Canopus

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For other uses, see Canopus (disambiguation).
Canopus
Canopus.jpg
An image of Canopus by Expedition 6
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Carina
Pronunciation /kəˈnpəs/
Right ascension 06h 23m 57.1099s[1]
Declination −52° 41′ 44.378″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) −0.74[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type F0 II[2] or F0 Ib[3]
U−B color index 0.10[2]
B−V color index 0.15[2]
Variable type None
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) 20.3[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: 19.99[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 23.67[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 10.43 ± 0.53[1] mas
Distance 310 ± 20 ly
(96 ± 5 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) –5.65[n 1]
Details
Mass 9.0–10.6[5] M
Radius 71.4 ± 4.0[3] R
Luminosity 15,100[5] L
Surface gravity (log g) 2.10[5] cgs
Temperature 7,350[6] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] –0.07[5] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 8.0[5] km/s
Other designations
Suhayl, Suhel, Suhail, Alpha Carinae, CD−52°914, FK5 245, GC 8302, HD 45348, HIP 30438, HR 2326, SAO 234480
Database references
SIMBAD data
Canopus seen from Tokyo, Japan. The latitude is 35°38′N.

Canopus (/kəˈnpəs/; α Car, α Carinae, Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the night-time sky, after Sirius. Canopus's visual magnitude is −0.72, and it has an absolute magnitude of −5.65.

Canopus is a supergiant of spectral type F. Canopus is essentially white when seen with the naked eye (although F-type stars are sometimes listed as "yellowish-white"). It is located in the far southern sky, at a declination of −52° 42' (2000) and a right ascension of 06h24.0m.[1]

Its name comes from the mythological Canopus, who was a navigator for Menelaus, king of Sparta.[7]

Observational history[edit]

In Indian Vedic literature, the star Canopus is associated with the sage Agastya, one of the ancient rishis (the others are associated with the stars of the Big Dipper).[8] Agastya, the star, is said to be the 'cleanser of waters' and its rising coincides with the calming of the waters of the Indian Ocean. It is considered the son of Pulasthya, son of Brahma.

Canopus was not visible to the Ancient Greeks and Romans; it was, however, visible to the Ancient Egyptians,[9] as well as the Navajo, who named it Ma’ii Bizò‘.[10] It is also referred to by its Arabic name: سهيل (Suhayl), given by Islamic scientists in the 7th Century AD.

The Bedouin people of the Negev and Sinai also knew it as Suhayl, and used it and Polaris as the two principal stars for navigation at night. Due to the fact that it disappears below the horizon, it became associated with a changeable nature, as opposed to always-visible Polaris, which was circumpolar and hence 'steadfast'.[11]

Called the Star of the Old Man (in Chinese: 老人星; pinyin: Lǎorénxīng) in Chinese, Canopus appears (albeit misplaced northwards) on the medieval Chinese manuscript the Dunhuang Star Chart, despite being invisible from China.[12] The Chinese astronomer Yi Xing had journeyed south to chart Canopus and other far southern stars in 724 AD,[13] though they were likely known to the Chinese from earlier times.[12]

Bright stars were important to the ancient Polynesians for navigation between the many islands and atolls of the Pacific Ocean. Low on the horizon, they acted as stellar compasses to assist mariners in charting courses to particular destinations. Canopus served as the southern wingtip of a "Great Bird" constellation called Manu, with Sirius as the body and Procyon the northern wingtip, which divided the Polynesian night sky into two hemispheres.[14] The Hawaiian people called Canopus Ke Alii-o-kona-i-ka-lewa, "The Chief of the southern expanse"; it was one of the stars used by Hawaii-loa and Ki when they traveled to the Southern Ocean.[15]

The Maori people of New Zealand/Aotearoa had several different names for Canopus. Ariki ("High-born"), was known as a solitary star that appeared in the east, prompting people to weep and chant.[16] They also named it Atutahi, Aotahi or Atuatahi, "Stand Alone".[17] Its solitary nature indicates it is a tapu star, as tapu people are often solitary. Its appearance at the beginning of the Maruaroa season foretells the coming winter; light rays to the south indicate a cold wet winter, and to the north foretell a mild winter. Food was offered to the star on its appearance.[18] This name has several different mythologies attached to it as well. One story tells of how Atutahi was left outside of the basket representing the Milky Way when Tane wove it. Another related myth surrounding the star says that Autahi was the first-born child of Rangi, who refused to enter the Milky Way and so turned it sideways and rose before it. The same name is used for other stars and constellations throughout Polynesia.[19] Kapae-poto, "Short horizon", referred to the fact that it rarely sets from the vantage point of New Zealand;[20] Kauanga ("Solitary") was the name for Canopus only when it was the last star visible before sunrise.[21]

The Tswana people of Botswana knew Canopus as Naka. Appearing late in winter skies, it heralded increasing winds and a time when trees lose their leaves. Stock owners knew it was time to mate their sheep with a ram.[22] To the ǀXam-speaking Bushmen of South Africa, Canopus and Sirius signalled the appearance of termites and flying ants. They also believed stars had the power to cause death and misfortune, and they would pray to Sirius and Canopus in particular to impart good fortune or skill.[23]

The Kalapalo people of Mato Grosso state in Brazil saw Canopus and Procyon as Kofongo "Duck", with Castor and Pollux representing his hands. The asterism's appearance signified the coming of the rainy season and increase in food staple manioc, used at feasts to feed guests.[24]

Canopus traditionally marked the rudder of the ship Argo Navis.[25] English explorer Robert Hues brought it to the attention of European observers in his 1592 work Tractatus de Globis, along with Achernar and Alpha Centauri, noting "Now, therefore, there are but three Stars of the first magnitude that I could perceive in all those parts which are never seene here in England. The first of these is that bright Star in the sterne of Argo which they call Canobus. The second is in the end of Eridanus. The third is in the right foote of the Centaure."[26]

Visibility[edit]

In the southern hemisphere, Canopus and Sirius are both visible high in the sky simultaneously, and reach the meridian just 21 minutes apart. Brighter than first magnitude, it can be seen by naked eye already in the early twilight. It is a circumpolar star when seen from points that have latitude south of 37°18' south; for example, Victoria and Tasmania, Australia; Auckland and south of it, New Zealand; Bahía Blanca, Argentina; and Valdivia, Chile and south of these cities in South America. Since Canopus is so far south in the sky, it never rises in mid- or far-northern latitudes; in theory the northern limit of visibility is latitude 37°18' north. This is just south of Athens, Richmond (USA), and San Francisco, and very close to Seville. It is almost exactly the latitude of Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California, from which it is readily visible because of the effects of elevation and atmospheric refraction, which add another degree to its apparent altitude. Under ideal conditions it has been spotted as far north as latitude 37°31' from the Pacific coast.[27] Another northernmost record of visibility came from Mount Nemrut in Turkey, latitude 37°59'.[28] It is more easily visible in places such as the Gulf Coast and Florida, and is best viewed around 9 p.m. on February 6.[29]

Most visible in the southern hemisphere summer, Canopus culminates at midnight on December 27,[29] and at 9PM on February 11.[30]

F-type supergiants have been described as yellow-white or white.[citation needed] Canopus has a B-V color index of 0.16 where 0 is a blue-white, indicating it is essentially white, although has been described as yellow-white. Its spectral type has been recorded as either F0 or sometimes A9. It has less yellow than Altair or Procyon, whose color indexes have been measured at 0.22 and 0.42 respectively. It may be that some observers have perceived it as yellow-tinged owing to its being located low in the sky and hence subject to atmospheric effects.[31]

Physical properties[edit]

Before the launch of the Hipparcos satellite telescope, distance estimates for the star varied widely, from 96 light years to 1200 light years. Had the latter distance been correct, Canopus would have been one of the most luminous stars in our galaxy. Hipparcos established Canopus as lying 310 light years (96 parsecs) from our solar system; this is based on a parallax measurement of 10.43 ± 0.53 mas.[1] The difficulty in measuring Canopus' distance stemmed from its unusual nature. Canopus has been classified as a F0 II or F0 Ib (Ib referring to "less luminous supergiant") star,[3] and such stars are rare and poorly understood; they are stars that can be either in the process of evolving to or away from red giant status.[32] This in turn made it difficult to know how intrinsically bright Canopus is, and therefore how far away it might be. Direct measurement was the only way to solve the problem. Canopus is too far away for Earth-based parallax observations to be made, so the star's distance was not known with certainty until the early 1990s.

The photospheric temperature of Canopus has been estimated at 7350 ± 30 K.[6]

Infrared interferometry was used to calculate its angular diameter at 6.93 ± 0.15 mas. Combined with distance calculated by Hipparcos, this gives it a diameter of 71.4 ± 0.4 times that of the sun.[3] If it were placed at the centre of our solar system, it would extend 90% of the way to the orbit of Mercury.[33]

Canopus is the most intrinsically bright star within approximately 700 light years, and it has been the brightest star in Earth's sky during three different epochs over the past four million years.[34] Other stars appear brighter only during relatively temporary periods, during which they are passing our solar system at a much closer distance than Canopus. About 90,000 years ago, Sirius moved close enough that it became brighter than Canopus, and that will remain the case for another 210,000 years. But in 480,000 years, Canopus will once again be the brightest, and will remain so for a period of about 510,000 years.[dubious ]

Canopus was previously claimed to be a member of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association,[32] however it is not located near the subgroups of that association, and has not been included as a Sco-Cen member in kinematic studies that used Hipparcos astrometric data.[35] At present, Canopus is not thought to be a member of any nearby young stellar groups.[36]

Canopus is a strong source of X-rays, which are probably produced by its corona, magnetically heated to around 15 million K. The temperature has likely been stimulated by fast rotation combined with strong convection percolating through the star's outer layers. The star's surface temperature is too cool to account for the X-rays.[32]

In 2014, astronomer Eric Mamajek reported that an extremely magnetically active M dwarf (having strong coronal X-ray emission), situated 1.16 degrees south of Canopus, appears to share common proper motion with the bright star. The projected separation of the M dwarf 2MASS J06234738-5351131 ("Canopus B") is approximately 1.9 parsecs, however despite this large separation, it is still within the estimated tidal radius (2.9 parsecs) for the massive star Canopus.[36]

Etymology and cultural significance[edit]

The name "Canopus" is a Latinisation of the Ancient Greek name Κάνωβος/"Kanôbos", recorded in Claudius Ptolemy's Almagest (c150 AD). Eratosthenes used this spelling, however Hipparchos wrote it as Κάνωπος. John Flamsteed wrote Canobus.[37] The name has two common derivations, both listed in Richard Hinckley Allen's seminal Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning;[38] and one which is less common. All are matters of conjecture:

  • One from the legend of the Trojan War, where the constellation Carina was once part of the now-obsolete constellation of Argo Navis, which represented the ship used by Jason and the Argonauts. The brightest star in the constellation was given the name of a ship's pilot from another Greek legend: Canopus, pilot of Menelaus' ship on his quest to retrieve Helen of Troy after she was taken by Paris.
  • A second from the Egyptian Coptic Kahi Nub ("Golden Earth"), which refers how Canopus would have appeared near the horizon in ancient Egypt, reddened by atmospheric extinction from that position.[38] A ruined ancient Egyptian port named Canopus lies near the mouth of the Nile, site of the Battle of the Nile.
  • A third is its possible origin from the Semitic root G(C)-N-B (Gimmel-Nun-Beth)[citation needed], from which the Arabic word for south, janūb ( جنوب ), is derived. The southeastern wall of the Muslim Ka'bah points to Canopus, and is named Janūb ("south") as well.[39]

Other names[edit]

Africa[edit]

An Egyptian priestly poet in the time of Thutmose III mentions the star as Karbana, "the star which pours his light in a glance of fire, When he disperses the morning dew."[38]

Under the Ptolemies, the star was known as Ptolemaion (Greek: Πτολεμαῖον) and its acronychal rising marked the date of the Ptolemaia festival, which was held every four years, from 262 to 145 BC.[40]

In the traditional Xhosa calendar, May is named UCanzibe (the month of Canopus).

Americas[edit]

The Navajo observed the star and named it Ma’ii Bizò‘.[10]

Asia[edit]

It is also personified as the Shou star.

In Japan, Canopus is known as Mera-boshi and Roujin-sei (the old man star).[41]

In Ancient Hindu astronomy and astrology, Canopus is named Agasti or Agastya.[38]

In traditional Tibetan astronomy and astrology, Canopus is named Karma Rishi སྐར་མ་རི་ཥི།

Kalīla o Damna, an influential Pahlavi (Middle Persian) book of animal fables was later known as Anvar-i-Suhayli or The Lights of Canopus.

Australia[edit]

Canopus was identified as the moiety ancestor Waa "Crow" to some Koori people in southeastern Australia.[42] The Boorong people of northwestern Victoria recalled that War (Canopus) was the brother of Warepil (Sirius), and that he brought fire from the heavens and introduced it to mankind. His wife was Collowgullouric War (Eta Carinae).[43] The Pirt-Kopan-noot people of western Victoria told of Waa "Crow" falling in love with a queen, Gneeanggar "Wedge-tailed Eagle" (Sirius) and her six attendants (the Pleiades). His advances spurned, he hears that the women are foraging for grubs and so transforms himself into a grub. When the women dig him out, he changes into a giant and carries her off.[44]

The Kulin people knew Canopus as Lo-an-tuka.[43] Objects in the sky were also associated with states of being for some tribes; the Wailwun of northern New South Wales knew Canopus as Wumba "deaf", alongside Mars as Gumba "fat" and Venus as Ngindigindoer "you are laughing".[45] Tasmanian aboriginal lore held that Canopus was Dromerdene, the brother of Moinee; the two fought and fell out of the sky, with Dromerdene falling into Louisa Bay in southwest Tasmania.[46]

Middle East[edit]

Canopus was known to the ancient Mesopotamians and given the name NUN-ki and represented the city of Eridu in the Three Stars Each Babylonian star catalogues and later MUL.APIN around 1100 BC.[47] Today, the star Sigma Sagittarii is known by the common name Nunki.[48]

An occasional name seen in English is Sohel, or the feminine Soheila; in Turkish is Süheyl, or the feminine Süheyla, from the Arabic name for several bright stars, سهيل suhayl,[38] and Canopus was known as Suhel in medieval times.[49] Alternate spellings include Suhil, Suhilon, Suheyl, Sohayl, Suhayil, Shoel, Sohil, Soheil, Sahil, Suhayeel, Sohayil, Sihel, and Sihil.[38] An alternate name was Wazn "weight" or Haḍar "ground", possibly related to its low position near the horizon.[38] Hence comes its name in the Alphonsine Tables, Suhel ponderosus, a Latinization of Al Suhayl al Wazn.[38] Its Greek name was revived during the Renaissance.[49]

Polynesia[edit]

The people of the Society Islands had two names for Canopus, as did the Tuamotu people. The Society Islanders called Canopus Taurua-e-tupu-tai-nanu, "Festivity-whence-comes-the-flux-of-the-sea", and Taurua-nui-o-te-hiti-apatoa "Great-festivity-of-the-border-of-the-south",[50] and the Tuamotu people called the star Te Tau-rari and Marere-te-tavahi, the latter said to be the true name for the former, "He-who-stands-alone".[51]

Among New Zealand Maori Canopus is a circumpolar star called Atutahi (variants include Autahi and Aotahi). Atutahi was considered so sacred that he stood alone outside the Milky Way, it was an important weather predictor and indicated when soils were ready for planting. Te Taki o Atutahi referred to the stars role in leading Te Punga (the anchor) i.e. the Southern Cross.

Role in navigation[edit]

To anyone living in the northern hemisphere, but far enough south to see the star, it served as a southern pole star. This lasted only until magnetic compasses became common.

In modern times, Canopus serves another navigational use. Canopus's brightness and location well off the ecliptic make it popular for space navigation. Many spacecraft carry a special camera known as a "Canopus Star Tracker" plus a sun sensor for attitude determination.

The effects of precession will take Canopus within 10° of the south celestial pole around the year 14,000 AD.[52]

Modern legacy[edit]

Canopus appears on the flag of Brazil, symbolising the state of Goiás.[53]

Two U.S. Navy submarine tenders have been named after Canopus, the first serving from 1922 to 1942 and the second serving from 1965 to 1994.

In popular culture[edit]

The book series Canopus in Argos by Nobel Prize in Literature-winning author Doris Lessing which portray a number of societies at different stages of development, over a great period of time. The focus is on accelerated evolution being aided by advanced species for less advanced species and societies.

The fictional desert planet Arrakis featured in the Dune series of novels by Frank Herbert is the third planet orbiting Canopus.

In the MMORPG Eve Online, the titular wormhole that led to the galaxy in which the player's experience takes place was located in the Canopus system.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The absolute magnitude of a star with little to no extinction can be calculated using the formula  M = m + 5 (1 + \log_{10}{p})\!\,, where M is the star's absolute magnitude, m is the star's apparent magnitude, and p is the star's measured parallax in arcseconds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.  Vizier catalog entry
  2. ^ a b c d Ducati, J. R. (2002). "Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.  Vizier catalog entry
  3. ^ a b c d Domiciano De Souza, A.; Bendjoya, P.; Vakili, F.; Millour, F.; Petrov, R. G. (2008). "Diameter and photospheric structures of Canopus from AMBER/VLTI interferometry". Astronomy and Astrophysics 489 (2): L5–L8. Bibcode:2008A&A...489L...5D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810450.  edit
  4. ^ Gontcharov, G. A. (2007). "Pullkovo Compilation of Radial Velocities for 39495 Hipparcos stars in a common system". Astronomy Letters 32 (1): 759–771. Bibcode:2006AstL...32..759G. doi:10.1134/S1063773706110065.  Vizier catalog entry
  5. ^ a b c d e Smiljanic, R. et al. (April 2006), CNO in evolved intermediate mass stars, Astronomy and Astrophysics 449 (2): 655–671, arXiv:astro-ph/0511329, Bibcode:2006A&A...449..655S, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20054377. 
  6. ^ a b Desikachary, K,; Hearnshaw, J.B. (1982). "The spectrum of Canopus. II - Analysis and composition". Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices 201: 707–21. Bibcode:1982MNRAS.201..707D. doi:10.1093/mnras/201.3.707. 
  7. ^ Ridpath & Tirion 2001, pp. 104–106.
  8. ^ Frawley, David (1993). Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization. New Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. 
  9. ^ Schaaf, p. 107.
  10. ^ a b Maryboy, Nancy D. (2004). A Guide to Navajo Astronomy. Indigenous Education Institute : Bluff, Utah.
  11. ^ Bailey, Clinton (1974). "Bedouin Star-Lore in Sinai and the Negev". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (abstract) 37 (3): 580–96. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00127491. JSTOR 613801. 
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  15. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 198.
  16. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 201.
  17. ^ p. 419, Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies, Janet Parker, Alice Mills, Julie Stanton, Durban, Struik Publishers, 2007.
  18. ^ Best, Elsdon (1922). Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori: Genuine and Empirical. Wellington, New Zealand: Dominion Museum. pp. 34–35. 
  19. ^ Makemson 1941, pp. 200-202.
  20. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 217.
  21. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 218.
  22. ^ Clegg, Andrew (1986). "Some Aspects of Tswana Cosmology". Botswana Notes and Records 18: 33–37. JSTOR 40979758. 
  23. ^ Hollman, J. C. ""The Sky's Things", |xam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts". African Sky 11: 8. Bibcode:2007AfrSk..11....8H. 
  24. ^ Basso, Ellen B. (1987). In Favor of Deceit: A Study of Tricksters in an Amazonian Society. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. p. 360. ISBN 0816510229. 
  25. ^ Knobel, E. B. (1917). "On Frederick de Houtman's Catalogue of Southern Stars, and the Origin of the Southern Constellations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 77: 414–32 [422]. Bibcode:1917MNRAS..77..414K. doi:10.1093/mnras/77.5.414. 
  26. ^ Knobel, p. 416.
  27. ^ D. Gieringer, "Exploring the Tropic of Canopus," Astronomy, December 1985, p.24.
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  30. ^ Schaaf, p. 257.
  31. ^ Schaaf, pp. 112-13.
  32. ^ a b c Kaler, James B. (2002). The Hundred Greatest Stars. New York, New York: Copernicus Books. p. 37. ISBN 0-387-95436-8. 
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  34. ^ Sky and Telescope, April 1998 (p60), based on computations from HIPPARCOS data.
  35. ^ de Zeeuw, P.T.; Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J.H.J; Brown, A.G.A; Blaauw, A. (1999). "A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations". The Astronomical Journal 117: 354. Bibcode:1999AJ....117..354D. doi:10.1086/300682. 
  36. ^ a b Mamajek, Eric (11 August 2014). "Canopus B: A Candidate Common Proper Motion Companion to the Second Brightest Star". Figshare. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  37. ^ Flamsteed, John (1729). Atlas coelestis. London, United Kingdom. pp. Constellation Map of Southern Hemisphere. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) [1899]. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Revised ed.). New York: Dover Publications. pp. 67–72. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. 
  39. ^ Islamic Awareness. "Astronomical Orientation Of Ka`bah". 
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  42. ^ Mudrooroo (1994). Aboriginal mythology : an A-Z spanning the history of aboriginal mythology from the earliest legends to the present day. London: HarperCollins. p. 27. ISBN 1-85538-306-3. 
  43. ^ a b Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae". Journal of Astronomical History & Heritage 13 (3): 220–34. 
  44. ^ Mudroodoo, p. 55.
  45. ^ Johnson, Diane (1998). Night skies of aboriginal Australia: a noctuary. Darlington, New South Wales: University of Sydney. p. 84. ISBN 1-86451-356-X. 
  46. ^ Haynes, Ros D. (2000). Astronomy and the Dreaming: The Astronomy of the Aboriginal Australians. Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 57. 
  47. ^ Rogers, John H. (1998). "Origins of the Ancient Constellations: I. The Mesopotamian Traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 (1): 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R. 
  48. ^ Allen, Richard Hinckley, Star Names, their lore and meaning, p. 359 
  49. ^ a b Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Sky Pub. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7. 
  50. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 259.
  51. ^ Makemson 1941, p. 229.
  52. ^ Kieron Taylor (1 March 1994). "Precession". myweb.tiscali.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  53. ^ "Astronomy of the Brazilian Flag". FOTW Flags Of The World website. 

Coordinates: Sky map 06h 23m 57.1099s, −52° 41′ 44.378″