Dennis W. Sciama

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dennis Sciama)
Jump to: navigation, search
Dennis Sciama
Sciama2.jpg
Dennis William Siahou Sciama (1926–1999)
Born Dennis William Siahou Sciama
(1926-11-18)18 November 1926
Manchester, Lancashire, UK
Died 19 December 1999(1999-12-19) (aged 73)
Oxford, UK
Residence United Kingdom and Italy
Nationality British
Fields Physicist
Institutions University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
Cornell
Harvard
King's College London
University of Texas at Austin
Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati
Alma mater University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Paul Dirac
Doctoral students John D. Barrow
James Binney
Adrian Melott
George Ellis
Gary Gibbons
Stephen Hawking
Martin Rees
David Deutsch
Paolo Salucci
Antony Valentini
Brandon Carter
Tim Palmer
Philip Candelas
Angelo Anile
Antonio Lanza
Malcolm MacCallum
Stefano Liberati
Known for Astrophysics and cosmology
Notable awards

Faraday Medal (1991)[1]

Guthrie Medal and Prize (1991)
Spouse Lidia Dina (1959-1999; his death; 2 children)

Dennis William Siahou Sciama, FRS (/ʃiˈæmə/; 18 November 1926 – 18 December 1999)[2][3] was a British physicist who, through his own work and that of his students, played a major role in developing British physics after the Second World War. He is considered one of the fathers of modern cosmology.[4][5]

Life and career[edit]

Sciama was born in Manchester, England, the son of Nelly Ades and Abraham Sciama.[6] He was of Syrian Jewish ancestry, his father born in Manchester and his mother in Egypt, both tracing their roots back to Aleppo, Syria.[7]

Sciama earned his PhD in 1953 at Cambridge University under the supervision of Paul Dirac, with a dissertation on Mach's principle and inertia. His work later influenced the formulation of scalar-tensor theories of gravity.

He taught at Cornell, King's College London, Harvard and the University of Texas at Austin, but spent most of his career at Cambridge (1950s and 1960s) and the University of Oxford (1970s and early 1980s). In 1983, he moved from Oxford to Trieste, becoming Professor of Astrophysics at the International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), and a consultant with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics.

During the 1990s, he divided his time between Trieste (and a residence in nearby Venice) and Oxford, where he was a visiting professor until the end of his life. His main home remained in his house in Park Town, Oxford.

Sciama drew on his broad knowledge of physics to make fruitful connections among many topics in astronomy and astrophysics. He wrote on radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, quasars, the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave radiation, the interstellar and intergalactic medium, astroparticle physics and the nature of dark matter. Most significant was his work in general relativity, with and without quantum theory, and black holes. He helped revitalize the classical relativistic alternative to general relativity known as Einstein-Cartan gravity.

Early in his career, he supported Fred Hoyle's steady state cosmology, and interacted with Hoyle, Hermann Bondi, and Thomas Gold. When evidence against the steady state theory, e.g., the cosmic microwave radiation, mounted in the 1960s, Sciama abandoned it.

During his last years, Sciama became interested in the issue of Dark Matter in galaxies. Among other aspects he pursued a theory of dark matter that consists of a heavy neutrino, certainly disfavored in his realization, but still possible in a more complicated scenario.

A number of the leading astrophysicists and cosmologists of the modern era completed their doctorates under Sciama's supervision, notably:

Sciama also strongly influenced Roger Penrose, who dedicated his The Road to Reality to Sciama's memory. The 1960s group he led in Cambridge (which included Ellis, Hawking, Rees, and Carter), has proved of lasting influence.

Sciama was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1982. He was also an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the Academia Lincei of Rome. He served as president of the International Society of General Relativity and Gravitation, 1980–84.

In 1959, Sciama married Lidia Dina, a social anthropologist, who survived him, along with their two daughters.

His work at SISSA and the University of Oxford led to the creation of a lecture series in his honour, the Dennis Sciama Memorial Lectures.[8] In 2009, the Institute of Cosmology at the University of Portsmouth elected to name their new building, and their supercomputer in 2011, in his honour.[9]

Books by Sciama[edit]

  • 1959. The Unity of the Universe. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday.
  • 1969. The Physical Foundations of General Relativity. New York: Doubleday. Science Study Series. Short (104 pages) and clearly written non-mathematical book on the physical and conceptual foundations of General Relativity. Could be read with profit by physics students before immersing themselves in more technical studies of General Relativity.
  • 1971. Modern Cosmology. Cambridge University Press.
  • 1993. Modern Cosmology and the Dark Matter Problem. Cambridge University Press.

Pop Culture[edit]

Sciama has been portrayed in a number of biographical projects about his most famous student, Stephen Hawking:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Institute of Physics awards". Iop.org. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  2. ^ Ellis, George F. R.; Penrose, Roger (2010). "Dennis William Sciama. 18 November 1926 -- 19 December 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 56: 401. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2009.0023.  edit
  3. ^ Ellis, George F. R. (2000). "Dennis Sciama (1926-99)". Nature 403 (6771): 722. doi:10.1038/35001716. PMID 10693790.  edit
  4. ^ "PhysicsWorld Archive » Volume 13 » Obituary: Dennis Sciama 1926–1999". Physicsworldarchive.iop.org. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  5. ^ "PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY VOL. 145, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Helge Kargh (1999). Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe H (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 220. 
  8. ^ Dennis Sciama Memorial Lectures, SISSA, Italy.
  9. ^ "University Buildings | Contact and maps | University of Portsmouth". Port.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 

External links[edit]