All Souls College, Oxford

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All Souls College, Oxford

All Souls College in winter.jpg
College name The Warden and the College of the Souls of all Faithful People deceased in the University of Oxford[1]
Latin name Collegium Omnium Animarum
Named after Feast of All Souls
Established 1438
Sister college Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Warden John Vickers
Undergraduates None
Graduates 8 (2012)[2]
Location High Street, Oxford

All Souls College, Oxford is located in Oxford city centre
All Souls College, Oxford

Location of All Souls College, Oxford within central OxfordCoordinates: 51°45′12″N 1°15′11″W / 51.753279°N 1.253041°W / 51.753279; -1.253041
All-Souls College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg
Blazon Or, a chevron between three cinquefoils gules.

All Souls College, Oxford (official name: The Warden and the College of the Souls of All Faithful People Deceased in the University of Oxford[1]) is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically become Fellows (i.e., full members of the College's governing body). It has no undergraduate members, but each year recent graduates of Oxford and other universities are eligible to apply for Examination Fellowships through a competitive examination and interview process (once described as "the hardest exam in the world")[3][4][5]

All Souls is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £245m (2012).[6] However, since the College's only source of revenue is its endowment, it only ranks nineteenth among Oxford colleges with respect to total income.[7]

The college is located on the north side of the High Street adjoining Radcliffe Square to the west. To the east is The Queen's College with Hertford College to the North.

The current Warden is Sir John Vickers, a graduate of Oriel College, Oxford.


The College was founded by Henry VI of England and Henry Chichele (fellow of New College and Archbishop of Canterbury), in 1438. The Statutes provided for the Warden and forty fellows – all to take Holy Orders; twenty-four to study arts, philosophy and theology; and sixteen to study civil or canon law. The College's Codrington Library was built with the bequest of Christopher Codrington, sometime governor of the Leeward Islands. Today the College is primarily a graduate research institution.

There are now no undergraduate members, but All Souls did once have them, especially around the early 17th century, introduced by Robert Hovenden (who was Warden of the college from 1571 to 1614) to provide servientes. The college decided to get along without them again, although four Bible Clerks remained on the foundation until 1924.[8] One such was the Rev. Thomas Forster Rolfe (born 1855), an undergraduate at All Souls from 1874–1878. Joseph Keble (1632–1710) was another undergraduate of the college.

Buildings and architecture[edit]

The Codrington Library[edit]

The All Souls Library (formally known as the Codrington Library) was founded through a bequest from Christopher Codrington (1668–1710), a Fellow of the College. Christopher Codrington bequeathed books worth £6,000, in addition to £10,000 in currency. This bequest allowed the library to be built and endowed. Christopher Codrington was born in Barbados, and amassed his fortune from plantation slavery.[9] The library was completed in 1751, and has been in continuous use since then. The modern library comprises some 185,000 items, about a third of which were published before 1800. The collections are particularly strong in Law and History (especially Military History).[10]


Built between 1438 and 1442 the chapel remained largely unchanged until the Commonwealth – Oxford having been a Royalist stronghold, suffered a certain amount of the Puritans' wrath. The 42 misericords date from the Chapel's building, and show a family resemblance to the misericords at Higham Ferrers as they were, also, possibly carved by Richard Tyllock.

Christopher Wren was a Fellow from 1653 and in 1658 produced a sundial, which was placed on the South wall of the Chapel, until it was moved to the quadrangle in 1877. During the 1660s a screen was installed, which was based on a design by Wren. However, this screen needed to be rebuilt by 1713. By the mid-19th century, much work was needed and so, today's chapel is heavily influenced by Victorian ideals.


Examination Fellowships[edit]

Around 500 Oxford undergraduates who receive a First, and students from other universities with equivalent results in their bachelor's degrees[11] during the previous three years, are eligible to apply for Examination Fellowships of seven years each; several dozen typically do so.[4][12] Two examination fellows are usually elected each year, although the college has awarded a single place in previous years, and made no award on rare occasions.[13]

The competition, offered since 1878[14] and open to women since 1979,[4] takes place over two days in late September, with two examinations of three hours each per day:

Two are on subjects of the candidates' choice. Options include Classics, English Literature, Economics, History, Law, Philosophy, and Politics. Candidates who choose Classics as their subject have a translation examination on a third day.[11]
Two are on general subjects. For each examination candidates choose from a list three questions,[15] such as;

Before 2010 candidates also faced another examination, a free-form "Essay" on a single, random word. This has since been discontinued.[3][4][14]

Four to six[12] finalists are invited to the viva voce[13] or oral examination,[11] then dinner with about 75 members of the college.

About one dozen Examination Fellows are at the college at any one time.[4] There are no teaching or research requirements; they can study anything for free at Oxford with room and board.[11] As "Londoners" they can pursue approved non-academic careers[4][11] if desired, as long as they pursue academia on a part-time basis and attend weekend dinners at the college during their first academic year.[12] As of 2011 each Examination Fellow receives a stipend of £14,842[17] annually for the first two years; the stipend then varies depending on whether the Fellow pursues an academic career.[11]

Notable candidates[edit]


Subjects of the "Essay"[edit]

Other fellowships[edit]

Other categories of fellowship include Senior Research Fellows, Extraordinary Research Fellows, Visiting Fellows, Post-Doctoral Research Fellows, Fifty-Pound Fellows (open only to former Fellows no longer holding posts in Oxford) and Distinguished Fellows. There are also many Professorial Fellows who hold their fellowships by reason of their University post.


Every hundred years, and generally on 14 January, there is a commemorative feast after which the fellows parade around the College with flaming torches, singing the Mallard Song and led by a "Lord Mallard" who is carried in a chair, in search of a legendary mallard that supposedly flew out of the foundations of the college when it was being built.[27] During the hunt the Lord Mallard is preceded by a man bearing a pole to which a mallard is tied – originally a live bird, latterly either dead (1901) or carved from wood (2001). The last mallard ceremony was in 2001[28] and the next will be held in 2101. The precise origin of the custom is not known but it dates from at least 1632.[29]


Past and current fellows of the College have included:

Robert Recorde – inventor of the Western "equals sign" (=).
Brownloe North – Bishop of Lichfield in 1771, Bishop of Worcester in 1774, and Bishop of Winchester in 1781.
George Nathaniel Curzon by John Cooke – British Conservative statesman who was Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary.



  1. ^ a b "The modern college". 
  2. ^ "Student Numbers 2012". Oxford University Gazette. 6 March 2013. p. 409. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Shepherd, Jessica. "The word on Oxford University's All Souls fellows exam is: axed" The Guardian, 14 May 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mount, Harry. "All Souls, Oxford should continue to put genius to the test" The Daily Telegraph, 19 May 2010.
  5. ^ a b c "Is the All Souls College entrance exam easy now?" The Guardian, 17 May 2010.
  6. ^
  7. ^ Finance, All Souls College, Oxford.[dead link]
  8. ^ History page 3, All Souls College, Oxford (accessed 11 March 2008).
  9. ^ James Walvin, Slavery and the Building of Britain, BBC.
  10. ^ "All, Codrington Library". 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Examination Fellowships 2010" All Souls College, Oxford
  12. ^ a b c d Wainwright, Tom. "The most glittering prize" The Daily Telegraph, 8 January 2005.
  13. ^ a b "The Soul of All Souls" TIME, 19 May 1961.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lyall, Sarah. "Oxford Tradition Comes to This: ‘Death’ (Expound)" The New York Times, 27 May 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Sample Fellowship Exam, Oxford University's All Souls College" The New York Times, 27 May 2010.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mount, Harry. "A few things pointy-heads should know" New Statesman, 4 October 1999.
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Sir William Anson"
  19. ^ "B: Appeasement and public opinion". The Churchill Era. Churchill College, Cambridge. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Lacey, Nicola (2006). A life of H.L.A. Hart: the nightmare and the noble dream. Oxford University Press. pp. 41, 43. ISBN 0-19-920277-X. 
  21. ^ "Bernard Williams (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  22. ^ Godine, David R. and Andrew Lownie. John Buchan: the Presbyterian cavalier (1995), pp. 60–61.
  23. ^ "Lord Denning, OM". The Daily Telegraph (London). 6 March 1999. 
  24. ^ Pimlott, Ben (1992). Harold Wilson. HarperCollins. p. 61. ISBN 0002151898. 
  25. ^ Hensher, Philip. "'Comedy' was the word for my exam" The Independent, 24 May 2010.
  26. ^ a b c d Little, Reg. "One-word exam ending" The Oxford Times, 20 May 2010.
  27. ^ British Folk Customs
  28. ^ Daily Telegraph 15 January 2001:
  29. ^ HOLE, Christina, English Custom and Usage, London, Batsford, 1941, p.28: "...we know that the custom existed at least as early as 1632, for in that year Archbishop Abbot censured the College for a riot "in pretence of a foolish Mallard".

External links[edit]