Bryggen

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Bryggen
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Bryggen in Bergen Built after 1702
Type Cultural
Criteria iii
Reference 59
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)

Bryggen (Norwegian for the Wharf), also known as Tyskebryggen (the German Wharf), is a series of Hanseatic commercial buildings lining the eastern side of the fjord coming into Bergen, Norway. Bryggen has since 1979 been on the UNESCO list for World Cultural Heritage sites.

The city of Bergen was founded around 1070 within the original boundaries of Tyskebryggen. Around 1360 a Kontor of the Hanseatic League was established there, and Tyskebryggen became the centre of the Hanseatic commercial activities in Norway. Today, Bryggen houses museums, shops, restaurants and pubs.

History[edit]

Bergen was established before 1070 AD.[1] [Later] "in the Middle Ages, Bryggen encompassed all buildings between the road Stretet (Øvregaten) and the ocean from Holmen in the North, to Vågsbunnen in the South".[2] Within this area, the city was founded, according to the Sagas, says encyclopedia Store Norske Leksikon.[2]

One of the earliest pier constructions has been dated to around 1100, says Store Norske Leksikon.[2]

Around 1360 an office of the Hanseatic League was established there. As the town developed into an important trading centre, the wharfs were improved. The buildings of Bryggen were gradually taken over by the Hanseatic merchants. The warehouses were filled with goods, particularly stockfish from northern Norway, and cereal from Europe.

In 1754, the operations of the office at Bryggen, ended "when all the properties were transferred to Norwegian citizens".[2]

Archaeological excavation resulting from the 1955 fire[edit]

Parts of Bryggen were destroyed in a fire in 1955. A thirteen-year archaeological excavation followed, revealed the day-to-day runic inscriptions known as the Bryggen inscriptions.[3]

Fires[edit]

Throughout history, Bergen has experienced many fires, since, traditionally, most houses were made from wood. This was also the case for Bryggen, and as of today, around a quarter dates back to the time after 1702, when the older wharfside warehouses and administrative buildings burned down. The rest predominantly consists of younger structures, although there are some stone cellars that date back to the 15th century.

The Bryggen museum was built (in 1976) on part of the site of the 1955 fire.

Buildings[edit]

Buildings at Bryggen include: Bellgården (a 300 year old building),[4] Svensgården, Enhjørningsgården, Bredsgården, Bugården,[5] Engelgården

"Only Schøtstuene and the buildings towards Julehuset [part of Holmedalsgården], are originals from 1702", according to guide Thomas De Ridder.[6]

Buildings no longer in existence[edit]

In 1702, the buildings belonging to the Hanseatic League were damaged by fire.[7] They were rebuilt, and some of these were later demolished, and some were destroyed by fire.[7]

Museums[edit]

Museums include Bryggens Museum and Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene.

Streets[edit]

Streets include Jacobsfjorden.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bergen – historie
  2. ^ a b c d Bryggen i Bergen
  3. ^ Aslak Liestol, 'The Runes of Bergen: Voices from the Middle Ages', Minnesota History, 40. 2 (1966), 49-58.
  4. ^ Setter sammen 300 år gammelt puslespill
  5. ^ Bryggen skal reise tilbake i tid
  6. ^ - Bryggen er mer enn bergensere flest ser [- Bryggen is more than most Bergensers can see]
  7. ^ a b Det tyske kontor [The German kontor]
  8. ^ Velkommen som kremmer - Det kommer ingen ridder i skinnende rustning for å redde Bryggen. Du må redde den selv. [Welcome as a shopkeeper - No knight in shining armour will come to save Bryggen. You must save it yourself.]

Media[edit]

Panoramic view of Bryggen

Coordinates: 60°23′51″N 5°19′24″E / 60.39750°N 5.32333°E / 60.39750; 5.32333