|The Right Honourable
The Baroness Thatcher
LG OM PC FRS
|Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|
4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
|Preceded by||James Callaghan|
|Succeeded by||John Major|
|Leader of the Opposition|
11 February 1975 – 4 May 1979
|Prime Minister||Harold Wilson
|Preceded by||Edward Heath|
|Succeeded by||James Callaghan|
|Leader of the Conservative Party|
11 February 1975 – 28 November 1990
|Preceded by||Edward Heath|
|Succeeded by||John Major|
|Secretary of State for Education and Science|
20 June 1970 – 4 March 1974
|Prime Minister||Edward Heath|
|Preceded by||Edward Short|
|Succeeded by||Reginald Prentice|
|Member of Parliament
8 October 1959 – 9 April 1992
|Preceded by||John Crowder|
|Succeeded by||Hartley Booth|
|Born||Margaret Hilda Roberts
13 October 1925
|Died||8 April 2013
(m. 1951–2003, his death)
|Alma mater||Somerville College, Oxford
Inns of Court
|Religion||Church of England (1951-2013)
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG OM PC FRS (née Roberts, 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Originally a research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and became the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.
Upon moving into 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and high unemployment until the 1982 Falklands War brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her re-election in 1983.
Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge (popularly referred to as "poll tax") was widely unpopular and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. After a series of small strokes in 2002 she was advised to withdraw from public speaking, and in 2013 she died of another stroke in London at the age of 87.
Early life and education
Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda Roberts in Grantham, Lincolnshire, on 13 October 1925. Her father was Alfred Roberts, originally from Northamptonshire, and her mother was Beatrice Ethel (née Stephenson) from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops. She and her older sister Muriel (1921-2004) were raised in the flat above the larger of the two, on North Parade near the railway line. Her father was active in local politics and the Methodist church, serving as an alderman and a local preacher, and brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church. He came from a Liberal family but stood—as was then customary in local government—as an Independent. He was Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950.
Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School. Her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement; her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals, swimming and walking. She was head girl in 1942–43. In her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, but she was initially rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew. She arrived at Oxford in 1943 and graduated in 1947 with Second-Class Honours in the four-year Chemistry Bachelor of Science degree; in her final year she specialised in X-ray crystallography under the supervision of Dorothy Hodgkin.
Roberts became President of the Oxford University Conservative Association in 1946. She was influenced at university by political works such as Friedrich von Hayek's The Road to Serfdom (1944), which condemned economic intervention by government as a precursor to an authoritarian state.
After graduating, Roberts moved to Colchester in Essex to work as a research chemist for BX Plastics. In 1948, she applied for a job at ICI, but was rejected after the personnel department assessed her as "headstrong, obstinate and dangerously self-opinionated".
She joined the local Conservative Association and attended the party conference at Llandudno in 1948, as a representative of the University Graduate Conservative Association. One of her Oxford friends was also a friend of the Chair of the Dartford Conservative Association in Kent, who were looking for candidates. Officials of the association were so impressed by her that they asked her to apply, even though she was not on the Conservative party's approved list: she was selected in January 1951, at age twenty-five, and added to the approved list post ante. At a dinner following her formal adoption as Conservative candidate for Dartford in February 1951 she met Denis Thatcher, a successful and wealthy divorced businessman, who drove her to her Essex train. In preparation for the election Roberts moved to Dartford, where she supported herself by working as a research chemist for J. Lyons and Co. in Hammersmith, part of a team developing emulsifiers for ice cream.
Early political career
In the 1950 and 1951 general elections, she was the Conservative candidate for the safe Labour seat of Dartford, where she attracted media attention as the youngest and the only female candidate. She lost both times to Norman Dodds, but reduced the Labour majority by 6,000, and then a further 1,000. During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951. Denis funded his wife's studies for the bar; she qualified as a barrister in 1953 and specialised in taxation. That same year, their twins, Carol and Mark, were born.
Member of Parliament (1959–1970)
Thatcher was not a candidate in the 1955 general election as it came fairly soon after the birth of her children. In 1954, she was narrowly defeated when she sought selection as the candidate for the Orpington by-election of January 1955. Afterwards, she began looking for a Conservative safe seat and was selected as the candidate for Finchley in April 1958 (narrowly beating Ian Montagu Fraser). She was elected as MP for the seat after a hard campaign in the 1959 election. Her maiden speech was in support of her private member's bill (Public Bodies (Admission to Meetings) Act 1960), requiring local authorities to hold their council meetings in public. In 1961 she went against the Conservative Party's official position by voting for the restoration of birching as a judicial corporal punishment. She regarded Finchley's Jewish residents as "her people" and became a founding member of the Anglo-Israel Friendship League of Finchley as well as a member of the Conservative Friends of Israel. She also believed Israel had to trade land for peace, and condemned Israel's 1981 bombing of Osirak as "a grave breach of international law".
In October 1961 Thatcher was promoted to the front bench as Parliamentary Undersecretary at the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance in Harold Macmillan's administration. After the Conservatives lost the 1964 election she became spokeswoman on Housing and Land, in which position she advocated her party's policy of allowing tenants to buy their council houses. She moved to the Shadow Treasury team in 1966 and, as Treasury spokeswoman, opposed Labour's mandatory price and income controls, arguing that they would produce effects contrary to those intended and distort the economy.
At the Conservative Party Conference of 1966 she criticised the high-tax policies of the Labour Government as being steps "not only towards Socialism, but towards Communism". She argued that lower taxes served as an incentive to hard work. Thatcher was one of the few Conservative MPs to support Leo Abse's Bill to decriminalise male homosexuality. She voted in favour of David Steel's bill to legalise abortion, as well as a ban on hare coursing. She supported the retention of capital punishment and voted against the relaxation of divorce laws.
In 1967, she was selected by the United States Embassy in London to take part in the International Visitor Leadership Program (then called the Foreign Leader Program), a professional exchange programme that gave her the opportunity to spend about six weeks visiting various US cities and political figures as well as institutions such as the International Monetary Fund. Later that year Thatcher joined the Shadow Cabinet, where she was appointed Fuel and Power spokesman by opposition leader Edward Heath. Shortly before the 1970 general election, she was promoted to Shadow Transport spokesman and later to Education.
Education Secretary and Cabinet Minister (1970–1974)
The Conservative party under Edward Heath won the 1970 general election, and Thatcher was subsequently appointed to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Education and Science. During her first months in office she attracted public attention as a result of the administration's attempts to cut spending. She gave priority to academic needs in schools. She imposed public expenditure cuts on the state education system, resulting in the abolition of free milk for schoolchildren aged seven to eleven. She held that few children would suffer if schools were charged for milk, but she agreed to provide younger children with a third of a pint daily, for nutritional purposes. Cabinet papers later revealed that she opposed the policy but had been forced into it by the Treasury. Her decision provoked a storm of protest from Labour and the press. leading to the moniker "Margaret Thatcher, Milk Snatcher". She reportedly considered leaving politics in the aftermath and would later write in her autobiography: "I learned a valuable lesson [from the experience]. I had incurred the maximum of political odium for the minimum of political benefit."
Thatcher's term of office was marked by proposals for more local education authorities to close grammar schools and to adopt comprehensive secondary education. Although she was committed to a tiered secondary modern-grammar school system of education and was determined to preserve grammar schools, during her tenure as Education Secretary she turned down only 326 of 3,612 proposals for schools to become comprehensives; the proportion of pupils attending comprehensive schools consequently rose from 32 per cent to 62 per cent.
Leader of the Opposition (1975–1979)
The Heath government continued to experience difficulties with oil embargoes and union demands for wage increases in 1973 and lost the February 1974 general election. Labour formed a minority government and went on to win a narrow majority in the October 1974 general election. Heath's leadership of the Conservative Party looked increasingly in doubt. Thatcher was not initially the obvious replacement, but she eventually became the main challenger, promising a fresh start. Her main support came from the Conservative 1922 Committee. She defeated Heath on the first ballot and he resigned the leadership. In the second ballot she defeated Heath's preferred successor, William Whitelaw, and became party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975; she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy. Heath remained disenchanted with Thatcher to the end of his life, for what he and many of his supporters perceived as her disloyalty in standing against him.
Thatcher began to attend lunches regularly at the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), a think tank founded by the poultry magnate Antony Fisher, a disciple of Friedrich von Hayek; she had been visiting the IEA and reading its publications since the early 1960s. There she was influenced by the ideas of Ralph Harris and Arthur Seldon, and she became the face of the ideological movement opposing the welfare state. Keynesian economics, they believed, was weakening Britain. The institute's pamphlets proposed less government, lower taxes, and more freedom for business and consumers.
The television critic Clive James, writing in The Observer during the voting for the leadership, compared her voice of 1973 to a cat sliding down a blackboard.[nb 2] Thatcher had already begun to work on her presentation on the advice of Gordon Reece, a former television producer. By chance Reece met the actor Laurence Olivier, who arranged lessons with the National Theatre's voice coach. Thatcher succeeded in completely suppressing her Lincolnshire dialect except when under stress, notably after provocation from Denis Healey in the House of Commons in April 1983, when she accused the Labour front bench of being frit.
On 19 January 1976 Thatcher made a speech in Kensington Town Hall in which she made a scathing attack on the Soviet Union:
The Russians are bent on world dominance, and they are rapidly acquiring the means to become the most powerful imperial nation the world has seen. The men in the Soviet Politburo do not have to worry about the ebb and flow of public opinion. They put guns before butter, while we put just about everything before guns.
Margaret Thatcher wanted to prevent the creation of a Scottish assembly. She told Conservative MPs to vote against the Scotland and Wales Bill in December 1976, which was defeated, and then when new Bills were proposed she supported amending the legislation to allow the English to vote in the 1979 referendum on devolution.
In mid-1978, the economy began to improve and opinion polls showed Labour in the lead, with a general election being expected later that year and a Labour win a serious possibility. Prime Minister James Callaghan surprised many by announcing on 7 September that there would be no general election that year and he would wait until 1979 before going to the polls. Thatcher reacted to this by branding the Labour government as "chickens", and Liberal Party leader David Steel joined in, criticising Labour for "running scared".
The Labour government then faced fresh public unease about the direction of the country and a damaging series of strikes during the winter of 1978–79, dubbed the "Winter of Discontent". The Conservatives attacked the Labour government's unemployment record, using advertising with the slogan Labour Isn't Working. A general election was called after James Callaghan's government lost a motion of no confidence in early 1979. The Conservatives won a 44-seat majority in the House of Commons, and Margaret Thatcher became the UK's first female Prime Minister.
Prime Minister (1979–1990)
Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at 10 Downing Street, she said, in a paraphrase of the "Prayer of Saint Francis":
Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope.
Thatcher was Leader of the Opposition and Prime Minister at a time of increased racial tension in Britain. Commenting on the local elections of May 1977, The Economist noted "The Tory tide swamped the smaller parties. That specifically includes the National Front, which suffered a clear decline from last year". Her standing in the polls rose by 11 percent after a January 1978 interview for World in Action in which she said "the British character has done so much for democracy, for law and done so much throughout the world that if there is any fear that it might be swamped people are going to react and be rather hostile to those coming in."; and "in many ways [minorities] add to the richness and variety of this country. The moment the minority threatens to become a big one, people get frightened." In the 1979 general election, the Conservatives attracted voters from the National Front, whose support almost collapsed. In a meeting in July 1979 with the Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington and Home Secretary William Whitelaw she objected to the number of Asian immigrants, in the context of limiting the number of Vietnamese boat people allowed to settle in the UK to fewer than 10,000.
As Prime Minister, Thatcher met weekly with Queen Elizabeth II to discuss government business, and their relationship came under close scrutiny. In July 1986, The Sunday Times reported claims attributed to the Queen's advisers of a "rift" between Buckingham Palace and Downing Street "over a wide range of domestic and international issues". The Palace issued an official denial, heading off speculation about a possible constitutional crisis. After Thatcher's retirement a senior Palace source again dismissed as "nonsense" the "stereotyped idea" that she had not got along with the Queen, or that they had fallen out over Thatcherite policies. Thatcher later wrote: "I always found the Queen's attitude towards the work of the Government absolutely correct ... stories of clashes between 'two powerful women' were just too good not to make up."
In August 1989, Thatcher queried her government's response to the Taylor Report, writing a hand-written comment on a Downing Street briefing note: "The broad thrust is devastating criticism of the police. Is that for us to welcome? Surely we welcome the thoroughness of the report and its recommendations?"
During her time in office, Thatcher practised great frugality in her official residence, including insisting on paying for her own ironing-board.
Economy and taxation
Thatcher's economic policy was influenced by monetarist thinking and economists such as Milton Friedman and Alan Walters. Together with Chancellor of the Exchequer Geoffrey Howe, she lowered direct taxes on income and increased indirect taxes. She increased interest rates to slow the growth of the money supply and thereby lower inflation, introduced cash limits on public spending, and reduced expenditure on social services such as education and housing. Her cuts in higher education spending resulted in her being the first Oxford-educated post-war Prime Minister not to be awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Oxford, after a 738 to 319 vote of the governing assembly and a student petition. Her new centrally funded City Technology Colleges did not enjoy much success, and the Funding Agency for Schools was set up to control expenditure by opening and closing schools; the Social Market Foundation, a centre-left think tank, described it as having "an extraordinary range of dictatorial powers".
|GDP and public spending
by functional classification
|% change in real terms
1979/80 to 1989/90
|Total government spending||+12.9|
|Law and order||+53.3|
|Employment and training||+33.3|
|Trade and industry||−38.2|
Some Heathite Conservatives in the Cabinet, the so-called "wets", expressed doubt over Thatcher's policies. The 1981 riots in England resulted in the British media discussing the need for a policy U-turn. At the 1980 Conservative Party conference, Thatcher addressed the issue directly, with a speech written by the playwright Ronald Millar that included the lines: "You turn if you want to. The lady's not for turning!"
Thatcher's job approval rating fell to 23 per cent by December 1980, lower than recorded for any previous Prime Minister. As the recession of the early 1980s deepened she increased taxes, despite concerns expressed in a statement signed by 364 leading economists issued towards the end of March 1981.
By 1982 the UK began to experience signs of economic recovery; inflation was down to 8.6 per cent from a high of 18 per cent, but unemployment was over 3 million for the first time since the 1930s. By 1983 overall economic growth was stronger and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970, although manufacturing output had dropped by 30 per cent since 1978 and unemployment remained high, peaking at 3.3 million in 1984.
By 1987, unemployment was falling, the economy was stable and strong, and inflation was low. Opinion polls showed a comfortable Conservative lead, and local council election results had also been successful, prompting Thatcher to call a general election for 11 June that year, despite the deadline for an election still being 12 months away. The election saw Thatcher re-elected for a third successive term.
Thatcher reformed local government taxes by replacing domestic rates—a tax based on the nominal rental value of a home—with the Community Charge (or poll tax) in which the same amount was charged to each adult resident. The new tax was introduced in Scotland in 1989 and in England and Wales the following year, and proved to be among the most unpopular policies of her premiership. Public disquiet culminated in a 70,000 to 200,000-strong  demonstration in London on 31 March 1990; the demonstration around Trafalgar Square deteriorated into the Poll Tax Riots, leaving 113 people injured and 340 under arrest. The Community Charge was abolished by her successor, John Major.
Thatcher was committed to reducing the power of the trade unions, whose leadership she accused of undermining parliamentary democracy and economic performance through strike action. Several unions launched strikes in response to legislation introduced to curb their power, but resistance eventually collapsed. Only 39% of union members voted for Labour in the 1983 general election. According to the BBC, Thatcher "managed to destroy the power of the trade unions for almost a generation".
The miners' strike was the biggest confrontation between the unions and the Thatcher government. In March 1984 the National Coal Board (NCB) proposed to close 20 of the 174 state-owned mines and cut 20,000 jobs out of 187,000. Two-thirds of the country's miners, led by the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) under Arthur Scargill, downed tools in protest. Scargill had refused to hold a ballot on the strike, having previously lost three ballots on a national strike (January 1982, October 1982, March 1983). This led to the strike being declared illegal.
Thatcher refused to meet the union's demands and compared the miners' dispute to the Falklands conflict two years earlier, declaring in a speech in 1984: "We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. We always have to be aware of the enemy within, which is much more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty." After a year out on strike, in March 1985, the NUM leadership conceded without a deal. The cost to the economy was estimated to be at least £1.5 billion, and the strike was blamed for much of the pound's fall against the US dollar. The government closed 25 unprofitable coal mines in 1985, and by 1992 a total of 97 had been closed; those that remained were privatised in 1994. The eventual closure of 150 coal mines, not all of which were losing money, resulted in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs and devastated entire communities. Miners had helped bring down the Heath government, and Thatcher was determined to succeed where he had failed. Her strategy of preparing fuel stocks, appointing a union-busting NCB leader in Ian MacGregor, and ensuring police were adequately trained and equipped with riot gear, contributed to her victory.
The number of stoppages across the UK peaked at 4583 in 1979, when more than 29 million working days were lost. In 1984, the year of the miners' strike, there were 1221, resulting in the loss of more than 27 million working days. Stoppages then fell steadily throughout the rest of Thatcher's premiership; in 1990 there were 630 and fewer than 2 million working days lost, and they continued to fall thereafter. Trade union membership also fell, from 13.5 million in 1979 to fewer than 10 million by the time Thatcher left office in 1990.
The policy of privatisation has been called "a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism". After the 1983 election the sale of state utilities accelerated; more than £29 billion was raised from the sale of nationalised industries, and another £18 billion from the sale of council houses.
The process of privatisation, especially the preparation of nationalised industries for privatisation, was associated with marked improvements in performance, particularly in terms of labour productivity. Some of the privatised industries, including gas, water, and electricity, were natural monopolies for which privatisation involved little increase in competition. The privatised industries that demonstrated improvement often did so while still under state ownership. British Steel, for instance, made great gains in profitability while still a nationalised industry under the government-appointed chairmanship of Ian MacGregor, who faced down trade-union opposition to close plants and reduce the workforce by half. Regulation was also significantly expanded to compensate for the loss of direct government control, with the foundation of regulatory bodies like Ofgas, Oftel and the National Rivers Authority. There was no clear pattern to the degree of competition, regulation, and performance among the privatised industries; in most cases privatisation benefitted consumers in terms of lower prices and improved efficiency, but the results overall were "mixed".
Thatcher always resisted rail privatisation and was said to have told Transport Secretary Nicholas Ridley "Railway privatisation will be the Waterloo of this government. Please never mention the railways to me again." Shortly before her resignation, she accepted the arguments for privatising British Rail, which her successor John Major implemented in 1994. The Economist later considered the move to have been "a disaster".
The privatisation of public assets was combined with financial deregulation in an attempt to fuel economic growth. Geoffrey Howe abolished Britain's exchange controls in 1979, allowing more capital to be invested in foreign markets, and the Big Bang of 1986 removed many restrictions on the London Stock Exchange. The Thatcher government encouraged growth in the finance and service sectors to compensate for Britain's ailing manufacturing industry.
In 1980 and 1981, Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners in Northern Ireland's Maze Prison carried out hunger strikes in an effort to regain the status of political prisoners that had been removed in 1976 by the preceding Labour government. Bobby Sands began the 1981 strike, saying that he would fast until death unless prison inmates won concessions over their living conditions. Thatcher refused to countenance a return to political status for the prisoners, declaring "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political", but nevertheless the UK government privately contacted republican leaders in a bid to bring the hunger strikes to an end. After the deaths of Sands and nine others, some rights were restored to paramilitary prisoners, but not official recognition of their political status. Violence in Northern Ireland escalated significantly during the hunger strikes; in 1982 Sinn Féin politician Danny Morrison described Thatcher as "the biggest bastard we have ever known".
Thatcher narrowly escaped injury in an IRA assassination attempt at a Brighton hotel early in the morning on 12 October 1984. Five people were killed, including the wife of Cabinet Minister John Wakeham. Thatcher was staying at the hotel to attend the Conservative Party Conference, which she insisted should open as scheduled the following day. She delivered her speech as planned, a move that was widely supported across the political spectrum and enhanced her popularity with the public.
On 6 November 1981 Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald had established the Anglo-Irish Inter-Governmental Council, a forum for meetings between the two governments. On 15 November 1985, Thatcher and FitzGerald signed the Hillsborough Anglo-Irish Agreement, the first time a British government had given the Republic of Ireland an advisory role in the governance of Northern Ireland. In protest the Ulster Says No movement attracted 100,000 to a rally in Belfast, Ian Gow resigned as Minister of State in the HM Treasury, and all fifteen Unionist MPs resigned their parliamentary seats; only one was not returned in the subsequent by-elections on 23 January 1986.
Thatcher took office during the Cold War and became closely aligned with the policies of United States President Ronald Reagan, based on their shared distrust of Communism, although she strongly opposed Reagan's October 1983 invasion of Grenada. Reagan had assured Thatcher that an invasion was not contemplated, and thereafter Thatcher felt she could never fully trust Reagan again. During her first year as Prime Minister she supported NATO's decision to deploy US nuclear cruise and Pershing missiles in Western Europe and permitted the US to station more than 160 cruise missiles at RAF Greenham Common, starting on 14 November 1983 and triggering mass protests by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. She bought the Trident nuclear missile submarine system from the US to replace Polaris, tripling the UK's nuclear forces at an eventual cost of more than £12 billion (at 1996–97 prices). Thatcher's preference for defence ties with the US was demonstrated in the Westland affair of January 1986, when she acted with colleagues to allow the struggling helicopter manufacturer Westland to refuse a takeover offer from the Italian firm Agusta in favour of the management's preferred option, a link with Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. The UK Defence Secretary, Michael Heseltine, who had supported the Agusta deal, resigned in protest.
On 2 April 1982 the ruling military junta in Argentina ordered the invasion of the British-controlled Falkland Islands and South Georgia, triggering the Falklands War. The subsequent crisis was "a defining moment of her [Thatcher's] premiership". At the suggestion of Harold Macmillan and Robert Armstrong, she set up and chaired a small War Cabinet (formally called ODSA, Overseas and Defence committee, South Atlantic) to take charge of the conduct of the war, which by 5–6 April had authorised and dispatched a naval task force to retake the islands. Argentina surrendered on 14 June and the operation was hailed a success, notwithstanding the deaths of 255 British servicemen and 3 Falkland Islanders. Argentinian deaths totalled 649, half of them after the nuclear-powered submarine HMS Conqueror torpedoed and sank the cruiser ARA General Belgrano on 2 May. Thatcher was criticised for the neglect of the Falklands' defence that led to the war, and notably by Tam Dalyell in parliament for the decision to sink the General Belgrano, but overall she was considered a highly capable and committed war leader. The "Falklands factor", an economic recovery beginning early in 1982, and a bitterly divided opposition contributed to Thatcher's second election victory in 1983. Thatcher often referred after the war to the "Falklands Spirit"; Hastings and Jenkins (1983) suggested that this reflected her preference for the streamlined decision-making of her War Cabinet over the painstaking deal-making of peace-time cabinet government.
In September 1982 she visited China to discuss with Deng Xiaoping the sovereignty of Hong Kong after 1997. China was the first communist state Thatcher had visited and she was the first British prime minister to visit China. Throughout their meeting, she sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory. Deng stated clearly the PRC's sovereignty on Hong Kong was non-negotiable, but he was willing to settle the sovereignty issue with Britain through formal negotiations, and both governments promised to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity. After the two-year negotiations, Thatcher made concession to the PRC government and signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration in Beijing in December 1984, handing over Hong Kong's sovereignty in 1997.
Although saying that she was in favour of "peaceful negotiations" to end apartheid, Thatcher stood against the sanctions imposed on South Africa by the Commonwealth and the EC. She attempted to preserve trade with South Africa while persuading the regime there to abandon apartheid. This included "[c]asting herself as President Botha's candid friend", and inviting him to visit the UK in June 1984, in spite of the "inevitable demonstrations" against his regime. Thatcher, on the other hand, dismissed the African National Congress (ANC) in October 1987 as "a typical terrorist organisation".
The Thatcher government supported the Khmer Rouge keeping their seat in the UN after they were ousted from power in Cambodia by the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Although denying it at the time they also sent the SAS to train the non-Communist members of the CGDK to fight against the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea government.
Thatcher's antipathy towards European integration became more pronounced during her premiership, particularly after her third election victory in 1987. During a 1988 speech in Bruges she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community (EC), forerunner of the European Union, for a federal structure and increased centralisation of decision making. Thatcher and her party had supported British membership of the EC in the 1975 national referendum, but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EC's approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation; in 1988, she remarked, "We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels". Thatcher was firmly opposed to the UK's membership of the Exchange Rate Mechanism, a precursor to European monetary union, believing that it would constrain the British economy, despite the urging of her Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson and Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe, but she was persuaded by John Major to join in October 1990, at what proved to be too high a rate.
In April 1986, Thatcher permitted US F-111s to use Royal Air Force bases for the bombing of Libya in retaliation for the alleged Libyan bombing of a Berlin discothèque, citing the right of self-defence under Article 51 of the UN Charter.[nb 3] Polls suggested that fewer than one in three British citizens approved of Thatcher's decision. She was in the US on a state visit when Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded neighbouring Kuwait in August 1990. During her talks with US President George H. W. Bush, who had succeeded Reagan in 1989, she recommended intervention, and put pressure on Bush to deploy troops in the Middle East to drive the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. Bush was somewhat apprehensive about the plan, prompting Thatcher to remark to him during a telephone conversation that "This was no time to go wobbly!" Thatcher's government provided military forces to the international coalition in the build-up to the Gulf War, but she had resigned by the time hostilities began on 17 January 1991.
Thatcher was one of the first Western leaders to respond warmly to reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Following Reagan–Gorbachev summit meetings and reforms enacted by Gorbachev in the USSR, she declared in November 1988 that "We're not in a Cold War now", but rather in a "new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was". She went on a state visit to the Soviet Union in 1984 and met with Gorbachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Thatcher was initially opposed to German reunification, telling Gorbachev that it "would lead to a change to postwar borders, and we cannot allow that because such a development would undermine the stability of the whole international situation and could endanger our security". She expressed concern that a united Germany would align itself more closely with the Soviet Union and move away from NATO. In contrast she was an advocate of Croatian and Slovenian independence. In a 1991 interview for Croatian Radiotelevision, Thatcher commented on the Yugoslav Wars; she was critical of Western governments for not recognising the breakaway republics of Croatia and Slovenia as independent states and supplying them with arms after the Serbian-led Yugoslav Army attacked.
Challenges to leadership and resignation
Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP Sir Anthony Meyer in the 1989 leadership election. Of the 374 Conservative MPs eligible to vote, 314 voted for Thatcher and 33 for Meyer. Her supporters in the party viewed the result as a success, and rejected suggestions that there was discontent within the party.
During her premiership Thatcher had the second-lowest average approval rating, at 40 percent, of any post-war Prime Minister. Polls consistently showed that she was less popular than her party. A self-described conviction politician, Thatcher always insisted that she did not care about her poll ratings, pointing instead to her unbeaten election record.
Opinion polls in September 1990 reported that Labour had established a 14% lead over the Conservatives, and by November the Conservatives had been trailing Labour for 18 months. These ratings, together with Thatcher's combative personality and willingness to override colleagues' opinions, contributed to discontent within the Conservative party.
On 1 November 1990 Geoffrey Howe, the last remaining member of Thatcher's original 1979 cabinet, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister over her refusal to agree to a timetable for Britain to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In his resignation speech on 13 November, Howe commented on Thatcher's European stance: "It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease only for them to find the moment that the first balls are bowled that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain." His resignation was fatal to Thatcher's premiership.
The next day, Michael Heseltine mounted a challenge for the leadership of the Conservative Party. Opinion polls had indicated that he would give the Conservatives a national lead over Labour. Although Thatcher won the first ballot, Heseltine attracted sufficient support (152 votes) to force a second ballot. Under party rules, Thatcher not only needed to win a majority, but her margin over Heseltine had to be equivalent to 15 percent of the 372 Conservative MPs in order to win the leadership election outright; she came up four votes short. Thatcher initially stated that she intended to "fight on and fight to win" the second ballot, but consultation with her Cabinet persuaded her to withdraw. After seeing the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech, she left Downing Street in tears. She regarded her ousting as a betrayal.
Thatcher was replaced as Prime Minister and party leader by her Chancellor John Major, who oversaw an upturn in Conservative support in the 17 months leading up to the 1992 general election and led the Conservatives to their fourth successive victory on 9 April 1992. Thatcher favoured Major over Heseltine in the leadership contest, but her support for him weakened in later years.
Later life (1990–2013)
Thatcher returned to the backbenches as MP for Finchley for two years after leaving the premiership. She retired from the House at the 1992 election, aged 66, saying that leaving the Commons would allow her more freedom to speak her mind.
After leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties. She wrote two volumes of memoirs, The Downing Street Years (1993) and The Path to Power (1995). In 1991, she and her husband Dennis moved to a house in Chester Square, a residential garden square in central London's Belgravia district.
In July 1992, Thatcher was hired by the tobacco company Philip Morris as a "geopolitical consultant" for $250,000 per year and an annual contribution of $250,000 to her foundation. She also earned $50,000 for each speech she delivered.
In August 1992, Thatcher called for NATO to stop the Serbian assault on Goražde and Sarajevo to end ethnic cleansing during the Bosnian War. She compared the situation in Bosnia to "the worst excesses of the Nazis", and warned that there could be a "holocaust". She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the Maastricht Treaty, describing it as "a treaty too far" and stated "I could never have signed this treaty". She cited A. V. Dicey when stating that as all three main parties were in favour of revisiting the treaty, the people should have their say.
Thatcher was honorary Chancellor of the College of William and Mary in Virginia (1993–2000) and also of the University of Buckingham (1992–1999), the UK's first private university, which she had opened in 1975.
After Tony Blair's election as Labour Party leader in 1994, Thatcher praised Blair in an interview as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since Hugh Gaitskell. I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair. I think he genuinely has moved".
In 1998, Thatcher called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations, citing the help he gave Britain during the Falklands War. In 1999, she visited him while he was under house arrest near London. Pinochet was released in March 2000 on medical grounds by the Home Secretary Jack Straw, without facing trial.
In the 2001 general election, Thatcher supported the Conservative general election campaign, as she had done in 1992 and 1997, and in the Conservative leadership election shortly after, she supported Iain Duncan Smith over Kenneth Clarke.
In March 2002, Thatcher's book Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, dedicated to Ronald Reagan, was released. In it, she claimed there would be no peace in the Middle East until Saddam Hussein was toppled, that Israel must trade land for peace, and that the European Union (EU) was "fundamentally unreformable", "a classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure". She argued that Britain should renegotiate its terms of membership or else leave the EU and join the North American Free Trade Area. The book was serialised in The Times on 18 March.
Thatcher suffered several small strokes in 2002 and was advised by her doctors not to engage in further public speaking. On 23 March, she announced that on the advice of her doctors she would cancel all planned speaking engagements and accept no more.
Sir Denis Thatcher died of heart failure on 26 June 2003 and was cremated on 3 July. She had paid tribute to him in The Downing Street Years, writing "Being Prime Minister is a lonely job. In a sense, it ought to be: you cannot lead from the crowd. But with Denis there I was never alone. What a man. What a husband. What a friend."
On 11 June 2004, Thatcher attended the state funeral service for Ronald Reagan. She delivered her eulogy via videotape; in view of her health, the message had been pre-recorded several months earlier. Thatcher flew to California with the Reagan entourage, and attended the memorial service and interment ceremony for the president at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
Thatcher celebrated her 80th birthday at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in Hyde Park, London, on 13 October 2005; guests included the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Alexandra and Tony Blair. Geoffrey Howe, by then Lord Howe of Aberavon, was also present, and said of his former leader: "Her real triumph was to have transformed not just one party but two, so that when Labour did eventually return, the great bulk of Thatcherism was accepted as irreversible."
According to a later article in The Daily Telegraph, Thatcher's daughter Carol first revealed that her mother had dementia in 2005, saying that "Mum doesn't read much any more because of her memory loss .. It's pointless. She can't remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she reaches the end." She later recounted how she was first struck by her mother's dementia when she muddled the Falklands conflict with the Yugoslav wars; she has also recalled the pain of needing to tell her mother repeatedly that Denis Thatcher was dead.
In 2006, Thatcher attended the official Washington, D.C. memorial service to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the September 11 attacks on the United States. She was a guest of Vice President Dick Cheney, and met Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice during her visit.
In February 2007, Thatcher became the first living British Prime Minister to be honoured with a statue in the Houses of Parliament. The bronze statue stands opposite that of her political hero, Sir Winston Churchill, and was unveiled on 21 February 2007 with Thatcher in attendance; she made a rare and brief speech in the members' lobby of the House of Commons, responding: "I might have preferred iron – but bronze will do ... It won't rust." The statue shows her addressing the House of Commons, with her right arm outstretched.
She was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.
After collapsing at a House of Lords dinner, Thatcher was admitted to St Thomas' Hospital in central London on 7 March 2008 for tests. In 2009 she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm.
Thatcher returned to 10 Downing Street in late November 2009 for the unveiling of an official portrait by artist Richard Stone, an unusual honour for a living ex-Prime Minister. Stone had previously painted portraits of the Queen and the Queen Mother.
On 4 July 2011, Thatcher was to attend a ceremony for the unveiling of a 10-foot statue to former American President Ronald Reagan, outside the American Embassy in London, but was unable to attend because of frail health. On 31 July 2011, it was announced that her office in the House of Lords had been closed. Earlier that month, Thatcher had been named the most competent British Prime Minister of the past 30 years in an Ipsos MORI poll.
|Wikinews has related news: Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dies aged 87|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher|
Following several years of poor health, Thatcher died on the morning of 8 April 2013 at the age of 87 after suffering a stroke. She had been staying at a suite in The Ritz Hotel in London since December 2012 after having difficulty with stairs at her Chester Square home.
Reactions to the news of Thatcher's death were mixed, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain's greatest-ever peacetime Prime Minister to public celebrations and expressions of personalised vitriol. Details of her funeral were agreed with her in advance. In line with her wishes she received a ceremonial funeral, including full military honours, with a church service at St Paul's Cathedral on 17 April. Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip attended the funeral, the second time in the Queen's reign that she had attended the funeral of a former prime minister.
|Part of the politics series on|
Thatcher defined her own political philosophy, in a major and controversial break with One Nation Conservatives like her predecessor Edward Heath, in her statement to Douglas Keay, published in Woman's Own magazine in September 1987:
I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been given to understand "I have a problem, it is the Government's job to cope with it!" or "I have a problem, I will go and get a grant to cope with it!" "I am homeless, the Government must house me!" and so they are casting their problems on society and who is society? There is no such thing! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first. It is our duty to look after ourselves and then also to help look after our neighbour and life is a reciprocal business and people have got the entitlements too much in mind without the obligations.
The percentage of adults owning shares rose from 7% to 25% during her tenure, and more than a million families bought their council houses, giving an increase from 55 per cent to 67 per cent in owner-occupiers from 1979 to 1990. The houses were sold at a discount of 33-55 per cent, leading to large profits for some new owners. Personal wealth rose by 80 per cent in real terms during the 1980s, mainly due to rising house prices and increased earnings. Shares in the privatised utilities were sold below their market value to ensure quick and wide sales, rather than maximise national income.
Thatcher's premiership was also marked by high unemployment and social unrest, and many critics on the Left of the political spectrum fault her economic policies for the unemployment level; many of the areas affected by high unemployment as well as her monetarist economic policies have still not fully recovered and are blighted by social problems such as drug abuse and family breakdown. Speaking in Scotland in April 2009, before the 30th anniversary of her election as Prime Minister, Thatcher insisted she had no regrets and was right to introduce the poll tax, and to withdraw subsidies from "outdated industries, whose markets were in terminal decline", subsidies that created "the culture of dependency, which had done such damage to Britain". Political economist Susan Strange called the new financial growth model "casino capitalism", reflecting her view that speculation and financial trading were becoming more important to the economy than industry.
She has been criticised as being divisive and for promoting greed and selfishness. Many recent biographers have been critical of aspects of the Thatcher years and Michael White, writing in the New Statesman in February 2009, challenged the view that her reforms had brought a net benefit. Despite being Britain's first woman Prime Minister, some critics contend Thatcher did "little to advance the political cause of women", either within her party or the government, and some British feminists regarded her as "an enemy". Her stance on immigration was perceived by some as part of a rising racist public discourse, which Professor Martin Barker has called "new racism".
Influenced at the outset by Keith Joseph, the term "Thatcherism" came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including moral absolutism, nationalism, interest in the individual, and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.[nb 4] The nickname "Iron Lady", originally given to her by the Soviets, became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.
Thatcher's tenure of 11 years and 209 days as Prime Minister was the longest since Lord Salisbury (13 years and 252 days in three spells starting in 1885), and the longest continuous period in office since Lord Liverpool (14 years and 305 days starting in 1812). She was voted the fourth-greatest British Prime Minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by MORI, and in 2002 was ranked number 16 in the BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. In 1999, TIME named Thatcher one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century.
Thatcher's death prompted mixed reactions, including reflections of criticism as well as praise. Groups celebrated her death in Brixton, Leeds, Bristol and Glasgow, and a crowd of 3000 gathered in Trafalgar Square to celebrate her demise and protest against her legacy.
Shortly after Thatcher's death, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond argued that her policies had the "unintended consequence" of encouraging Scottish devolution. Lord Foulkes agreed on Scotland Tonight that she had provided "the impetus" for devolution.
Thatcher became a Privy Councillor (PC) upon becoming Secretary of State for Education and Science in 1970. She was appointed a Member of the Order of Merit (OM) (an order within the personal gift of the Queen) within two weeks of leaving office. Denis Thatcher was made a Baronet at the same time. She became a peer in the House of Lords in 1992 with a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire. She was appointed a Lady Companion of the Order of the Garter, the UK's highest order of chivalry, in 1995.
In the Falklands, Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked every 10 January since 1992, commemorating her visit in 1983. Thatcher Drive in Stanley is named for her, as is Thatcher Peninsula in South Georgia, where the task force troops first set foot on the Falklands.
Thatcher was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour awarded by the US. She was a patron of The Heritage Foundation, which established the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom in 2005. Speaking of Heritage president Ed Feulner, at the first Clare Booth Luce lecture in September 1993, Thatcher said: "You didn't just advise President Reagan on what he should do; you told him how he could do it. And as a practising politician I can testify that that is the only advice worth having."
Thatcher was lampooned by satirist John Wells in several media. Wells collaborated with Richard Ingrams on the spoof "Dear Bill" letters which ran as a column in Private Eye magazine, were published in book form, and were then adapted into a West End stage revue as Anyone for Denis?, starring Wells as Denis Thatcher. The stage show was followed by a 1982 TV special directed by Dick Clement. Spitting Image, a British TV show, satirised Thatcher as a bully who ridiculed her own ministers. She was voiced by Steve Nallon.
One of the earliest satires of Thatcher as Prime Minister involved Wells (as writer/performer), Janet Brown (voicing Thatcher) and future Spitting Image producer John Lloyd who in 1979 were teamed up by producer Martin Lewis for the satirical audio album The Iron Lady consisting of skits and songs satirising Thatcher's rise to power. The album was released in September 1979, four months after Thatcher became Premier.
Margaret Thatcher has been depicted in many television programmes, documentaries, films and plays. She was played by Patricia Hodge in Ian Curteis's long unproduced The Falklands Play (2002) and by Andrea Riseborough in the TV film The Long Walk to Finchley (2008). She is the titular character in two films, portrayed by Lindsay Duncan in Margaret (2009) and by Meryl Streep in The Iron Lady (2011), in which she is depicted as having Alzheimer's disease.
Styles and titles
- Miss Margaret Roberts (1925–1951)
- Mrs Margaret Thatcher (1951–1959)
- Mrs Margaret Thatcher, MP (1959–1970)
- The Rt Hon. Margaret Thatcher, MP (1970–1983)
- The Rt Hon. Margaret Thatcher, MP, FRS (1983–1990)
- The Rt Hon. Lady Thatcher, OM, MP, FRS (1990–1992)
- The Rt Hon. The Baroness Thatcher, OM, PC, FRS (1992–1995)
- The Rt Hon. The Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (1995–2013)
- In her foreword to the 1979 Conservative manifesto, Thatcher wrote of "a feeling of helplessness, that a once great nation has somehow fallen behind".
- "The hang-up has always been the voice. Not the timbre so much as, well, the tone—the condescending explanatory whine which treats the squirming interlocutor as an eight-year-old child with personality deficiencies. It has been fascinating, recently, to watch her striving to eliminate this. BBC2 News Extra on Tuesday night rolled a clip from May 1973 demonstrating the Thatcher sneer at full pitch. (She was saying that she wouldn't dream of seeking the leadership.) She sounded like a cat sliding down a blackboard." James, Clive (9 February 1975). The Observer (London). Anthologised in James 1977, pp. 119–120.
- Speaking to the House of Commons, Thatcher stated that "the United States has more than 330,000 members of her forces in Europe to defend our liberty. Because they are here, they are subject to terrorist attack. It is inconceivable that they should be refused the right to use American aircraft and American pilots in the inherent right of self-defence, to defend their own people."
- Nigel Lawson listed the Thatcherite ideals as: "Free markets, financial discipline, firm control over public expenditure, tax cuts, nationalism, 'Victorian values' (of the Samuel Smiles self-help variety), privatisation and a dash of populism." Lawson 1992, p. 64
- Thatcher, Margaret (1979). "Conservative Party Manifesto 1979". Foreword. conservativemanifesto.com. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- Beckett 2006, p. 1.
- Beckett 2006, p. 3
- Beckett 2006, p. 8
- Johnson, Maureen (28 May 1988). "Bible-Quoting Thatcher Stirs Furious Debate". Associated Press.
- Beckett 2006, p. 5
- Beckett 2006, p. 6
- Blundell 2008, pp. 21–22.
- "School aims". Kesteven & Grantham Girls' School. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Beckett 2006, p. 12.
- Blundell 2008, p. 23
- Blundell 2008, pp. 25–27.
- Beckett 2006, p. 16.
- Beckett 2006, pp. 20–21.
- Blundell 2008, p. 28.
- Blundell 2008, p. 30.
- Reitan 2003, p. 17.
- Beckett 2006, p. 17
- "In quotes: Margaret Thatcher", BBC, 8 April 2013.
- Beckett 2006, p. 22
- Blundell 2008, p. 36
- "Cream of the crop at Royal Society". New Scientist (London) 99 (1365): 5. 7 July 1983. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- Beckett 2006, pp. 23–24
- Blundell 2008, p. 37
- "Sir Denis Thatcher, Bt". The Daily Telegraph (London). 27 June 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Beckett 2006, p. 25
- Blundell 2008, p. 35
- Beckett 2006, p. 26
- Beckett 2006, p. 27 See also: The London Gazette: . 13 October 1959. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "HC S 2R [Public Bodies (Admission of the Press to Meetings) Bill] (Maiden Speech)". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 5 February 1960.
- Campbell 2000, p. 134
- Johnson, Charles C. (28 December 2011). "Thatcher and the Jews". Tablet Magazine (New York). Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- Reitan 2003, p. 4
- Wapshott 2007, p. 64
- "Sexual Offences (No. 2)". Hansard 731: 267. 5 July 1966.
- Thatcher 1995, p. 150.
- "Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill". Hansard 732: 1165. 22 July 1966.
- "Hare Coursing Bill". Hansard 801: 1599–1603. 14 May 1970.
- "Capital Punishment". Hansard 785: 1235. 24 June 1969.
- "Divorce Reform Bill". Hansard 758: 904–907. 9 February 1968.
- Thatcher 1995, p. 151.
- Scott-Smith, Giles (Winter 2003). ""Her Rather Ambitious Washington Program": Margaret Thatcher's International Visitor Program Visit to the United States in 1967". Contemporary British History (Routledge – Taylor and Francis) 17 (4): 65–86. ISSN 1743–7997. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013.
- Thatcher, Margaret (1995). The Path to Power. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-204789-2.
- Wapshott 2007, p. 65
- Reitan 2003, p. 14
- Wapshott 2007, p. 76
- Hickman, Martin (9 August 2010). "Tories move swiftly to avoid 'milk-snatcher' tag". The Independent (London). Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Reitan 2003, p. 15
- Smith, Rebecca (8 August 2010). "How Margaret Thatcher became known as 'Milk Snatcher'". The Sunday Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Thatcher 1995, p. 182
- Marr 2007, pp. 248–249
- Reitan 2003, p. 16
- Naughton, Philippe (18 July 2005). "Thatcher leads tributes to Sir Edward Heath". The Times (London). Retrieved 14 October 2008.
- "Press Conference after winning Conservative leadership (Grand Committee Room)". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- Weinraub, Bernard (25 July 1988). "For British Tories, a Private Feud Goes Public". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
- Beckett 2010, chapter 11
- Thatcher 1995, p. 267
- Moore, Charles (December 2011). "The Invincible Mrs. Thatcher". Vanity Fair (New York).
- Johnson, Frank (22 April 1983). "A miracle recovery for Finchley mother of two". The Times (London). p. 28.
- "PM taunts Labour over early election". The Guardian (London). 20 April 1983. p. 5. "Amid uproar from both sides of the house, Mrs Thatcher shouted: 'So you are afraid of an election are you? Afraid, Afraid, Afraid. Frightened, frit – couldn't take it. Couldn't stand it.'"
- "Britain Awake". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- "How Thatcher tried to thwart devolution". The Scotsman. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "7 September 1978: Callaghan accused of running scared". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Margaret Thatcher Arrives at 10 Downing Street for the first time as Prime Minister, May 4, 1979". YouTube.
- "Votes go to Tories, and nobody else". The Economist 263 (6976) (London). 14 May 1977. pp. 24–28.
- Conservative Party Campaign Guide Supplement 1978. Published by the Conservative and Unionist Central Office.
- "Mrs Thatcher fears people might become hostile if immigrant flow is not cut". The Times. 31 January 1978.
- "Britain: Facing a Multiracial Future". Time (New York). 27 August 1979. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Reitan 2003, p. 26
- Ward, Paul (2004). Britishness since 1870. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-415-22016-3. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Swaine, Jon (30 December 2009). "Margaret Thatcher complained about Asian immigration to Britain". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Reitan 2003, p. 28.
- Seward 2001, p. 154.
- Freeman, Simon; Jones, Michael (20 July 1986). "Queen dismayed by 'uncaring' Thatcher". The Sunday Times (London).
- Jones, Michael (27 July 1986). "The Queen And Thatcher: The story they couldn't kill; Alleged rift between Premier and British Monarch". The Sunday Times (London).
- "Queen to toast Thatcher". The Times (London). 16 October 1995. p. 2.
- Thatcher 1993, p. 18.
- "Hillsborough papers: Thatcher's concern about police criticism by Taylor". BBC News. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- Holt, Gerry; Williams, Nathan (30 December 2011). "Files reveal Margaret Thatcher's frugal side". BBC News. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Childs 2006, p. 185
- Reitan 2003, p. 30
- "29 January 1985: Thatcher snubbed by Oxford dons". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Marr 2007, p. 464.
- Lawson 1992, p. 301
- Middleton, Roger (2006). "The Political Economy of Decline". Journal of Contemporary History 41 (3): 580. doi:10.1177/0022009406064671.
- "10 October 1980: Thatcher 'not for turning'". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC News). Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- Jones, Kavanagh & Moran 2007, p. 224.
- Thornton 2006, p. 18
- Reitan 2003, p. 31
- "An avalanche of economists". The Times. 31 March 1981. p. 17. Retrieved 12 January 2011. (subscription required)
- Floud & Johnson 2004, p. 392.
- "26 January 1982: UK unemployment tops three million". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC News). 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Consumer Price Inflation: 1947 to 2004". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- O'Grady, Sean (16 March 2009). "Unemployment among young workers hits 15 per cent". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 November 2010.
- "BBC Politics 97". BBC. 11 June 1987. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- Marr 2007, p. 439.
- Passell, Peter (23 April 1990). "Furor Over British Poll Tax Imperils Thatcher Ideology". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2008.
- Reitan 2003, pp. 87–88
- Graham, David (25 March 2010). "The Battle of Trafalgar Square: The poll tax riots revisited". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "31 March 1990: Violence flares in poll tax demonstration". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC News). Retrieved 30 October 2008.
- Thatcher 1993, pp. 97–98, 339–340.
- "Margaret Thatcher". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 July 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- Revzin, Philip (23 November 1984). "British Labor Unions Begin to Toe the Line, Realizing That the Times Have Changed". Wall Street Journal (New York).
- Wilenius, Paul (5 March 2004). "Enemies within: Thatcher and the unions". BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- Glass, Robert (16 December 1984). "The Uncivilized Side of Britain Rears its Ugly Head". The Record. p. 37.
- Black, Dave (21 February 2009). "Still unbowed, ex-miners to mark 25 years since the start of the strike". The Journal (Newcastle). p. 19.
- "Watching the pits disappear". BBC News. 5 March 2004. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Hannan, Patrick (6 March 2004). "Iron Lady versus union baron". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Jones, Alan (3 March 2009). "A History of the Miners' Strike". Press Association National Newswire.
- Adeney, Martin; Lloyd, John (1988). The Miners' Strike, 1984-5: Loss Without Limit. Oxford: Routledge. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0-7102-1371-9.
- Adeney and Lloyd (1988), p.169.
- Adeney and Lloyd (1988), p.170.
- "1984: Pit dispute 'illegal' says judge". BBC ON THIS DAY. 28 September 1984. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Khabaz 2007, p. 226
- Harper, Timothy (5 March 1985). "Miners return to work today. Bitter coal strike wrenched British economy, society". Dallas Morning News. p. 8.
- "UK Coal sees loss crumble to £1m". BBC News. 4 March 2004. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Lee, Adrian (9 December 2008). "King Coal". Daily Express (London). pp. 20–21.
- Marr 2007, p. 411
- Butler & Butler 1994, p. 375
- Evans 2004, p. 40
- Seldon & Collings 2000, p. 27
- Feigenbaum, Henig & Hamnett 1998, p. 71
- Marr 2007, p. 428
- Parker, David; Martin, Stephen (May 1995). "The impact of UK privatisation on labour and total factor productivity". Scottish Journal of Political Economy 42 (2): 216–217.
- Kirby, M. W. (2006). "MacGregor, Sir Ian Kinloch (1912–1998)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 November 2009. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Veljanovski 1990, pp. 291–304
- McAleese 2004, pp. 169–170
- Marr 2007, p. 495
- "3 October 1981: IRA Maze hunger strikes at an end". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008.
- Clarke, Liam (5 April 2009). "Was Gerry Adams complicit over hunger strikers?". Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- "The Hunger Strike of 1981 – A Chronology of Main Events". CAIN, University of Ulster. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- English 2005, pp. 207–208
- "12 October 1984: Tory Cabinet in Brighton bomb blast". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- Thatcher 1993, pp. 379–383
- Lanoue, David J.; Headrick, Barbara (Spring 1998). "Short-Term Political Events and British Government Popularity: Direct and Indirect Effects". Polity 30 (3): 423, 427, 431, 432.
- "Anglo Irish Agreement Chronology". CAIN, University of Ulster. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- "15 November 1985: Anglo-Irish agreement signed". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- Moloney 2002, p. 336
- Cochrane 2001, p. 143
- Gilbert 2002, p. 565
- Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life page 454.
- "Trident is go". Time (New York). 28 July 1980. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Vanguard Class Ballistic Missile Submarine". Federation of American Scientists. 5 November 1999. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Marr 2007, p. 419.
- Smith 1989, p. 21
- Jackling 2005, p. 230
- Hastings & Jenkins 1983, pp. 80–81
- Hastings & Jenkins 1983, p. 95.
- Evans, Michael (15 June 2007). "The Falklands: 25 years since the Iron Lady won her war; Liberation Day". The Times (London). p. 32.
- Hastings & Jenkins 1983, pp. 335–336.
- Sanders, David; Ward, Hugh; Marsh, David (July 1987). "Government Popularity and the Falklands War: A Reassessment". British Journal of Political Science 17 (3): 28.
- Hastings & Jenkins 1983, p. 329.
- Yahuda, Michael B.  (1996). Hong Kong: China's Challenge. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14071-4
- See Hansard HC Debs (25 February 1988) vol 128 col 437 and Written Answers HC Deb (11 July 1988) vol 137 cols 3-4W
- Campbell, J. (2011). "Margaret Thatcher Volume Two: The Iron Lady". Random House. p.322.
- Campbell 2011, p. 325.
- See Mr Winnick, Hansard HC Deb (13 November 1987) vol 122 col 701
- Howe 1994, pp. 477–78.
- "26 October 1990". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (House of Commons). col. 655–667. 26 October 1990
- "Butcher of Cambodia set to expose Thatcher's role". The Observer. 9 January 2000. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Speech to the College of Europe ("The Bruges Speech")". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 20 September 1988. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Conservatives favor remaining in market". Wilmington Morning Star. UPI. 4 June 1975. p. 5. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Senden 2004, p. 9
- Riddell, Peter (23 November 1987). "Thatcher stands firm against full EMS role". Financial Times (London). Retrieved 8 October 2008.
- Thatcher 1993, p. 712.
- Marr 2007, p. 484.
- Cannon, Lou (15 April 1986). "Reagan Acted Upon 'Irrefutable' Evidence". The Washington Post.
- Riddell, Peter (16 April 1986). "Thatcher Defends US Use Of British Bases / Libya bombing raid". Financial Times (London). p. 1.
- "Engagements: HC Debate". Hansard 95: 723–728. 15 April 1986.
- Lejeune, Anthony (23 May 1986). "A friend in need". National Review 38 (1) (New York). p. 27.
- "Oral History: Margaret Thatcher". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Lewis, Anthony (7 August 1992). "Abroad at Home; Will Bush Take Real Action?". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Gulf War: Bush-Thatcher phone conversation (no time to go wobbly)". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 26 August 1990. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Gorbachev Policy Has Ended The Cold War, Thatcher Says". The New York Times. Associated Press. 18 November 1988. Retrieved 30 October 2008.
- Zemtsov, Ilya; Farrar, John (2007). Gorbachev: The Man and the System. Transaction Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4128-0717-3.
- Görtemaker 2006, p. 198
- "TV Interview for HRT (Croatian radiotelevision) [urges international recognition of Croatia & Slovenia]". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 22 December 1991. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Whitney, Craig R. (24 November 1991). "Thatcher Close to Break With Her Replacement". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- "5 December 1989: Thatcher beats off leadership rival". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Ridley, Matt (25 November 1990). "Et Tu, Heseltine?; Unpopularity Was a Grievous Fault, and Thatcher Hath Answered for It". The Washington Post. p. 2.
- "The poll tax incubus". The Times (London). 24 November 1990.
- "1 November 1990: Howe resigns over Europe policy". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Whitney, Craig R (23 November 1990). "Change in Britain; Thatcher Says She'll Quit; 11½ Years as Prime Minister Ended by Party Challenge". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Millership, Peter (1 November 1990). "Thatcher's Deputy Quits in Row over Europe". Reuters News.
- "Sir Geoffrey Howe savages Prime Minister over European stance in Resignation speech". The Times (London). 14 November 1990.
- Walters, Alan (5 December 1990). "Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation was fatal blow in Mrs Thatcher's political assassination". The Times (London).
- Marr 2007, p. 473
- Lipsey, David (21 November 1990). "Poll swing followed downturn by Tories; Conservative Party leadership". The Times (London).
- "Margaret Thatcher". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "22 November 1990: Thatcher quits as prime minister". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2009-01-18). "Thatcher's Last Stand Against Socialism". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Marr 2007, p. 474.
- Kettle, Martin (4 April 2005). "Pollsters taxed". guardian.co.uk (London: Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Major attacks 'warrior' Thatcher". BBC News. 3 October 1999. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Reitan 2003, p. 118
- "30 June 1992: Thatcher takes her place in Lords". On this day 1950–2005 (BBC). 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Theakston, Kevin (May 2010). "What next for Gordon Brown?". History & Policy. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Barkham, Patrick (11 May 2005). "End of an era for Thatcher foundation". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Taylor, Matthew (9 April 2013). "Margaret Thatcher's estate still a family secret". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Tobacco Company Hires Margaret Thatcher as Consultant". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 19 July 1992. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Harris, John (3 February 2007). "Into the void". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Thatcher, Margaret (6 August 1992). "Stop the Excuses. Help Bosnia Now". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- "House of Lords European Communities (Amendment) Bill Speech". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 7 June 1993. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "House of Commons European Community debate". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 20 November 1991. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Chancellor's Robe". College of William and Mary. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Oulton, Charles (1 October 1992). "Thatcher installed as chancellor of private university". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Castle, Stephen (28 May 1995). "Thatcher praises 'formidable' Blair". The Independent.
- "Pinochet – Thatcher's ally". BBC News. 22 October 1998. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Thatcher stands by Pinochet". BBC News. 26 March 1999. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Pinochet set free". BBC News. 2 March 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Letter supporting Iain Duncan Smith for the Conservative leadership published in the Daily Telegraph". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 21 August 2001. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Statement from the office of the Rt Hon Baroness Thatcher LG OM FRS" (Press release). Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 22 March 2002. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
- Campbell 2003, pp. 796–798
- "Lady Thatcher bids Denis farewell". BBC News. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Thatcher 1993, p. 23.
- "Thatcher: 'Reagan's life was providential'". CNN. 11 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Thatcher's final visit to Reagan". BBC News. 10 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Private burial for Ronald Reagan". BBC News. 12 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Thatcher marks 80th with a speech". BBC News. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Birthday tributes to Thatcher". BBC News. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Langley, William (30 August 2008). "Carol Thatcher, daughter of the revolution". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Satter, Raphael G (25 August 2008). "Book Recounts Margaret Thatcher's Decline". CBS. Associated Press. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- "9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from More Than 90 Countries". United States Department of State. 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Iron Lady is honoured in bronze". BBC News. 21 February 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Statue of Margaret Thatcher Unveiled". Associated Press. 21 February 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism" (Press release). Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. 9 June 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Lady Thatcher treated after fall". 12 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Margaret Thatcher returns to Downing Street". The Daily Telegraph (London). 23 November 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "Ronald Reagan statue unveiled at US Embassy in London". BBC News. 4 July 2011.
- Walker, Tim (30 July 2011). "Baroness Thatcher's office is closed". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Stacey, Kiran (3 July 2011). "Thatcher heads poll of most competent PMs". Financial Times (London). Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- Swinford, Steven. "Margaret Thatcher: final moments in hotel without her family by her bedside". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Parliament Debates Thatcher Legacy, as Vitriol Flows Online and in Streets". The New York Times. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Funeral will be a 'ceremonial' service in line with Baroness Thatcher's wishes". The Independent. 12 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Ex-Prime Minister Baroness Thatcher dies, aged 87". BBC News. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Margaret Thatcher funeral set for next week". BBC News. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Davies, Caroline (17 April 2013). "Margaret Thatcher: Queen leads mourners at funeral". BBC News. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- Davies, Caroline (10 April 2013). "Queen made personal decision to attend Lady Thatcher's funeral". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- Campbell, John (2008). Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady. Random House. pp. 530–532. ISBN 0-09-951677-2.
- "Interview for Woman's Own ("no such thing as society") with journalist Douglas Keay". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 23 September 1987. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
- Marr 2007, p. 430.
- "Evaluating Thatcher's legacy". BBC Online. 4 May 2004. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Richards 2004, p. 63
- Allardyce, Jason (26 April 2009). "Thatcher: I did right by Scots; Thatcher: I regret nothing". The Sunday Times (London). p. 1.
- Gamble 2009, p. 16
- "Who has been UK's greatest post-war PM?". BBC News. 16 September 2008.
- White, Michael (26 February 2009). "The Making of Maggie". New Statesman (London). "Who was it who first removed the seat belts and airbags from the safe-but-boring Volvo that the West built after 1945? 'Her freer, more promiscuous version of capitalism' in Hugo Young's phrase is reaping a darker harvest."
- Evans 2004, p. 25
- Burns 2009, p. 234
- Chin 2009, p. 92
- Marr 2007, p. 358
- "Margaret Thatcher: Britain's Iron Lady – CBC Archives". Archives.cbc.ca. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- "Thatcher Quits Public Life, Citing Health". The New York Times. 23 March 2002. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- am (14 June 2009). "Margaret Thatcher rushed to hospital". Perth Now. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- HM Government. "Robert Banks Jenkinson Earl of Liverpool". Number10.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Rating British Prime Ministers". Ipsos MORI. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "BBC — Great Britons — Top 100". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2002-12-04. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Quittner, Joshua (14 April 1999). "Margaret Thatcher—Time 100 People of the Century". Time (New York).
- "Little sympathy for Margaret Thatcher among former opponents". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Tom Farmery (9 April 2013). "'Tramp the dirt down': a nation remains divided in Margaret Thatcher's death.". The Times. "Many in the crowds opened champagne and sang anti-Thatcher ..."
- "Durham coalfield rejoices at Margaret Thatcher's death". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Sam Casey (9 April 2013). "Leeds street party celebrates Thatcher death". Yorkshire Evening Post.
- Alex Stevenson (9 April 2013). "Video: Police move in as Brixton celebrates Thatcher's death". politics.co.uk.
- "No UK taboo: Unlike in America, some Britons happy to publicly celebrate former leader’s death". Washington Post. Associated Press. 9 April 2013.
- "Margaret Thatcher Protests Trafalgar Square". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "First Minister: Her policies made Scots believe that devolution was essential". The Herald (Glasgow). 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Scotland Tonight". STV. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Gay, O.; Rees, A. (2005). "The Privy Council". House of Commons Library Standard Note. SN/PC/2708. Retrieved 27 February 2009.[dead link]
- The London Gazette: . 11 December 1990. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- The London Gazette: . 26 June 1992. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- The London Gazette: . 25 April 1995. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Ungoed-Thomas, Jon (8 February 1998). "Carlton Club to vote on women". The Sunday Times (London).
- "Falklands to make 10 January Thatcher Day – Newspaper", Reuters News. 6 January 1992.
- Wheeler 2004, p. 171
- "Speech receiving Medal of Freedom Award". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Heritage Foundation Board of Trustees". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
- Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (13 September 2005). "Honoring the Iron Lady". Washington Times.
- Thatcher, Margaret (23 September 1991). "First Clare Booth Luce Lecture". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Heard, Chris (4 May 2004). "Rocking against Thatcher". BBC News.
- "Anyone for Denis?". British Film Institute. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Marr 2007, p. 417
- "'I was Maggie Thatcher’s voice in Spitting Image – and my Tory gran hated it’ - Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "I'm There song reissue mocks Margaret Thatcher on day of funeral". USA Today. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Album skewering Margaret Thatcher to be reissued on April 17". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Image of Meryl Streep as Margaret Thatcher unveiled". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Steinberg, Julie (22 December 2011). "'The Iron Lady' Draws Fire For Depicting Margaret Thatcher With Alzheimer's — Speakeasy — WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Hardman, Robert. "His and Her coats of arms for a baronet and his Lady". The Electronic Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Beckett, Andy (2010). When the Lights Went Out; Britain in the Seventies. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22137-0.
- Burns, William E. (2009). A Brief History of Great Britain. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-7728-1.
- Beckett, Clare (2006). Margaret Thatcher. Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-904950-71-4.
- Blundell, John (2008). Margaret Thatcher: a portrait of the Iron Lady. Algora. ISBN 978-0-87586-630-7.
- Butler, David; Butler, Gareth (1994). British Political Facts 1900–1994 (7 ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-52616-3.
- Childs, David (2006). Britain since 1945: a political history (6 ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-39326-3.
- Chin, Rita C-K (2009). After the Nazi racial state: difference and democracy in Germany and Europe. ISBN 978-0-472-11686-7.
- Cochrane, Feargal (2001). Unionist Politics and the Politics of Unionism Since the Anglo-Irish Agreement. Cork University Press. ISBN 1-85918-259-3.
- English, Richard (2005). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-517753-4.
- Evans, Eric (2004). Thatcher and Thatcherism (The Making of the Contemporary World) (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27013-7.
- Erickson, Carolly (2005). Lilibet: An Intimate Portrait of Elizabeth II. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-33938-0.
- Feigenbaum, Harvey; Henig, Jeffrey; Hamnett, Chris (1998). Shrinking the State: The Political Underpinnings of Privatization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63918-7.
- Floud, Roderick; Johnson, Paul (2004). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52738-5.
- Foley, Michael (2002). John Major, Tony Blair and a Conflict of Leadership: Collision Course. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6317-5.
- Gamble, Andrew (2009). The Spectre at the Feast: Capitalist Crisis and the Politics of Recession. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-23075-0.
- Gilbert, Martin (2002). A History of the Twentieth Century. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-050594-X.
- Glyn, Andrew (1992). "The 'Productivity Miracle', Profits and Investment'". In Michie, Jonathan. The Economic Legacy, 1979–1992. Academic Press. pp. 77–87. ISBN 978-0-12-494060-4.
- Görtemaker, Manfred (2006). Britain and Germany in the Twentieth Century. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-842-7.
- Hastings, Max; Jenkins, Simon (1983). Battle for the Falklands. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30198-2.
- Howe, Geoffrey (1994). Conflict of Loyalty. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-59283-0.
- Jackling, Roger (2005). "The Impact of the Falklands Conflict on Defence Policy". In Badsey, Stephen; Grove, Mark; Havers, Rob. The Falklands Conflict Twenty Years On: Lessons for the Future (Sandhurst Conference Series). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35030-3.
- James, Clive (1977). Visions Before Midnight. ISBN 978-0-224-01386-4.
- Jones, Bill; Kavanagh, Dennis; Moran, Michael (2007). "Media organisations and the political process". Politics UK (6 ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-2411-8.
- Khabaz, D.V. (2007). Manufactured Schema: Thatcher, the Miners and the Culture Industry. Matador. ISBN 978-1-905237-61-6.
- Kavanagh, Dennis (1997). The Reordering of British Politics: Politics after Thatcher. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-878201-8.
- Lacey, Robert (2003). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-3669-6.
- Lawson, Nigel (1992). The View from No. 11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-593-02218-4.
- McAleese, Dermott (2004). Economics For Business: Competition, Macro-stability & Globalisation (3 ed.). Financial Times Management. ISBN 978-0-273-68398-8.
- Marr, Andrew (2007). A History of Modern Britain. Pan. ISBN 978-0-330-43983-1.
- Moloney, Ed (2002). A Secret History of the IRA. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32502-4.
- Reitan, Earl Aaron (2003). The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2.
- Richards, Howard (2004). Understanding the Global Economy. Peace Education Books. ISBN 0-9748961-0-1.
- Seldon, Anthony; Collings, Daniel (2000). Britain Under Thatcher. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-31714-7.
- Senden, Linda (2004). Soft Law in European Community Law. Hart Publishing. ISBN 1-84113-432-5.
- Seward, Ingrid (2001). The Queen and Di: The Untold Story. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-561-2.
- Smith, Gordon (1989). Battles of the Falklands War. I. Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1792-4.
- Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255354-6.
- Thatcher, Margaret (1995). The Path to Power. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-638753-4.
- Thornton, Richard C. (2006). The Reagan Revolution II: Rebuilding the Western Alliance. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4120-1356-7.
- Toye, Richard; Gottlieb, Julie V. (2005). Making Reputations: Power, Persuasion and the Individual in Modern British Politics. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-841-2.
- Veljanovski, Cento (1990). "The Political Economy of Regulation". In Dunleavy, Patrick; Gamble, Andrew; Peele, Gillian. Developments in British Politics 3. Macmillan.
- Wapshott, Nicholas (2007). Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher: A Political Marriage. Sentinel. ISBN 1-59523-047-5.
- Wheeler, Tony (2004). The Falklands and South Georgia Island. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-643-9.
- Williams, Andy (1998). UK Government & Politics. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-435-33158-0.
- Abse, Leo (1989). Margaret, Daughter of Beatrice. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-02726-7.
- Dale, Iain, ed. (2000). Memories of Maggie. Politicos. ISBN 978-1-902301-51-8.
- Pugh, Peter; Flint, Carl (1997). Thatcher for Beginners. Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-874166-53-5.
- Young, Hugo (1993). One of Us: Life of Margaret Thatcher (2nd ed.). Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-32841-8.
- Campbell, John (2000). Margaret Thatcher; Volume One: The Grocer's Daughter. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-7418-7.
- Campbell, John (2003). Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6781-4.
- Butler, David; Adonis, Andrew; Travers, Tony (1994). Failure in British government: the politics of the poll tax. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827876-4.
- Jenkins, Peter (1987). Mrs. Thatcher's Revolution: Ending of the Socialist Era. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-674-58833-2.
- Jones, Bill (1999). Political Issues in Britain Today. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5432-X.
- Letwin, Shirley Robin (1992). The Anatomy of Thatcherism. Flamingo. ISBN 978-0-00-686243-7.
- Young, Hugo (1986). The Thatcher Phenomenon. BBC. ISBN 978-0-563-20473-2.
Books by Thatcher
- Thatcher, Margaret; Harris, Robin (1997). Harris, Robin Harris, ed. The Collected Speeches of Margaret Thatcher. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-018734-7.
- Thatcher, Margaret (2002). Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019973-9.
- Ministerial autobiographies
- Heseltine, Michael (2001). Life in the Jungle: My Autobiography. Coronet. ISBN 978-0-340-73916-7.
- Major, John (1999). The Autobiography. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-653074-9.
- Parkinson, Cecil (1992). Right at the Centre. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-81262-3.
- Ridley, Nicholas (1991). 'My Style of Government': The Thatcher Years. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-175051-0.
- Tebbit, Norman (1988). Upwardly Mobile. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79427-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Margaret Thatcher|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Margaret Thatcher Foundation
- Margaret Thatcher and the Privatization Movement from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher
- Margaret Thatcher on the Downing Street website.
- Archival material relating to Margaret Thatcher listed at the UK National Archives
- Records of the Prime Minister's Office, digitised files from the Prime Minister's Office, covering from the 1979 general election to December 1979.
- British television appearances
- Val Meets ... Margaret Thatcher, 7 March 1973 (BBC iPlayer) This is the programme in which she stated there would not be "a woman Prime Minister in my lifetime".
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Margaret Thatcher at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about Margaret Thatcher in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Margaret Thatcher collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Margaret Thatcher collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Actresses (and actors) who have portrayed Thatcher, The Telegraph (London), 8 February 2011.
- Portraits of Margaret Hilda Thatcher (née Roberts), Baroness Thatcher at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- BBC News — Obituary: Margaret Thatcher
- Margaret Thatcher at Find a Grave
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for Finchley
|Secretary of State for Education and Science
|Leader of the Opposition
|Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
|First Lord of the Treasury
|Minister for the Civil Service
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Conservative Party
|Chair of the G7
|Recipient of the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
|College of Europe Orateur