According to the Canada 2006 Census, 316,350 Canadians reported American as being their ethnicity, at least partially. There are also between 900,000 and 2 million Americans living in Canada, either as full-time and part-time residents.
There has not been a reliable estimate of the total number of Americans from the United States who have settled in Canada since the founding of the two countries as the United States in 1776 and Canada in 1867. Prior to the independence of the United States and the formation of Canada, the settled areas of both countries consisted of British colonies.
In the early 20th century, Canada invited 500,000 to one million American settlers into the farming regions of Prairie Provinces such as Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In the 1930s, after World War II, and again the 1970s, waves of Americans, many from Texas and Oklahoma, immigrated to Canada to work in the country's growing oil industry. During the Vietnam War era, many American draft dodgers fled to Canada to avoid the war. About 10,200 Americans moved to Canada in 2006; this was the highest number since 1977.