is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
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The Niagara Falls
are massive waterfalls
on the Niagara River
, straddling the international border
separating the Canadian province
and the U.S. state
of New York
. The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York
, 75 miles (120 km) south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario, between the twin cities
of Niagara Falls, Ontario
, and Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls is composed of two major sections separated by Goat Island: Horseshoe Falls, on the Canadian side of the border and American Falls on the United States side. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls also is located on the American side, separated from the main falls by Luna Island. Niagara Falls were formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last ice age), and water from the newly-formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment en route to the Atlantic Ocean. While not exceptionally high, the Niagara Falls are very wide. More than six million cubic feet (168,000 m³) of water falls over the crest line every minute in high flow, and almost 4 million cubic feet (110,000 m³) on average. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America.
Niagara Falls is divided into the Horseshoe Falls and the American Falls. The Horseshoe Falls drop about 173 feet (53 m), the height of the American Falls varies between 70-100 feet (21 m) because of the presence of giant boulders at its base. The larger Horseshoe Falls are about 2,600 feet (792 m) wide, while the American Falls are 1,060 feet (323 m) wide.
Selected biography -
Alanis Nadine Morissette
(born in Ottawa
, 1 June 1974) is a Canadian
and naturalized American singer-songwriter
, record producer
, and occasional actress
. She is recognized for creating one of the highest selling albums in the history of the music industry, and has won seven Grammy Awards
Morissette began her career in Canada, and as a child recorded two dance-pop albums, Alanis and Now Is the Time, under MCA Records. Her international debut album was the rock-influenced Jagged Little Pill. Jagged Little Pill sold thirty million copies, making it the best-selling debut album of all time by a female artist. According to the United World Chart, Jagged Little Pill is the second greatest-selling album of all-time by a female artist, behind only Shania Twain's Come on Over.
Morissette took up producing duties for her subsequent albums, including Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, Under Rug Swept and So-Called Chaos. Morissette has influenced female singers and singer-songwriters in the 2000s such as Kelly Clarkson, Michelle Branch, Pink and Avril Lavigne.
Canada in pictures -
Symbols of Canada -
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Canadians are the people who learned to live without the bold accents of the natural ego-trippers of other lands.
Did you know... -
In the news
Canada on sister projects