Circumvallate placenta is a placental disease in which the fetal membranes (chorion and amnion) "double back" on the fetal side around the edge of the placenta. After delivery, a circumvallate placenta has a thick ring of membranes on its fetal surface.
Complete circumvallate placenta occurs in approximately 1% of pregnancies. It is diagnosed prenatally by medical ultrasonography, although one 1997 study of prenatal ultrasounds found that "of the normal placentas, 35% were graded as probably or definitely circumvallate by at least one sonologist," and "all sonologists misgraded the case of complete circumvallation as normal." The condition is associated with perinatal complications such as placental abruption, oligohydramnios, abnormal cardiotocography, preterm birth, and miscarriage.