Rathlin Island

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Coordinates: 55°17′32″N 6°11′30″W / 55.292132°N 6.191685°W / 55.292132; -6.191685

Rathlin Island
Scots: Racherie[1]
Irish: Reachlainn
Wfm rathlin.jpg
False-colour NASA Landsat image showing Rathlin, the County Antrim coast and Kintyre
Rathlin Island is located in Northern Ireland
Rathlin Island
Rathlin Island
 Rathlin Island shown within Northern Ireland
Population 75 (2001 Census)
Irish grid reference D134518
    - Belfast  47 miles 
District Moyle District
County County Antrim
Country Northern Ireland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Ballycastle
Postcode district BT54
Dialling code 028
Police Northern Ireland
Fire Northern Ireland
Ambulance Northern Ireland
EU Parliament Northern Ireland
UK Parliament North Antrim
Website Rathlin Development & Community Association's official website
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Antrim

Rathlin Island (from Irish: Reachlainn) is an island (and civil parish) off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland. Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island of Northern Ireland, with a population of just over 100 people, and is the second most northerly inhabited island off the coast of Ireland (the most northerly is Tory Island, County Donegal). The reverse L-shaped Rathlin island is 4 miles (6 km) from east to west, and 2.5 miles (4 km) from north to south. The highest point on the island is Slieveard, 134 metres (440 feet) above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles (25 km) from the Mull of Kintyre, the southern tip of Scotland's Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Moyle District Council area, and is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association.[2]

Transport[edit]

A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with the mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles (10 km) away. Two ferries operate on the route - a fast foot passenger only catamaran ferry called "Rathlin Express" and a larger ferry, owned by the Scottish Government, called "MV Canna" which carries both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.[3][4] Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised "lifeline" service.[5] There is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners.[6]

Natural history[edit]

Rathlin is of prehistoric volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province.[7][not in citation given (See discussion.)]

Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland. It is home to tens of thousands of seabirds, including common guillemots, kittiwakes, puffins and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is a popular place for birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve offering spectacular views of Rathlin’s bird colony. The RSPB has also successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the Red-billed Chough. Northern Ireland's only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres (230 ft) tall. Bruce's Cave[8] is named after Robert the Bruce, also known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider which is described as inspiring Bruce to continue his fight for Scottish independence.[9] The island is also the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.[10]

Recently the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland undertook bathymetric survey work in the area north of County Antrim, updating Admiralty charts (Joint Irish Bathmetric Survey Project). In doing so a number of interesting submarine geological features were identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged crater or lake on a plateau with clear evidence of water courses feeding it. This suggests the events leading to inundation - subsidence of land or rising water levels - were extremely quick. Marine investigations in the area have also identified new species of anemone, rediscovered the fan mussel (the UK's largest and rarest bivalve mollusc - thought to be found only in Plymouth Sound and a few sites off the west of Scotland) and a number of shipwreck sites,[11][12] including HMS Drake (1901),[13] which was torpedoed and sank just off the island in 1917.

History[edit]

The Malone hoard of polished axes from Tievebulliagh or Rathlin Island

Rathlin was probably known to the Romans, Pliny referring to "Reginia" and Ptolemy to "Rhicina" or "Eggarikenna". In the 7th century Adomnán mentions "Rechru" and "Rechrea insula" and these may also have been early names for Rathlin.[14] The 11th century Irish version of the Historia Brittonum states that the Fir Bolg "took possession of Man and of other islands besides - Arran, Islay and 'Racha' " another possible early variant.[15]

Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster. The raid, marked by the pillaging of the island's church and the burning of its buildings, took place in 795 (The burning of Reachrainn by plunderers; and its shrines were broken and plundered.)

Robert the Bruce sought refuge upon Rathlin, owned by the Irish Bissett family, in 1306, staying in Rathlin Castle. Originally belonging to their lordship the Glens of Antrim, the Bissetts were later dispossessed of Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, for welcoming Bruce. Later, in the 16th century, it came into the possession of the MacDonnells of Antrim.

Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557 Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575 the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront refugees on the island, and in the ensuing massacre hundreds of women and children of Clan MacDonnell were killed.[16][17] Also in 1642 Covenanter Campbell soldiers of the Argyll's Foot were encouraged by their commanding officer Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch Clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands Clan MacDonald. This they did with ruthless efficiency throwing scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below.[18][19] The number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as one hundred and as high as three thousand.

In the later 18th century kelp production became important with Rathlin becoming a major centre for production. The shoreline is still littered with kilns and storage places. This was a commercial enterprise sponsored by the landlords of the island and involved the whole community.[20]

A 19th century British visitor to the island found that they had an unusual form of government where they elected a judge who sat on a "throne of turf".[21]

The world's first commercial wireless telegraphy link was established by employees of Guglielmo Marconi between East Lighthouse on Rathlin to Kenmara House in Ballycastle on 6 July 1898.[22]

More recently, Richard Branson crashed his hot air balloon into the sea off Rathlin Island in 1987 after his record-breaking cross-Atlantic flight from Maine.[citation needed]

The island formerly boasted a population of over one thousand in the 19th century, and its current winter population is around 100. This is swelled by visitors in the summer, with most coming to view the cliffs and their huge sea bird populations. Many visitors come for the day, and the island has around 30 beds for overnight visitors. The visitors' centre at Church Bay is open from May to August, with minibus tours and bicycle hire available. The island is also popular with scuba divers, who come to explore the many wrecked ships in the surrounding waters.

Rathlin Island's dialect of Irish is now extinct, and could have been described as intermediary form between the other Irish dialects and Scottish Gaelic.

Recently, the RNLI Portrush lifeboat, the 'Katie Hannan' grounded itself after a large swell hit the rear end of the vessel on breakwater rocks just outside the harbour on Rathlin while trying to refloat an islander's RIB. The lifeboat has now been handed over to an outside salvage company.[citation needed]

In July 2013, BT Ireland installed a high-speed wireless broadband pilot project to a number of premises. The first deployment of its kind to the UK and Ireland, 'wireless to the cabinet' will deliver 80Mbs to users.[23]

Archaeology[edit]

Tievebulliagh mountain near Cushendall features a Neolithic stone axe factory, and a similar one is to be found in the townland of Brockley on Rathlin Island,[24] and features the same porcellanite stone. The island was also settled during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.There is also an unexcavated Viking vessel in a mound formation.[25]

Gallery of panorama photos[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Chadwick, Hector Munro (1949) Early Scotland: the Picts, the Scots & the Welsh of southern Scotland. Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, W. J. (1994) The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh; Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published in Edinburgh; The Royal Celtic Society, 1926.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Beagmore stone circles and alignments and Cregganconroe court grave NI Department of the Environment. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  2. ^ "The official website of the Rathlin Development & Community Association". Rathlin Community. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  3. ^ "Rathlin". Rathlinweather.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  4. ^ "Press Release" (PDF). Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  5. ^ "Improved service for Rathlin ferry will half travel time". Northern Ireland Executive. 21 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  6. ^ "Probe into tendering contract of ferry run". News Letter (Johnston Press). 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  7. ^ "Causeway Coast and Rathlin Island Geodiversity Profile". Northern Ireland Environment Agency. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  8. ^ "Bruce's Cave". Bruce Rathlin 700. The Ulster-Scots Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2012. "Verifying Rathlin Island's connections with King Robert the Bruce" 
  9. ^ "The Spider Legend". Bruce Rathlin 700. The Ulster-Scots Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2012. "It’s a famous story, but is it true?" 
  10. ^ "Antrim Coast and Glens AONB". Northern Ireland Environment Agency. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  11. ^ "The Joint Irish Bathymetric Survey Project" (Video). MCA. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  12. ^ "Prehistoric land under the sea". BBC News. 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  13. ^ Wilson, Ian (2011) HMS Drake. Rathlin Island Shipwreck. Rathlin Island: Rathlin Island Books. ISBN 978-0-9568942-0-5
  14. ^ Watson (1994) pp. 6, 37
  15. ^ Chadwick (1949) p. 83
  16. ^ John Sugden, "Sir Francis Drake", Touchstone-book, published Simon+Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-75863-2
  17. ^ "Sir Francis Drake and Music". The Standing Stones. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  18. ^ Royle, Trevor (2004), Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660, London: Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11564-8  p.143
  19. ^ "The Carolingian Era". MacDonnell Of Leinster Association. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  20. ^ O'Sullivan, Aidan & Breen, Colin (2007). Maritime Ireland. An Archaeology of Coastal Communities. Stroud: Tempus. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-7524-2509-2. 
  21. ^ http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=3p9GAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA134&lpg=PA134&
  22. ^ "Guglielmo Marconi 1874-1937". northantrim.com. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  23. ^ "BT Ireland". btireland.com. Retrieved 2013-07-04. 
  24. ^ Weir, A (1980). Early Ireland. A Field Guide. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. p. 96. 
  25. ^ O'Sullivan, Aidan & Breen, Colin (2007). Maritime Ireland. An Archaeology of Coastal Communities. Stroud: Tempus. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7524-2509-2. 

External links[edit]