Caledonian MacBrayne

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Caledonian MacBrayne Ltd
Type Public (State-Owned)
Industry Transport
Founded 1851
Headquarters Gourock, Scotland
Area served River Clyde, Outer Hebrides, Inner Hebrides
Services Ferries
Owner(s) Scottish Government
Parent David MacBrayne Ltd
Website http://www.calmac.co.uk/
The funnel of MV Juno

Caledonian MacBrayne (Scottish Gaelic: Caledonian Mac a' Bhriuthainn), usually shortened to Cal Mac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, and ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast. Since 2006 the company's official name has been CalMac Ferries Ltd although it still operates as Caledonian MacBrayne. In 2006 it also became a subsidiary of holding company David MacBrayne Ltd, which is owned by the Scottish Government.[1]

History[edit]

The Caledonian MacBrayne headquarters building at Gourock pierhead and a visit from MV Caledonian Isles and MV Isle of Mull

David MacBrayne[edit]

Main article: David MacBrayne Ltd

MacBrayne's, initially known as David Hutcheson & Co., began in 1851 as a private steamship operator when G. and J. Burns, operators of the largest of the Clyde fleets, decided to concentrate on coastal and transatlantic services and handed control of their river and Highland steamers to a new company in which Hutcheson, their manager of these services, became senior partner. Their main route went from Glasgow down the Firth of Clyde through the Crinan Canal to Oban and Fort William, and on through the Caledonian Canal to Inverness. David Hutcheson was married to Margaret Dawson who was born at her parents home 'Bonnytoun House' in Linlithgow, Scotland. She was the sister of Adam Dawson (distiller) who owned the St. Magdalene Whisky Distillery in Linlithgow and sister to James Dawson (activist) who were also born at 'Bonnytoun House' . In 2011 Glasgow historian Robert Pool added over 200 letters and documents to his collection relating to David Hutcheson and the Dawson family.[2]

With the retirement of the founders of David Hutcheson & Co in the 1870s, their partner (and nephew of Messrs. Burns) David MacBrayne gained full ownership, and changed the company's name accordingly. It remained in the hands of the MacBrayne family until 1928 when, unable to carry on, it was acquired jointly by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway and Coast Lines. Its ships featured red funnels with a black top.

Caledonian Steam Packet Company[edit]

The Caledonian Railway at first used the services of various early private operators of Clyde steamers, then began operating steamers on its own account on 1 January 1889 to compete better with the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway. It extended its line to bypass the G & SW Prince's Pier at Greenock and continue on to the fishing village of Gourock, where they had purchased the harbour.

After years of fierce competition between all the fleets, the Caledonian and G & SW were merged in 1923 into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) and their fleets were amalgamated into the Caledonian Steam Packet Company. Their funnels were painted yellow with a black top. At the same time the North British Railway fleet became part of the London and North Eastern Railway (which built the PS Waverley in 1947). With nationalisation in 1948 the LMS and LNER fleets were amalgamated under British Railways with the name Clyde Shipping Services. In 1957 a reorganisation restored the CSP name, and in 1965 a red lion was added to each side of the black-topped yellow funnels. The headquarters remained at Gourock pierhead.

At the end of December 1968 management of the CSP passed to the Scottish Transport Group, which gained control of MacBrayne's the following June. The MacBrayne service from Gourock to Ardrishaig ended on 30 September 1969, leaving the Clyde entirely to the CSP.

Caledonian MacBrayne[edit]

MV Jupiter leaving Dunoon
MV Caledonian Isles at Gourock

On 1 January 1973 the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. acquired most of the ships and routes of MacBrayne's and commenced joint Clyde and West Highland operations under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne, with a combined headquarters at Gourock. Funnels were now painted red with a black top, and a yellow circle at the side of the funnel featuring the red Caledonian lion. In 1974 a new car ferry service from Gourock to Dunoon was introduced with the ferries MV Jupiter and MV Juno.

In 1990 the ferry business was spun off as a separate company, keeping the Caledonian MacBrayne brand, and shares were issued in the company. All shares were owned by the state, first in the person of the Secretary of State for Scotland, and (after devolution) by the Scottish Executive.

A joint venture between Caledonian MacBrayne and the Royal Bank of Scotland named NorthLink Orkney and Shetland Ferries won the tender for the subsidised Northern Isles services, previously run by P&O Scottish Ferries, commencing in 2002. The ambitious programme ran into financial difficulties, and the service was again put out to tender. Caledonian MacBrayne won this tender, and formed a separate company called NorthLink Ferries Limited which began operating the Northern Isles ferry service on 6 July 2006.[3] On 29 May 2012, NorthLink Ferries Ltd lost the contract for provision of the Northern Isles ferry services to Serco Group.[4]

Restructuring[edit]

To meet the requirements of European Union Community guidelines on state aid to maritime transport, the company's routes were put out to open tender. To enable competitive bidding on an equal basis, Caledonian MacBrayne was split into two separate companies on 1 October 2006. Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited (CMAL) retained ownership of CalMac vessels and infrastructure, including harbours, while CalMac Ferries Ltd submitted tenders to be the ferry operator. Their bid for the main bundle, Clyde and Hebrides Ferry Services, succeeded and on 1 October 2007 CalMac Ferries Ltd began operating these services on a six year contract. The Gourock to Dunoon service was the subject of a separate tender, but no formal bids were made. In an interim arrangement CalMac Ferries Ltd continued to provide a subsidised service on this route,[3][5] until 29 June 2011, when Argyll Ferries Ltd took over the service.

On 14 July 2009, it was announced that CalMac would begin controversial Sunday sailings to Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis from Sunday 19 July. These have historically faced strong opposition from strong Sabbatarian elements in the Lewis community, particularly the Lord's Day Observance Society and the Free Church of Scotland. However, CalMac states that EU equality legislation makes it unlawful to refuse a service to the whole community because of the religious beliefs of a part of it.[6]

Business[edit]

The company enjoys a de facto monopoly on the shipment of freight and vehicles to the islands, and competes for passenger traffic with number of aircraft services of varying quality and reliability. Nonetheless, few if any of the routes currently operated by CalMac are profitable, and the company receives significant government subsidies due to its vital role in supplying the islands - these routes are classified as "lifeline" services. In 1996 CalMac opened its first route outside Scotland, winning a ten year contract to provide a lifeline service to Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland.

Various versions of a local poem (based loosely on Psalm 24) refer to MacBrayne's long dominance of Hebridean sailings:

The Earth belongs unto the Lord
And all that it contains
Except the Kyles and the Western Isles
And they are all MacBrayne's

Several groups have proposed privatising the service, and there has been a long commercial and political struggle with a privately owned company, Western Ferries, which has run a rival unsubsidised service from Gourock to Hunters Quay (near Dunoon) since 1973. In 2005, the Scottish Executive put the collective Hebrides routes out to competitive tender, with the Dunoon route being a separate tender.[7] Some island and union groups opposed the tendering process, fearing it would lead to cuts in services and could be a prelude to full privatisation.

During the tendering period, the company of David MacBrayne Ltd., which had been legally dormant for many years, was re-activated on 4 July 2006. David MacBrayne Group Ltd. acquired the full share capital of NorthLink Ferries Ltd, and took over operations of the NorthLink routes on 6 July 2006. Three operators submitted bids for the block of routes[8] with CalMac retaining all its existing routes. During September 2006, David MacBrayne Group Ltd., acquired the entire share capital of CalMac Ferries Ltd. Thus, from leaving the hands of David MacBrayne 78 years earlier in 1928, the west coast ferry service returned to the fold in 2006, vastly enlarged.

At the time, no bids were made for the separate Gourock–Dunoon route and the service continued as before. In August 2006, David MacBrayne Group Ltd., directed two of its subsidiary companies, Cowal Ferries Ltd., and Rathlin Ferries Ltd., to take over operation of the Gourock to Dunoon, and Rathlin to Ballycastle services. Following a European Commission decision to not subsidise a passenger and vehicle service, the route was again put out to tender. In May 2011, Argyll Ferries Ltd, a newly formed subsidiary of David MacBrayne, was named as the preferred bidder for a passenger-only Dunoon-Gourock service. The timetable was extended into the early hours over weekends, with additional sailings integrated with rail services. Two passenger-only ferries, MV Ali Cat and MV Argyll Flyer (ex-Banrion Chonomara), were arranged for the run.[9] When the service began on 30 June 2011, preparation of the Argyll Flyer was incomplete, and as an interim measure the cruise boat MV Clyde Clipper was leased from Clyde Cruises.[10]

Routes[edit]

Map of ferry services in Scotland, CalMac services shown in red
MV Saturn (Satharn in Gaelic) arrives at Gourock
MV Hebridean Isles at Scrabster
MV Isle of Mull leaving Oban harbour with Kerrera in the background
Between And Crossing Voyage Time Regular Vessel(s)
Tarbert, Kintyre Peninsula Portavadie, Cowal Loch Fyne 25 minutes MV Lochinvar
Wemyss Bay, Inverclyde Rothesay, Isle of Bute Firth of Clyde 35 minutes MVs Argyle & Bute
Colintraive, Cowal Rhubodach, Northern Bute Kyles of Bute 5 minutes MV Loch Dunvegan
Largs, North Ayrshire Cumbrae Slip, Isle of Cumbrae Firth of Clyde 10 minutes MVs Loch Shira
& Loch Riddon
Ardrossan, North Ayrshire Brodick, Isle of Arran Firth of Clyde 55 minutes MVs Caledonian Isles
& Isle of Arran
Ardrossan Campbeltown, Kintyre (summer only service) Firth of Clyde 2 hours 40 minutes MV Isle of Arran
Claonaig, Eastern Kintyre Peninsula Lochranza, Isle of Arran Kilbrannan Sound 30 minutes MV Loch Tarbert
Tayinloan, Western Kintyre Ardminish, Isle of Gigha Sound of Gigha 20 minutes MV Loch Ranza
Kennacraig, Western Kintyre Port Ellen, Southern Islay via West Loch Tarbert, Argyll 2 hours 20 minutes MVs Finlaggan &
Hebridean Isles
Kennacraig Port Askaig, Eastern Islay Sound of Islay 2 hours 5 minutes
Port Askaig Scalasaig, Isle of Colonsay 1 hour 10 minutes
Oban, Argyll Scalasaig, Colonsay 2 hours 20 minutes MVs Isle of Mull &
Lord of the Isles
Oban Craignure, Isle of Mull Firth of Lorne 46 minutes MV Isle of Mull
Lochaline, Morvern Peninsula Fishnish, Mull Sound of Mull 15 minutes MV Loch Fyne
Kilchoan, Ardnamurchan Peninsula Tobermory, Mull Sound of Mull 35 minutes MV Loch Linnhe
Fionnphort, Ross of Mull Iona Sound of Iona 10 minutes MV Loch Buie
Oban Achnacroish, Isle of Lismore Lynn of Lorne 50 minutes MV Loch Striven or MV Eigg
Oban Arinagour, Isle of Coll Firth of Lorne / Sound of Mull 2 hours 55 minutes MVs Clansman &
Lord of the Isles
Oban Scarinish, Isle of Tiree Sound of Mull / Little Minch 3 hours 20 minutes
Oban Castlebay, Isle of Barra Sound of Mull / Little Minch 5 hours
Oban Lochboisdale, South Uist Sound of Mull / Little Minch 5 hours 20 minutes
Mallaig Armadale, Sleat Peninsula, Skye Sound of Sleat 25 minutes MV Coruisk (summer)
MV Lochnevis (winter)
Mallaig Small Isles (Eigg, Muck, Rùm & Canna) Varies MV Lochnevis
Mallaig Lochboisdale South Uist(winter only service), Little Minch 3 hours 15 minutes MV Lord of the Isles
Sconser, Skye Raasay Narrows of Raasay 15 minutes MV Hallaig
Ardmhor (Barra) Isle of Eriskay (connected to South Uist by causeway) Sound of Barra 40 minutes MV Loch Alainn
Uig, Skye Lochmaddy, North Uist Little Minch 1 hour 45 minutes MV Hebrides
Uig Tarbert, Harris Little Minch 1 hour 45 minutes
Leverburgh, Harris Isle of Berneray (connected to North Uist by causeway) Sound of Harris 1 hour MV Loch Portain
Ullapool, Wester Ross Stornoway, Lewis The Minch 2 hours 45 minutes MVs Isle of Lewis &
Clipper Ranger

Other vessels[edit]

Passenger numbers[edit]

Passenger Numbers on CalMac Routes(2007)[12]
Route Total Passengers (2007) Passengers (2006) Passenger Difference  % Change
Wemyss Bay - Rothesay 770,316 759,680 10,636 Increase1.40
Ardrossan - Brodick 749,062 735,928 13,134 Increase1.78
Claonaig - Lochranza/Tarbet 54,514 52,393 2,121 Increase4.05
Largs - Cumbrae 750,416 722,561 27,855 Increase3.86
Colintravie - Rhubodach 257,528 264,644 -7,116 Decrease2.69
Tarbet - Portavadie 60,460 67,605 -7,145 Decrease10.57
Kennacraig - Islay 157,408 152,526 4,882 Increase3.20
Oban - Craignure 596,742 640,426 -43,684 Decrease6.82
Oban - Castlebay/Lochboisdale 46,562 45,296 1,266 Increase2.79
Lochaline - Fishnish 130,097 132,897 -2,800 Decrease2.11
Kennacraig - Islay - Colonsay - Oban 8,685 7,309 1,376 Increase18.83
Oban - Inner/Outer Hebrides 9,419 9,494 -75 Decrease0.79

Current fleet[edit]

Vessels are owned by Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL), and operated by CalMac Ferries Ltd. There are 29 vessels in current service, with nine 'major units' - ships of 80 m or more in length. The largest ship is MV Isle of Lewis at 101 m in length. The others are MV Clansman, MV Hebrides, MV Caledonian Isles, MV Isle of Mull, MV Hebridean Isles, MV Finlaggan, MV Isle of Arran and MV Lord of the Isles.[13]

There are 13 "Loch Class" vessels in different shapes and sizes. These double-ended ferries are mostly symmetrical when viewed from the side, with no operational bow or stern (although in official documents the designation of such is given). MV Loch Portain is able to handle Force 7 gales and carry 36 cars and 149 passengers, with a crew of five. Calmac's smallest vessels are the 22.5 m "Island Class" ferries, built as predecessors to the "Loch Class". They are now slowly being taken out of service, with only two of the original 8 remaining in the fleet.

The company is adapting to the demands of 21st century. MV Lochnevis (2000) was designed for the Small Isles service. MV Bute (2005) and MV Argyle (2007), both built in Gdansk, Poland, have taken over the Wemyss Bay / Rothesay route. A new "super loch", MV Loch Shira entered service in 2007 on the Largs / Cumbrae route. MV Finlaggan (2011) was also built in Poland, at a cost of £24.5 million. Almost 90m long and able to carry 550 passengers with 88 cars, she operates the Islay service.[13][14] The latest vessels, MV Hallaig (2013; for Raasay) and MV Lochinvar (2013; for Tarbert), built by Ferguson Shipbuilders are pioneering seagoing roll-on roll-off vehicle and passenger diesel-electric hybrid ferries.[15]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Company History". Caledonian MacBrayne. 
  2. ^ "David Hutcheson and Dawson family documents". The Great Shipping Dynasty of Burns, Hutcheson and MacBrayne. Robert Pool's Glasgow Collection @ Flickr. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Alan Rehfisch (2007). "Ferry Services in Scotland" (PDF). SPICe Briefing. Scottish Parliament Information Centre. Retrieved 17 November 2007. 
  4. ^ "Serco confirmed as Northern Isles ferry operator". BBC News. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  5. ^ "UK | Scotland | Highlands and Islands | CalMac ferry contract confirmed". BBC News. 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  6. ^ "UK | Scotland | Highlands and Islands | Green light for Sunday sailings". BBC News. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  7. ^ "Proposals for Gourock-Dunoon ferry route". Scottish Executive. 21 September 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2007. 
  8. ^ "UK | Scotland | Contest narrows for CalMac routes". BBC News. 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  9. ^ "Argyll News: Argyll Ferries Wins Dunoon-Gourock Ferry Tender". For Argyll. 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  10. ^ Goodwin, David (2011-07-01). "Ferry Launch is hit by first-day breakdown". Greenock Telegraph. pp. 1–2. 
  11. ^ "MV Saturn Languishes at Rosneath". Dave Forbes Photography on Flickr. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "Carrying Statistics". Calmac.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  13. ^ a b "Ships of the Fleet". Ships of CalMac. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  14. ^ "Remontowa wins newbuilding order for another ferry to be operated by CalMac Ferries Ltd". Remontowa.net. 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  15. ^ "'Hybrid' CalMac ferry launched from Port Glasgow". BBC News. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Clyde Pleasure Steamers - Ian McCrorie, Orr, Pollock & Co. Ltd., Greenock, ISBN 1-869850-00-9
  • Steamers of the Highlands and Islands - Ian McCrorie, Orr, Pollock & Co. Ltd., Greenock, ISBN 1-869850-01-7
  • To the Coast: One Hundred Years of the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. - Ian McCrorie, Fairlie Press, Fairlie 1989, ISBN 1-871209-01-3
  • The Kingdom of MacBrayne - Nick S. Robins and Donald E. Meek., Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh 2006, ISBN 1-84158-500-9
  • Days At The Coast - Robert Preston., Stenlake Publishing, Ochiltree 1994, ISBN 1-872074-42-1

External links[edit]