially the former, which has gone on to become one of the most iconic films in film history.
Other issues such as general economic malaise may cause less disposable income for potential filmgoers, resulting in fewer ticket sales. Also, many movies that open during times of national crisis and just after disasters such as Pearl Harbor, 9/11, and hurricanes underperform at the box office. However, movies about these particular events have been known to be box office successes.
High production costs
Sometimes, a film may do reasonably well at the box office, but still be considered a failure due to a large budget. For example, 2005's Sahara cost over $241 million to make, due in part to exorbitant production costs. It took in $122 million, usually enough to be successful. However, in this case, this accounted for barely over half of its expenses. In 2012, Disney reported losses of $200 million on John Carter; at that time the film had made only $234 million worldwide, far short of the $250 million budget plus worldwide advertising.
The 2006 independent movie Zyzzyx Road made just $30 at the domestic box office. The film, with a budget of $1.2 million and starring Tom Sizemore and Katherine Heigl, owes its tiny revenue to its limited box office release—just six days in a single theater in Dallas for the purpose of meeting SAG requirements—rather than its ability to attract viewers. According to co-star Leo Grillo, it sold six tickets, two of which were to cast members.
Previously, a British film (Offending Angels) became notorious because it took £89 or £79 at the box office. It had a £70,000 budget but was panned by critics including the BBC, who called it a "truly awful pile of garbage", and Total Film, who called it "irredeemable".
Publicly financed films
The critically acclaimed Canadian film The Law of Enclosures (1999) took in about C$1,000 at the box office due to an extremely limited release in 2001. The movie was exhibited in only one theater in Toronto for exactly one week. Costing C$2 million, Law won three Genie Award nominations, including nods to its stars Sarah Polley and Brendan Fletcher (Fletcher won). The film was publicly financed due to Canadian legislation mandating the production of Canadian-content films to compete with films imported from the United States, which dominates the Canadian box office. Despite the praise and the participation of the Oscar-nominated Polley, a major movie star in Canada, the film was a flop at the box office and was not released on DVD.
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|Look up box office bomb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- The Numbers – Movie Budgets, movie budgets page from The Numbers. Contains charts of biggest money-making and money-losing movies.
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- Biggest Box-Office Bombs of All Time – Inside Movies Blog
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- Movie History – Why Sahara and The Alamo Qualify as Two of Cinema's Seven Biggest Bombs
- Greatest Box-Office Bombs, Disasters and Film Flops of All-Time: Films have the potential to skyrocket the profits of a studio, or to send it into ruins and bankruptcy.