Daayan

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Daayan (डायन) (pronounced "dye-en") is an Indian word for a witch. Daayn appears in some Indian languages as daaynee, a variant of dakini. Its etymology has changed for cultural (patriarchical and gender-based) reasons.[1] In Hinduism, dakini were attendants of the goddess Kali who were associated with her power. They were associated with learning during the Vedic period, were believed to have yogic capabilities and were also known as yoginis.[2]

History[edit]

The daayan cult refers to a secret society which emerged during the 15th century in Harangul, a village in the Latur district of Maharashtra. The concept of daayans has permeated Indian culture, and may be seen on popular television programs. The cult was associated with worship of the mother goddess; in India it is associated with Kali and Durga, in Greece with Diana and in Egypt with Isis. Belief in daayans has existed in most regions of India, particularly Jharkhand and Bihar.[3] It is prevalent in rural and semi-rural areas, with "witch-hunts" causing women to be killed or ostracised.[4]

In Harangul it is believed that a sect of women known as daayans lives in an area of the village, and an evil spirit resides within them. Villagers believe these women destroy everything good. Daayans are reported in and around cemeteries, abandoned battlefields, crossroads, toilets and squalid places.[5][6]

Folklore suggests that a woman badly-treated by her family or who died in childbirth as a result of family neglect returns as a daayan, haunting the family and drinking the blood of male family members.[7] Beginning with the youngest male in the family, draining his blood changes him into an old man before she progresses to the other men.[8]

A daayan is also said to target young families, young women and other family surrogates.[9] Assuming the form of a young, attractive female, she hunts for young men on roads and seduces lone travellers into accompanying her. Imprisoning a man, she feeds on his blood or sweat.[6][8] One legend says that a daayan will hold a young man captive until he is old, using him sexually until he dies and joins the spirit world. Another says that a young man seduced by the daayan who eats her food returns at dawn to the village as an old man.[10] The daayan is said to be culturally derived from shamans and healers for over 25,000 years, the original healer, counselor and stateswoman of her community in a matriarchal society.[11]

Differences with churels[edit]

Daayan is sometimes used interchangeably with churel (चुड़ैल), although conceptual and cultural differences exist between them. A churel is a female vengeful ghost believed to arise from the death of a woman during pregnancy or childbirth, with supernatural powers similar to a witch. Indian witch stories vary across the country; the north Indian states believe that the churel (which lives near graveyards or in forests) can change its form and lure young men killing or having physical contact with them.[12]

Folklore[edit]

Some women are believed to be daayans, and (along with young children) are sometimes tortured and killed in rural areas.[13]

Practices and rituals[edit]

Daayans worship the mother goddesses Kali and Durga.[14] Many believe they are the handmaidens of these goddesses, and are known as yoginis in local lore. In rural India, temples to Kali and Durga have yogini carvings and Hindu texts refer to yoginis.

In popular culture[edit]

Daayans are described in Ek Thi Daayan as beautiful women with long black hair tied in a thick braid and backwards-facing feet. Her strength is said to be centered in her braid; when cut, the daayan would disappear for 20 years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roy Chakraverti, Beloved Witch, Harper Collins Publishers 2000
  2. ^ Indian Witchcraft, Saletore RN, p. 120, 117
  3. ^ "'Witches' haunt women empowerment in Jharkhand - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2012-12-10. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  4. ^ TNN Dec 11, 2012, 12.24AM IST (2012-12-11). "'Witch' attacked in Rahe village - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  5. ^ Fane, Hannah (1975). "The Female Element in Indian Culture". Asian Folklore Studies (Nanzan University) 34 (1): 100. JSTOR 1177740.
  6. ^ a b Raymond Buckland (2009). The Weiser Field Guide to Ghosts: Apparitions, Spirits, Spectral Lights and Other Hauntings of History and Legend. Weiser Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-57863-451-4.
  7. ^ Cheung, Theresa (2006). The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-00-721148-7.
  8. ^ a b Janet Chawla (1994). Child-bearing and culture: women centered revisioning of the traditional midwife : the dai as a ritual practitioner. Indian Social Institute. p. 15.
  9. ^ Bane, Theresa (2010). "Chedipe". Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology. McFarland. pp. 47–8. ISBN 978-0786444526.
  10. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1999). The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead. Visible Ink Press. p. 372.
  11. ^ Roy Chakraverti, Ipsita, Chapter 25, Beloved Witch, Harper Collins Publishers 2000
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ "Double child sacrifice casts spotlight on witchcraft in India". Smh.com.au. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Chapter 25, Beloved Witch, Harper Collins Publishers India, 2000