Resident Identity Card

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Resident Identity Card
Jumin shenfenzheng.jpg
Second-generation identification card
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 居民身份證
Simplified Chinese 居民身份证
Tibetan name
Tibetan གཞུང་གི་ལག་ཁྱེར་དང་པ་སེའི།
Zhuang name
Zhuang Cuhminz Sonhfwnceng
Uyghur name
Uyghur
كىملىك قانۇنى

The Resident Identity Card is the official form of personal identification in the People's Republic of China.

History[edit]

First generation Resident Identity Card

Prior to 1984, citizens within the People's Republic of China were not required to obtain or carry identification in public.[1] On April 6, 1984, the State Council of the People's Republic of China passed the Identity Card Provisional Bill (中华人民共和国居民身份证试行条例), commencing the process of gradual introduction of personal identification, in the footsteps of many developed countries at the time. The first generation identification cards were single paged cards made of polyester film. Between 1984 and 1991, trials for the new identity card system took place in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. Shan Xiurong (单秀荣), a Chinese Opera performer and soprano from Beijing, was the first person to receive a first-generation identity card in China.[2]

On September 6, 1985, the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress passed the Identity Card Bill of the People's Republic of China, which regulated that all citizens over the age of 16 apply for identification cards.[3] At that point, the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China created a unified authority responsible for the issuing and management of the ID cards. From 2003, it is reported that a total of 1.14 billion ID cards have been created in China,[4] for a total of 960,000,000 holders. However, as a result of technological development and certain techniques made available to the civilian population, the existing cards became relatively easier to counterfeit, opening the increasing threat of false identification.

On June 1, 2003, the National People's Congress passed the new Resident Identity Card Law,[5] which expanded the scope of documents issued, and allowed soldiers in the People's Liberation Army and members of the People's Armed Police to apply for special identity cards. Individuals under the age of 16 were also permitted to voluntarily apply for an identification card. The law also established the use of newer, second-generation cards, which are machine-readable and more difficult to forge.

Contents[edit]

The identity card contains basic information regarding the individual, such as the following:

Obverse side
  • Full name – in Chinese characters only. Non-Chinese ethnic names and foreign names are transliterated into Chinese. First-generation ID cards contained handwritten names for rare Chinese characters, whilst the second-generation cards exclusively used computer-printed text in a larger font compared to that of the first generation, and do not support rarer characters.
  • Gender – containing one character for either male (男) or female (女).
  • Ethnicity – as officially listed by the People's Republic of China.
  • Date of birth – listed in the Gregorian calendar format, in YYYY年MM月DD日 Big-endian (ISO 8601) order.
  • Domicile – the individual's permanent residence as dictated by the Identity Card Bill of the People's Republic of China.
  • Identification number
  • Photo of the individual
Reverse side
  • Issuing authority (first-generation cards utilised a stamp; second-generation cards display text only)
  • The limits to validity of the document (for individuals under 16 years of age: five years; for individuals between 16 and 25 years of age: ten years; for individuals between 26 and 45 years of age: twenty years; for individuals over 46 years of age: long-term)
Sample of a second generation card, showing the personal information displayed on both sides.

Information stored in the identity database for biometric ID cards documents information such as work history, educational background, religion, ethnicity, police record, medical insurance status, landlord's phone number and personal reproductive history. In addition, more detailed personal information can be obtained by viewing hukou information from the card database. Starting on January 1st, 2013, Beijing has started trials to include fingerprints in the ID cards, making it more difficult to forge ID cards or for people to use the ID cards of others.

In 1984, discussion over the contents of the identity card became controversial regarding whether to include details such as "marital status" and "occupation"; considering the actual situation of the People's Republic of China at the time, these details ultimately were not included in the ID card.

The first-generation ID cards contained a black-and-white photograph portrait of the individual; following the introduction of the second-generation cards, all identification portraits are printed in colour. From 1 January 2013 a mandatory switch to the second-generation cards came into force; all first-generation cards became void and unusable. If used, first-generation cards are treated as expired ID cards, and will not be accepted. It is a criminal offense to accept first-generation ID cards if the person who accepts it know that it is a first-generation card.

The dimensions of the second-generation cards are 85.725 mm×53.975 mm×0.900 mm, and the identity photo is sized at 358x441 pixels (width by height), printed at a resolution of 350dpi on RGB using 24-bit True Color, prepared using JPEG compression techniques in line with the requirements of ISO DIS 10918-1. The final image appears as a 26 mm × 32 mm portrait box in the top-right hand corner.[6]

Identity cards in ethnic minority areas[edit]

Within the ethnic minority regions in China, identity cards possess corresponding text in the respective minority language for both first-generation and second-generation cards. For example, cards officially signed and issued in Guangxi all contain accompanying text in Zhuang, as well as Chinese characters. According to the fourth clause of the Resident Identity Card Law, "based on the de facto situation within the organs of self-government within autonomous ethnic regions, the content of the resident identity card can, alongside Chinese characters, be decided to include the text of the ethnic group exercising regional autonomy or choice of a local generic text".[7] This law permits resident identity cards within designated ethnic minority regions to have bilingual text, and depending on region, cards may contain accompanying text in Zhuang, Uyghur, Yi, Tibetan, Mongolian or Korean.

Ethnic minority residents represented by the local autonomous region can apply to have an additional ethnic minority language displayed on their identity cards, whilst Han Chinese and other ethnic residents' cards only have Chinese characters displayed. Ethnic minorities within their representative autonomous regions can have their personal name displayed in both their native language and Chinese characters; for example, within Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, a card belonging to an Uyghur may display the cardholder's name as "纳斯尔丁·阿凡提 نەسىرىدىن ئەپەندى" (Effendi Nasreddin), however ethnic Kazakhs and Xibe people living in Xinjiang may only have their names written in Chinese. The following table shows the languages used on identity cards within minority regions:

English Simplified Chinese
(ROM: Pinyin)
Zhuang Tibetan
(ROM: Wylie)
Mongol Uyghur
(ROM: ULY)
Nuosu
(ROM: Yi pinyin)
Korean
(ROM: McCune–Reischauer)
Name 姓名
(xìngmíng)
SINGQMINGZ རུས་མིང་།
(rus ming)
ᠤᠪᠤᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ
(oboɣ ner-e)
نامى
(nami)
ꑫꂓ
(xyt hmi)
이름
(irŭm)
Gender 性别
(xìngbié)
SINGQBIED ཕོ་མོ།
(pho mo)
ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯ
(činar-un ilɣal)
جىنسى
(jinsi)
ꌺꅪ
(sse hni)
성별
(sŏngbyŏl)
Ethnicity 民族
(mínzú)
MINZCUZ མི་རིགས།
(mi rigs)
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
(ündüsüten)
مىللىتى
(milliti)
ꊿꋅ
(co cux)
민족
(minjok)
Date of birth 出生
(chūshēng)
SENG སྐྱེས་དུས།
(skyes dus)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠥᠷ
(törögsen edür)
تۇغۇلغان
(tughulghan)
ꒆꄮ
(yur te)
출생
(ch'ulsaeng)
Year-Month-Day 年月日
(nián yuè rì)
NIENZ NYIED HAUH ལོའི་ཟླ་ ཚེ་ས་ ཉིན།
(lo'i zla, tshe sa, nyin)
ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳᠥᠷ
(on, sar-a, edür)
يىل ئاي كۈن
(yil, ay, kün)
ꈎ ꆪ ꑍ
(kut, hlep, nyit)
년 월 일
(nyŏn, wŏl, il)
Domicile 住址
(zhùzhǐ)
DIEGYOUQ སྡོད་གནས།
(sdod gnas)
ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ
(saɣuɣ-a ɣaǰar)
ئادرېسى
(adrési)
ꀀꅉ
(it dde)
주소
(chuso)
Resident Identity number 公民身份号码
(gōngmín shēnfèn hàomǎ)
GUNGHMINZ SINHFWN HAUMAJ སྤྱི་དམངས་ཐོབ་ཐང་ཨང་རྟགས།
(spyi dmangs thob thang ang rtags)
ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠢ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠮᠸᠷ
(irgen-ü bey-e ǰin ünemlel-ün nomɛr)
كىملىك نومۇرى
(kimlik nomuri)
ꇬꂱꇭꀧꊫꌐꀕꂷ
(go mip gop bo zyp sat sat ma)
공민신분증번호
(kongmin sinbunjŭng pŏnho)
Issuing authority 签发机关
(qiānfā jīguān)
CIEMFAT GIHGVANH མཆན་སྤྲོད་ལས་ཁུངས།
(mchan sprod las khungs)
ᠭᠠᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠣᠵᠣ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠨ ᠥᠭᠬᠣᠬᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
(ɣar-u üsüg ǰiruču olɣon ögxügsen-a beigölan-a)
تارقاتقان ئورگان
(tarqatqan organ)
ꇭꀧꊫꌐꃑꅉ
(gop bo zyp sat fat dde)
발급기관
(palgŭp kikwan)
Validity 有效期限
(yǒuxiào qīxiàn)
MIZYAUQ GEIZHANH ནུས་ཐོན་ངུས་ཙོད།
(nus thon ngus tsod)
ᠬᠥᠵᠣᠠ ᠪᠥᠬᠣᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠵᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
(xüčün büxüi xüɣüčaɣ-a)
كۈچكە ئىگە مۇددىتى
(küchke ige mudditi)
ꌬꉆꄮꈉ
(ssi hxit te kop)
유효기한
(yuhyo kihan)

Identity card number[edit]

Reverse side of a second-generation ID card

From October 1, 1999, the PRC State Council approved the establishment of a citizen identification number system, and currently consists of an 18-digit code.

1 1 0 1 0 2 Y Y Y Y M M D D 8 8 8 X
Address code Date of Birth code Order code Checksum
  • Address code refers to the resident's location, where administrative divisions (including cities, banners, and districts) have their own specific codes. (For example, the code for Xicheng District in Beijing is 110102.)
  • Date of Birth in the form YYYY-MM-DD.
  • Order code is the code used to disambiguate people with the same date of birth and address code. Men are assigned to odd numbers, women assigned to even numbers.
  • The Checksum is the final digit, which confirms the validity of the ID number from the first 17 digits, utilizing ISO 7064:1983, MOD 11-2. The checksum is obtained by:
  1. Marking the Identity card number right-to-left a_1 , a_2 , \cdots , a_{18}a_1 for the parity-check codes;
  2. Weight coefficient calculation W_i=2^{i-1}\  \bmod \ {11};
i 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Wi 7 9 10 5 8 4 2 1 6 3 7 9 10 5 8 4 2 1
  1. Calculation of S = \sum_{i=2}^{18} a_i \cdot W_i
  2. a_1=(12-( S \ \bmod 11)) \bmod 11

Identity card management[edit]

According to the second chapter, tenth clause of the Resident Identity Card Law, residents are required to apply for resident identity cards from the local Public Security Bureau, sub-bureaus or local executive police stations. Each application comes with a 20 yuan admission fee (40 yuan for the replacement of lost or damaged cards), and also requires a verified digital photo receipt of the previous expired resident identity card to verify the applicant's identity and residence address. New identity cards are issued within 60 days of the acceptance of an application.

Usage of identification[edit]

Prior to purchasing tickets at a railway station, individuals must verify their identity by swiping their resident identity card over an IC reader.

The identity card is one of the acceptable legal documents to obtain resident permit, employment, open bank accounts, obtain passport, driver license, application for tertiary education and technical colleges, security checkpoints in domestic terminals of Chinese airports. Documentation is also required for marriages, household registrations and legal cases.

Recently, there have been more services that require the display of identification cards, such as at Internet cafes and certain stores.[8]

Police are required to inspect identification documents where:

  • Criminal suspects need to be identified;
  • To inspect those related to personnel involved in an incident;
  • In the occurrence of a serious security emergency, and there is a requirement to obtain the identity of a person at the scene;
  • If the law requires so during a case.

Anti-counterfeiting measures[edit]

Hidden text of "JMSFZ" found within the texture of the second-generation ID cards

First generation ID card[edit]

Polyester plastic film, which utilizes an anti-counterfeit laser logo.

Second generation ID card[edit]

Second-generation ID cards contain a non-contact IC chip card, a directional holographic "Great Wall" image, an anti-counterfeiting film made of green multi-layer polyester (PETG) composite material, optical variable optical storage containing the text "中国CHINA" situated on the card, and a microfilm string generating the letters "JMSFZ" (initials for the Pinyin of "Jumin Shenfenzheng"), and a "Great Wall" logo revealed by ultraviolet light.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1984年4月6日 居民身份证制度施行
  2. ^ "改革开放30年专题第48期:居民身份证". 《新京报》. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  3. ^ 中华人民共和国居民身份证条例(失效)【1985-09-06】
  4. ^ 关于《中华人民共和国公民身份证法(草案)》的说明 – news.sina.com
  5. ^ 中华人民共和国居民身份证法 – www.gov.cn
  6. ^ a b 第二代居民身份证的防伪特征
  7. ^ 中华人民共和国居民身份证法·第一章·第四条·第二款项: "民族自治地方的自治机关根据本地区的实际情况,对居民身份证用汉字登记的内容,可以决定同时使用实行区域自治的民族的文字或者选用一种当地通用的文字。". See original text at Wikisource.
  8. ^ 男子借身份证上网吧被拘3日

External links[edit]