Canaima National Park

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Canaima National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
LagunadeCanaima.jpg
Canaima Lagoon
Map showing the location of Canaima National Park
Map showing the location of Canaima National Park
Location of Angel Falls in the Canaima National Park
Location Bolívar State, Venezuela
Coordinates 6°10′0″N 62°30′0″W / 6.16667°N 62.50000°W / 6.16667; -62.50000Coordinates: 6°10′0″N 62°30′0″W / 6.16667°N 62.50000°W / 6.16667; -62.50000
Area 30,000 km²
Established June 12, 1962 (1962-06-12)
Type: Natural
Criteria: vii, viii, ix, x
Designated: 1994 (18th session)
Reference No. 701
State Party: Venezuela
Region: Latin America and the Caribbean
Canaima, Venezuela
Tourists in the Lagoon of Canaima
Angel Falls is the highest waterfall in the world.

Canaima National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Canaima) is a 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi) park in south-eastern Venezuela that borders Brazil and Guyana. It is located in Bolívar State, and roughly occupies the same area as the Gran Sabana region.

The park was established on 12 June 1962. It is the second largest park in the country, after Parima-Tapirapecó, and sixth biggest national park in the world. It is the size of Belgium or Maryland.

About 65% of the park is occupied by plateaus of rock called tepuis, which are a kind of plateau of millions of years old, with vertical walls and almost flat tops. These constitute a unique biological environment and are also of great geological interest. Their sheer cliffs and waterfalls (including Angel Falls, which is the highest waterfall in the world, at 1,002 metres (3,287 ft)) create spectacular landscapes.

The most famous tepuis in the park are Mount Roraima, the tallest and easiest to climb, and Auyantepui, the site of Angel Falls. The tepuis are sandstone and date back to a time when South America and Africa were part of a super-continent.

The park is home to indigenous Pemon Indians, part of the Carib linguistic group. The Pemon have an intimate relationship with the tepuis, and believe they are the home of the 'Mawari' spirits. The park is relatively remote, with only a few roads connecting towns. Most transport within the park is done by light plane from the airstrips built by various Capuchin missions, or by foot and canoe. Pemons have developed some basic and luxurious camps, which are mainly visited by tourists from across the world.

In 1994, the Canaima National Park was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as a natural reserve that has abrupt relief special and unique around the world, the tepuis.

Fauna[edit]

Canaima has a varied fauna, which is distributed throughout the park according to multiple environmental factors such as altitude and vegetation type. Among the species found are:

Flora[edit]

There are over 300 species endemic only in La Gran Sabana.

Hydrography[edit]

The park includes the entire watershed of the right bank of the Caroní River, and two of the highest waterfalls in the world, the Angel Falls and the Kukenán and plenty of waterfalls of lower altitude.

Relief[edit]

The only form of relief are the tepuies, that are plateaus which are unique features, among which are its vertical and nearly flat tops, although there are several tepuies that do not meet these rules. Geologically are remnants of a sedimentary cover composed of very ancient sandstone that is superimposed on a base of igneous rocks (mainly granite) that is even older (nearly 3000 million years). On its summit is home to a very substantial amount of very specific endemic species, both plant and animal. Some endemic plant species are categorized as "carnivorous", which are thus the food supply (mainly insects) that are so scarce in the mountains. These have a geological formations ranging between 1500 and 2000 million years, which makes them one of the oldest formations in the world. The best known tepuies are: the Auyantepuy (where it follows the Angel Falls), the Roraima, the Kukenan and the Chimantá among many others.

Tourist attractions[edit]

Western Sector[edit]

  • Cave Uruyén
  • Kamarata indian village
  • Wareipa indian community
  • El Encanto Falls
  • Avak indian community
  • Roberto Beach
  • Kanwaripa indian community
  • Caroní River
  • La Maloca indian village
  • Kukenán Falls (in the Tepui Kukenán or Matawí)
View of the tepuis, Roraima and Kukenan, in the Gran Sabana.

Eastern Sector[edit]

  • La Piedra de La Virgen (The rock of the virgin)
  • El Danto Falls
  • La Arenaria
  • Monumento al Soldado Pionero
  • Aponwao I River
  • Tarotá Baths
  • Toroncito Ravine
  • Toron merú Falls
  • Karuay Falls
  • Chinak merú Falls (Aponwao falls)
  • Parupa
  • Anotén
  • Chivatón Falls
  • Mission of Kavanayen
  • Kamoirán Rapids
  • Kama merú Falls
  • Arapán merú (Pacheco Ravine)
  • Soruapa River or Woimeri
  • San Francisco de Yuruaní Indian Community
  • Jasper Creek (Kako Parú or Jaspe Ravine)
  • Urué merú
  • Kukenán Bridge River
  • Paraitepui Indian Community of Roraima
  • Wonkén Indian Community
  • Mount Roraima.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]