is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
Selected article -
The National Flag of Canada
, also known as the Maple Leaf
, and l'Unifolié
for "the one-leafed"), is a red flag
with a white square in its centre, featuring a stylized 11-pointed red maple leaf
. Its adoption in 1965 marked the first time a national flag had been officially adopted to replace the Union Flag
. The Canadian Red Ensign
had been unofficially used since the 1890s and was approved by a 1945 Order-in-Council
for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag". In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
appointed a committee to resolve the issue, sparking a serious debate about a flag change
. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George F. G. Stanley
based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada
was selected. The flag made its first appearance on February 15, 1965; the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day
Many different flags have been created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, and military forces. Most of these flags contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design. The Royal Union Flag is also an official flag in Canada, used as a symbol of Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations, and of its allegiance to the Crown. The Union Flag forms a component of other Canadian flags, including the provincial flags of British Columbia, Manitoba and Ontario.
Selected biography -
Terrance Stanley "Terry" Fox CC OD
, (July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian humanitarian
, athlete, and cancer research
activist. In 1980, with one leg having been amputated, he embarked on a cross-Canada run to raise money and awareness for cancer research. Fox was the youngest person ever named a Companion of the Order of Canada
. He won the 1980 Lou Marsh Award
as the nation's top sportsman and was named Canada's Newsmaker of the Year
in both 1980 and 1981. Considered a national hero, he has had many buildings, roads and parks named in his honour across the country.
In 1980, he began the Marathon of Hope, a cross-country run to raise money for cancer research. Fox hoped to raise one dollar for each of Canada's 24 million people. He started with little fanfare from St. John's, Newfoundland, in April and ran the equivalent of a full marathon every day. Fox had become a national star by the time he reached Ontario; he made numerous public appearances with businessmen, athletes, and politicians in his efforts to raise money. He was forced to end his run outside of Thunder Bay when the cancer spread to his lungs. His hopes of overcoming the disease and completing his marathon ended when he died nine months later.
Canada in pictures -
Symbols of Canada -
Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team sport played on ice. It is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity. Only six of the thirty NHL franchises are based in Canada, but Canadian players outnumber Americans in the league...
Selected quote -
We shall be Canadians first, foremost, and always, and our policies will be decided in Canada and not dictated by any other country.
Did you know... -
In the news
Canada on sister projects