Dog tag

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A pair of blank dog tags on a ball chain

A dog tag is the informal name given to the identification tags worn by military personnel, because of their resemblance to actual dog tags. The tag is primarily used for the identification of dead and wounded and essential basic medical information, such as blood type[1] and history of inoculations, along with providing religious preference. Dog tags are usually fabricated from a corrosion-resistant metal although they have been made from whatever was available.

It may contain two copies of the information and be designed to break easily into two pieces. Some nations use two identical tags. This allows half the tag to be collected from a soldier's body for notification while the other half remains with the corpse when battle conditions do not allow the body to be immediately recovered.

History[edit]

Dog tags of a U.S. Army soldier who served in World War II

Dog tags were provided to Chinese soldiers as early as the mid-19th century. During the Taiping revolt (1851–66), both the Imperialists (i.e. the Chinese Imperial Army regular servicemen) and those Taiping rebels wearing an uniform wore a wooden dog-tag at the belt, bearing the soldier's name, age, birthplace, unit, and date of enlistment.[2]

During the American Civil War of 1861–1865, some soldiers pinned paper notes[3] with their name and home address to the backs of their coats. Other soldiers stenciled identification on their knapsacks or scratched it in the soft lead backing of the army belt buckle.

Manufacturers of identification badges recognized a market and began advertising in periodicals. Their pins were usually shaped to suggest a branch of service and engraved with the soldier's name and unit. Machine-stamped tags were also made of brass or lead with a hole and usually had (on one side) an eagle or shield and such phrases as "War for the Union" or "Liberty, Union, and Equality". The other side had the soldier's name and unit and sometimes a list of battles in which he had participated.[citation needed]

Franco-Prussian War[edit]

The Prussian Army issued identification tags for its troops at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. They were nicknamed Hundemarken (the German equivalent of "dog tags") and compared to a similar identification system instituted for dogs in the Prussian capital city of Berlin at about the same time.[4]

First World War[edit]

The British Army and their Imperial forces in Canada, Australia and New Zealand issued identification discs from the beginning of the First World War.[citation needed] The discs were made of fiber, one in red and one in green, and suspended around the neck by butcher's twine. The same pattern was worn into the Second World War and the Korean War.

The U.S. Army first authorized identification tags in War Department General Order No. 204, dated December 20, 1906, which essentially prescribes the Kennedy identification tag:[citation needed]

An aluminum identification tag, the size of a silver half dollar and of suitable thickness, stamped with the name, rank, company, regiment, or corps of the wearer, will be worn by each officer and enlisted man of the Army whenever the field kit is worn, the tag to be suspended from the neck, underneath the clothing, by a cord or thong passed through a small hole in the tab. It is prescribed as a part of the uniform and when not worn as directed herein will be habitually kept in the possession of the owner. The tag will be issued by the Quartermaster's Department gratuitously to enlisted men and at cost price to officers...

The army changed regulations on July 6, 1916, so that all soldiers were issued two tags: one to stay with the body and the other to go to the person in charge of the burial for record-keeping purposes. In 1918, the army adopted and allotted the serial number system, and name and serial numbers were ordered stamped on the identification tags. (Serial number 1 was assigned to enlisted man Arthur B. Crane of Chicago in the course of his fifth enlistment period.)

World War II[edit]

One of the two identity discs issued by the South African Navy during WW2 with rank, surname, initials, force number and religious affiliation

There is a recurring myth about the notch situated in one end of the dog tags issued to United States Army personnel during World War II. It was rumored that the notch's purpose was that, if a soldier found one of his comrades on the battlefield, he could take one tag to the commanding officer and stick the other between the teeth of the soldier to ensure that the tag would remain with the body and be identified. In reality, the notch was designed to hold the tag in place when being imprinted on the carbon-paper medical form by the Model 70 Addressograph (a pistol-type imprinting machine used by the Medical Department during World War II).[5][6] It appears instructions that would confirm the notch's mythical use were issued at least unofficially by the Graves Registration Service during the Vietnam War to Army troops headed overseas.[7]

Dog tags are traditionally part of the makeshift battlefield memorials soldiers created for their fallen comrades. The casualty's rifle with bayonet affixed is stood vertically atop the empty boots, with the helmet over the stock of the rifle. The dog tags hang from the rifle's handle or trigger guard.[citation needed]

Medical condition identification[edit]

Some tags (along with similar items such as MedicAlert bracelets) are used also by civilians to identify their wearers and specify them as having health problems that may
(a) suddenly incapacitate their wearers and render them incapable of providing treatment guidance (as in the cases of heart problems, epilepsy, diabetes or accident/trauma) and/or
(b) interact adversely with medical treatments, especially standard or "first-line" ones (as in the case of an allergy to common medications) and/or
(c) provide in case of emergency ("ICE") contact information and/or
(d) state a religious, moral, or other objection to artificial resuscitation), if a first responder attempts to administer such treatment when the wearer is non-responsive and thus unable to warn against doing so.

Fashion[edit]

Close-up of a teenager wearing custom-made dog tags

Dog tags have recently found their way into youth fashion by way of military chic. Originally worn as a part of a military uniform by youth wishing to present a tough or militaristic image, dog tags have since seeped out into wider fashion circles. They may be inscribed with a person's details, their beliefs or tastes, a favorite quote, or may bear the name or logo of a band or performer. Some people also prefer to have the information on their tags transferred to a smaller, sometimes golden or silver tag by a jeweler, as the original tag can be considered too large and bulky by some.

Since the late 1990s, custom dog tags have become fashionable amongst musicians (particularly rappers), and as a marketing give-away item. Numerous companies offer customers the opportunity to create their own personalized dog tags with their own photos, logos, and text. Even high-end jewelers have featured gold and silver dog tags encrusted with diamonds and other jewels. For example, to market the release of Call of Duty: Black Ops II, dog tags inscribed with the words "CALL OF DUTY BLACK OPS II", and the same for Battlefield 4 were given when a person pre-ordered the game.[8]

Variations by country[edit]

Austria[edit]

The Austrian Bundesheer utilized a single long, rectangular tag with oval ends, stamped with blood group & Rh factor at the end, with ID number underneath. Two slots and a hole stamped beneath the number allow the tag to be broken in half, and the long bottom portion has both the ID number and a series of holes which allows the tag to be inserted into a dosimeter. This has been replaced with a more conventional, wider and rounded rectangle which can still be halved, but lacks the dosimeter reading holes.

Australia[edit]

The Australian Defence Force issues soldiers two tags of different shapes: Number 1 Tag (the octagonal shaped disc) and Number 2 Tag (the circular disc). The format is as follows:

  • AS (denoting Australia, previously both AU and AUST have been used)
  • PMKeyS/ Service Number
  • Surname Initials
  • Religious Preference [RC – Roman Catholic; ANG – Anglican]
  • Blood Group

Example:

  • AUST
  • 8549302
  • SMITH DE
  • RC
  • A POS

The information is printed exactly the same on both discs. In the event of a casualty, the circular tag is removed from the body and the octagonal tag is placed inside the dead soldier’s mouth, between the teeth and lips.

Belgium[edit]

Belgian Forces identity tags are, like the Canadian and Norwegian, designed to be broken in two in case of fatality; the lower half is returned to Belgian Defence tail, while the upper half remains on the body. The tags contain the following information:

  • Upper half:
    • Belgisch Leger (Belgian Army) and Date of Birth in DD/MM/YYYY format.
    • Surname with the addition of the first letter of given name.
    • Service number and blood group with RH factor and optionally religion.
  • Lower half: identical.
  • Example:
    • Belgisch Leger 01/01/1991
    • Surname J
    • 1234567 O+ KATH

Canada[edit]

Canadian Forces ID Disk. Name, rank, and service number are redacted.

Canadian Forces identity discs (abbreviated "I discs") are designed to be broken in two in the case of fatality; the lower half is returned to National Defence Headquarters with the member's personal documents, while the upper half remains on the body. The tags contain the following information:[9]

  • Upper half:
    • Service Number (SN)
    • Initials and surname
    • Religion (or "NRE" if none) and blood group with RH factor
    • The legend "CDN FORCES CDN" (or for foreign nationals, the name of the country the individual represents)
    • The text "DO NOT REMOVE / NE PAS ENLEVER" on the reverse
  • Lower half: identical, except it does not contain the blood type, and the reverse is blank.

Before the Service Number was introduced in the 1990s, military personnel were identified on the I discs (as well as other documents) by their Social Insurance Number.

China[edit]

The People's Liberation Army issues two long, rectangular tags. All information are stamped in Simplified Chinese:

  • Full name
  • Gender
  • Date of birth
  • RIC number
  • PLA's ID number
  • Blood type
  • Branch

Colombia[edit]

The Ejército Nacional de Colombia uses long, rectangular metal tags with oval ends tags stamped with the following information:

  • Family Name
  • First Name
  • Military ID Number
  • Blood Type
  • Branch of Service

Duplicate tags are issued. Often, tags are issued with a prayer inscribed on the reverse.

Cyprus[edit]

In Cyprus, identification tags include the following information:

  • Surname
  • First name
  • Service number (E.g., 11111/00/00B, where the first five digits are the ID, the second two are the year the soldier turned 18 years old, the last two digits are the year the soldier enlisted, and the letter is the enlistment group, either A or B)
  • Blood Group

Denmark[edit]

Military of Denmark

Danish military dog tags

dog tags are a small metallic plate, designed to be broken into two pieces. The information on the tag is:

On the right hand side of the tag it says Danmark, the Danish word for "Denmark".[10] On new issue dog tags ca 1985 there is social security number this is the same as service no, army navy air force has blood group, national guard has normally no blood group on it.

East Germany[edit]

The Nationale Volksarmee used a tag nearly identical with that used by both the Wehrmacht and the West German Bundeswehr. The oval aluminum tag was stamped "DDR" (Deutsche Demokratische Republik) above the personal ID number; this information was repeated on the bottom half, which was intended to be broken off in case of death. Oddly, the tag was not worn, but required to be kept in a plastic sleeve in the back of the WDA identity booklet.

Ecuador[edit]

The Placas de identificación de campaña consists of two long, rectangular steel or aluminum tags with rounded corners and a single hole punched in one end. It is suspended by a US-type ball chain, with a shorter chain for the second tag. The information on the tag is:

  • Family Name & First Name
  • Identification Number
  • Blood Group, plus "RH" and "+" or "-"

Estonia[edit]

Estonian dog tags are designed to be broken in two. The dog tag is a metallic rounded rectangle suspended by a ball chain. Information consists of four fields:

  • National
  • Nationality
  • Blood Group
  • Religion

Example:

  • 39305231234
  • EN
  • A(II) Rh Pos (+)
  • NONE

Finland[edit]

Blank Finnish dog tag

Finnish dog tags (sometimes called raatolaatta; "corpse plaque"/"corpse plate"-) are also designed to be broken in two; however, the only text on it is the personal identification number and the letters SF (rarely FI), which stands for Suomi Finland, within a tower stamped atop of the upper half.

France[edit]

France issues either a metallic rounded rectangle (army) or disk (navy), designed to be broken in half, bearing family name & first name above the ID number.

Germany[edit]

Frontside of a German ID tag from 1961

German Bundeswehr ID tags are an oval-shaped discs designed to be broken in half. The two sides contain different information which are mirrored upside-down on the lower half of the ID tag. They feature the following information on segmented and numbered fields:

On the front

  • Field 1: blank
  • Field 2: DEU (for Deutschland) (GE (for Germany) only on older ID tags)
  • Field 3: Religious preference (usually "rk" for Roman Catholic, or "ev" for Protestant)
  • Field 4: Personenkennziffer (service number: birth date in DDMMYY format, dash, capitalized first letter of last name, dash, and five-digit number based on soldier's home military administrative district, number of persons with the mentioned last name and same birthday, and an error-checking number but without dashes), ex. 101281-S-455(-)6(-)8

On the back

  • Field 5: Blood group (ABO)
  • Field 6: Rhesus factor
  • Field 7: Vaccination status
  • Fields 8 – 10: blank

Greece[edit]

In Greece, identification tags include the following information:

  • Surname
  • First name
  • Service number (where date of birth is included as "class")
  • Blood Group

Hungary[edit]

The Hungarian army dog tag is made out of steel, forming a 25×35 mm tag designed to split diagonally. Both sides contain the same information: the soldier's personal identity code, blood group and the word HUNGARIA. Some may not have the blood group on them. These are only issued to soldiers who are serving outside of the country. If the soldier should die, one side is removed and kept for the army's official records, while the other side is left attached to the body.

Iraq[edit]

The Saddam-era Iraqi Army utilized a single, long, rectangular metal tag with oval ends, inscribed (usually by hand) with Name and Number or Unit, and occasionally Blood Type.

Israel[edit]

Israeli dog tags are designed to be broken in two. The information appears in three lines (twice):

  • Army identification number ("mispar ishi", literally: personal number. A seven-digit number that is different from the nine-digit identification number for citizens).
  • Last name
  • First Name

Another dog tag is kept inside the military boot in order to identify dead soldiers.[citation needed]

Originally the IDF issued two circular aluminum tags (1948 – late 1950s) stamped in three lines with serial number, family name, and first name. The tags were threaded together through a single hole onto a cord worn around the neck.[citation needed]

Japan[edit]

Japan follows a similar system to the US Army for its Self Defence Force personnel, and the appearance of the tags is similar, although laser etched. The exact information order is as follows.

  • Ground Self-Defense Force
    • JAPAN GSDF
    • First name, last name
    • Identification number
    • Blood type
  • Maritime Self-Defense Force
    • First name, last name
    • Identification number
    • JAPAN MSDF
    • Blood type
  • Japan Air Self-Defense Force
    • First name, last name
    • Identification number
    • JAPAN ASDF
    • Blood type

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysian Armed Forces have two identical oval tags with this information:

  • NRIC number (The last digit is an odd number for a male soldier, even for a female soldier.)
  • Service number
  • Full name
  • Blood type
  • Religion
  • Branch (e.g., TLDM)

If more information needed, another two oval wrist tags are provided. The term wrist tags can be used to refer to the bracelet-like wristwatch. The additional tags only need to be worn on the wrist, with the main tags still on the neck. All personnel are allowed to attach a small religious pendant or locket; this makes a quick identifiable reference for their funeral services.

Mexico[edit]

The Ejército de Mexico uses a single long, rectangular metal tag with oval ends, embossed with Name, serial number, and blood type plus Rh factor.

Netherlands[edit]

Military of the Netherlands identity tags, like the Canadian and Norwegian ones, are designed to be broken in two in case of a fatality; the lower end is returned to Dutch Defence Headquarters, while the upper half remains on the body. There is a difference in the Army and Airforce service number and the Navy service number:

  • Army number is made up of the date of birth in YY.MM.DD. format, for example 83.01.15, and a three-digit number, such as 123.
  • Navy number is made up out of random five- or six-digit numbers.

The tags contain the following information:

  • Upper half:
    • Name and family name
    • Service number
    • Nationality (NL) and religion
    • Blood group with RH factor
  • Lower half: identical.

Norway[edit]

Norwegian dog tags are designed to be broken in two like the Canadian version:

  • The top half contains the nationality, the eleven-digit birth number and the blood type.
  • The bottom half contains the nationality and birth number and has a hole so the broken-off half can be hung on a ring.

Poland[edit]

The first dog tags were issued in Poland following the order of the General Staff of December 12, 1920. The earliest design (dubbed kapala in Polish, more properly called "kapsel legitymacyjny" - meaning "identification cap") consisted of a tin-made 30×50 mm rectangular frame and a rectangular cap fitting into the frame. Soldiers' details were filled in a small ID card placed inside the frame, as well as on the inside of the frame itself. The dog tag was similar to the tags used by the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. In case the soldier died, the frame was left with his body, while the lid was returned to his unit together with a note on his death. The ID card was handed over to the chaplain or the rabbi.

In 1928, a new type of dog tag was proposed by gen. bryg. Stanisław Rouppert, Poland's representative at the International Red Cross. It was slightly modified and adopted in 1931 under the name of Nieśmiertelnik wz. 1931 (literally, Immortalizer mark 1931). The new design consisted of an oval piece of metal (ideally steel, but in most cases aluminum alloy was used), roughly 40 by 50 millimeters. There were two notches on both sides of the tag, as well as two rectangular holes in the middle to allow for easier breaking of the tag in two halves. The halves contained the same set of data and were identical, except the upper half had two holes for a string or twine to go through. The data stamped on the dog tag included:

  • Obverse
    • Name
    • Surname
    • Optionally: abbreviation of soldiers' religion (KAT for Roman Catholics, GR-KAT for Greek Catholics, PRAW for Orthodox, MOJ for Jewish, AUG for Lutherans, ANG for Anglicans and MAH for Muslims)
  • Reverse
    • Soldiers' ID card number and first letter of the powiat the soldier came from
    • Name of the Recruitment Commission (usually name of the town or city the soldier was attached to)
    • Year of birth

Sometimes the rank of the soldier was added to the reverse, and most members of the medical corps had a tiny cross stamped near the string holes, regardless of their religion.

Rhodesia[edit]

The former Republic of Rhodesia used two WW2 British-style compressed asbestos fiber tags, a No. 1 octagonal (green) tag and a No. 2 circular (red) tag, stamped with identical information. The red tag was supposedly fireproof and the green tag rotproof. The following information was stamped on the tags: Number, Name, Initials, & Religion; Blood Type was stamped on reverse. The air force and BSAP often stamped their service on the reverse side above the blood group.[citation needed]

Many soldiers state they were issued blank tags and told to punch the information in themselves.[citation needed]

Russia[edit]

Russian dog tag

Russian Armed Forces uses metal oval tags. Russian dog tags contains the title "ВС РОССИИ" ("Armed Forces of Russia") and the alphanumeric individual numbers.

Singapore[edit]

The Singapore Armed Forces-issued dog tags are inscribed (not embossed) with up to four items:

  • NRIC number
  • Blood type
  • Religion
  • Drug allergies (if any; inscribed on the reverse)

The dog tags consist of two metal pieces, one oval with two holes and one round with one hole. A synthetic lanyard is threaded through both holes in the oval piece and tied around the wearer's neck. The round piece is tied to the main loop on a shorter loop.

South Africa[edit]

The former South African Defense Force used two long, rectangular aluminum tags with oval ends, stamped with serial number, name and initials, religion, and blood type.[citation needed]

South Korea[edit]

The South Korean Army issues two long, rectangular tags with oval ends, stamped (in Korean lettering) with "Yuk-Gun" (English: Army) above a personal number, with the name below that and the blood group at the bottom.

South Vietnam[edit]

The South Vietnamese Army used two American-style dog tags. Some tags added religion, e.g., Công Giáo for Catholic. They were stamped or inscribed with:

  • Name
  • SQ (Số Quân, i.e., Service number) a 2-digit year number, followed by a military serial number
  • LM (loại máu, i.e., Blood Group, no rH factor)

Spain[edit]

Issues a single metal oval, worn vertically, stamped "ESPAÑA" above and below the 3-slot horizontal break line. It is stamped in 4 lines with:

  • 1st line – Religion
  • 2nd line – left side = blood group, right side = any medical allergies (SI or NO)
  • 3rd line – military service (ET, EA ...)
  • 4th (longest) line = DNI military number.[citation needed]

Sweden[edit]

Swedish civilian dog tag (1970s)

Swedish dog tags are designed to be able to break apart. The information on them was prior to 2010:

  • Personal identity number (twice, once in the upper part and once below)
  • Full name
  • Residence at birth
  • Blood type (only on some)

Swedish dog tags issued to troops after 2010 are, for personal security reasons, only marked with personal identity number.

During the Cold War dog tags were issued to everyone, often soon after birth, since the threat of total war also meant the risk of severe civilian casualties. However in the late 1990s the Swedish government decided that the dog tags were not needed anymore.[citation needed]

Switzerland[edit]

Swiss Armed Forces ID tag is an oval shaped non reflective plaque, containing the following information:

  • Social insurance number
  • Surname
  • First name
  • Date of birth in DD.MM.YY format

On the back side the letters CH standing for (Confoederatio Helvetica) are engraved next to a Swiss cross.

United Kingdom[edit]

World War II fiber disc type of dog tag

The British Armed Forces currently utilize two circular non-reflecting stainless steel tags engraved with the "Big 6":

  1. Blood group
  2. Service Number
  3. Last name (Surname)
  4. Initials
  5. "M" for Male, "F" for Female
  6. RAF (if in the Royal Air force. The RAF is the only service to mark tags on line 6)

The disks are suspended from one long chain (24 inches long) and one short chain (4.5 inches long)

During World War One and Two, service personnel were issued pressed fiber identity disks, one green octagonal shaped disc, and a red round disc (some army units issued a second red round disk to be attached to the service respirator). The identity disks were hand stamped with the surname, initials, service number and religion of the holder and if in the Royal Air Force, the initials RAF. The disks were worn around the neck on a 38" length of cotton cord, this was often replaced by the wearer with a leather bootlace. One tag was suspended below the main tag.

From 1960 these were replaced with stainless steel ID tags on a green nylon cord, two circular and one oval. The oval was withdrawn around 1990.

United States of America[edit]

An American dog tag showing the recipient's last name, first name, Social Security number, blood type, and religion.

In the 1990s, the U.S. Army stopped using the term dog tags, replacing it with the designation ID tags.

A persistent rumor is that debossed (imprinted with stamped in letters) dog tags were issued from World War II till the end of the Vietnam War and that currently the U.S. Armed Forces is issuing embossed (imprinted with raised letters) dog tags. In actuality, the U.S. Armed Forces issues dog tags with both types of imprinting, depending on the machine used at a given facility. The military issued 95% of their identification tags up until recently (within the past 10 years) with debossed text.[11]

The U.S. Armed Forces typically carry two identical oval dog tags containing:

U.S. Air Force (Format 1)
  • Last name, first name, middle initial[12]
  • Social Security number, followed by "AF" indicating branch of service[12]
  • Blood Group[12]
  • "blank"[12]
  • Religion[12]
U.S. Air Force (Format 2)
  • Last name[12]
  • First name and middle initial[12]
  • Social Security number, followed by "AF" indicating branch of service[12]
  • Blood Group[12]
  • Religion[12]
U.S. Marine Corps
  • Last name[13]
  • First and middle initials and suffix; blood group[13]
  • Social Security number with three/two/four format as follows:123 45 6789[13]
  • Branch ("USMC"); Gas mask size (S – small, M – medium, L – large)[13]
  • Religious preference, or medical allergy if red medical tag[13]
U.S. Navy
  • Last name, first name, middle initial
  • Social Security number with no dashes or spaces followed immediately by "USN", space, blood group
  • Religion
U.S. Army
  • Last name
  • First name, middle initial
  • Social Security number
  • Blood type
  • Religion
U.S. Coast Guard
  • Last name, first name, middle initial
  • Social Security number, no dashes or spaces, followed immediately by branch (i.e., 123456789USCG)
  • Blood group
  • Religion

Religious designation[edit]

During World War II, an American dog tag could indicate only one of three religions through the inclusion of one letter: "P" for Protestant, "C" for Catholic, or "H" for Jewish (from the word, "Hebrew"),[14] or (according to at least one source) "NO" to indicate no religious preference.[15] Army regulations (606-5) soon included X and Y in addition to P,C, and H: the X indicating any religion not included in the first three, and the Y indicating either no religion or a choice not to list religion.[16] By the time of the Vietnam War, some IDs spelled out the broad religious choices such as PROTESTANT and CATHOLIC, rather than using initials, and also began to show individual denominations such as "METHODIST" or "BAPTIST."[17] Tags did vary by service, however, such as the use of "CATH," not "CATHOLIC" on some Navy tags. For those with no religious affiliation and those who chose not to list an affiliation, either the space for religion was left blank or the words "NO PREFERENCE" or "NO RELIGIOUS PREF" were included.[17]

Although American dog tags include the recipient's religion as a way of ensuring that religious needs will be met, some personnel have them reissued without religious affiliation listed—or keep two sets, one with the designation and one without—out of fear that identification as a member of a particular religion could increase the danger to their welfare or their lives if they fell into enemy hands. Some Jewish personnel avoided flying over German lines during WWII with ID tags that indicated their religion, and some Jewish personnel avoid the religious designation today out of concern that they could be captured by extremists who are anti-Semitic.[15][18] Additionally, when American troops were first sent to Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War there were allegations that some U.S. military authorities were pressuring Jewish military personnel to avoid listing their religions on their ID tags.[19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Soldiers "tagged" for blood transfusion, Popular Science, February 1942, p71, Scanned by Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=pScDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA71-IA1
  2. ^ Heath I., Perry M. The Taping rebellion 1851-66; Men-at-arm series 275; Osprey 1994
  3. ^ McCormick, David (2012). Inventing Military Dog Tags. 
  4. ^ Law, Clive M. Article in Military Artifact, Service Publications
  5. ^ [1], retrieved 22 December 2009
  6. ^ Barbara Mikkelson. "Notch for the Faint Hearted", Snopes.com, 2 August 2007, retrieved 12 September 2007
  7. ^ Col. David G. Fitz-Enz (Ret.): Why A Soldier? A Signal Corpsman's Tour from Vietnam to the Moscow Hotline, page 166. Ballantine, 2000. ISBN 0-8041-1938-4
  8. ^ "Call of Duty: Black Ops II Pre-Order Bonuses Include Dog Tags, Wallpapers, and Posters". gametrailers.com. May 17, 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  9. ^ Canadian Forces Administrative Order 26-4 – Identity Discs Canadian Forces Finance & Corporate Services website
  10. ^ http://www.armytags.dk/tegn.php?id=0
  11. ^ http://www.dogtagsrus.com/embossed-debossed.htm
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "AFI 36-3103". 1 May 1997. 
  13. ^ a b c d e United States Marine Corps (14 July 2000). "MCO P1070.12K". United States Department of the Navy. Retrieved 9 April 2008. 
  14. ^ www.history.navy.mil, retrieved May 30, 2011.
  15. ^ a b www.blitzkriegbaby.de, retrieved May 30, 2011.
  16. ^ Non-commissioned officers guide, 4th edition, pg. 212.
  17. ^ a b www.mooremilitaria.com, retrieved May 30, 2011.
  18. ^ www.jewishjournal.com, retrieved May 30, 2011.
  19. ^ www.ajcarchives, pages 178–179, retrieved May 30, 2011.

External links[edit]