South African Navy
|South African Navy|
Ensign of the South African Navy
|Active||1861 – present[Note 1]|
|Part of||South African National Defence Force|
|Garrison/HQ||Saldanha Bay, Simon's Town, Durban|
|Colors||Green and White|
|Minister of Defence and Veteran Affairs||Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula|
|Chief of the Navy||Vice Admiral Mosuwa Samuel Hlongwane|
|Master at Arms of the Navy||Senior Chief Warrant Officer Pragasen Moodley|
|ADM Hugo Biermann|
The South African Navy (SAN) is the navy of the South African National Defence Force. The role of the navy is to prepare for and to conduct naval operations in defence of the RSA, its citizens and interests and to carry out peacetime operations in support of other national objectives.
Other tasks include the maintenance, preservation and the provision of naval services in support of other state departments and authorities, including search and rescue, protection of maritime resources, and diplomatic sea transport support.
- 1 History
- 2 Command, control & organisation
- 3 Ships and weapons
- 4 Maritime Reaction Squadron
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The South African Navy can trace its official origins back to the SA Naval Service, which was established on 1 April 1922 following the donation of HMS Thames which became the training ship General Botha. Unofficially, however, the SAN can trace its history even further back, to the Natal Naval Volunteers (NNV), which was formed in Durban on 30 April 1885 as well as to the Cape Naval Volunteers (CNV), which was formed in Cape Town in 1905. On 1 July 1913 these two units were amalgamated to form the South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). During World War I a total of 164 members of the RNVR (SA) served in the Royal Navy and a total of 412 South Africans served in the RNVR (SA) during the war, while the naval base at Simons Town played a strategic role to the Allies.
The first ships acquired (on permanent loan from the Royal Navy) by the newly formed navy were HMSAS Protea (a hydrographic survey vessel), HMSAS Sonneblom and HMSAS Immortelle (both minesweeping trawlers). However the Great Depression meant the government had to cut back and the ships acquired by the Navy were handed back to the Royal Navy (HMSAS Protea in 1933 and the remaining ships in 1934).
World War II
When World War II broke out the Navy the South African Naval Service was virtually non-existent, with only 3 officers and 3 ratings. In January 1940 a new naval unit, called the Seaward Defence Force, was formed.:338 Rear-Admiral Guy Hallifax CMG, who had retired in South Africa from the Royal Navy, was appointed Director of the Seaward Defence Force. This unit was to be responsible for operating the minesweepers, anti-submarine ships, and the other inspection and signalling duties in South African waters. From 1941 a number of SDF anti submarine trawlers served in the Mediterranean.
The Seaward Defence Force and the South African RNVR were consolidated on 1 August 1942 to form the South African Naval Forces (SANF). Due to the strong Royal Navy influence on its origins, South African naval forces began using Royal Navy ranks.
Post World War II
On 1 May 1946 the SANF was reconstituted as part of the Union Defence Force and in 1951 the South African Naval Forces became the South African Navy. The title of HMSAS (His Majesty's South African Ship) was changed to SAS (South African Ship) in 1952, and the Crown in the SAN cap badge was replaced with the Lion of Nassau from the crest of the country's coat of arms in 1959, two years before South Africa became a republic.
In 1947, the SANF acquired three additional ships: the Algerine-class minesweepers HMSAS Rosamund (later renamed HMSAS Bloemfontein), HMSAS Pelorus (later renamed HMSAS Pietermaritzburg), and the Flower-class corvette HMSAS Rockrose (later converted into a hydrographic survey ship and renamed HMSAS Protea). The SAN's first destroyer, SAS Jan van Riebeeck (the former British W-class destroyer HMS Wessex) was transferred to South Africa on 29 March 1950. The SAN's second destroyer, SAS Simon van der Stel (the former HMS Whelp, and a sister-ship of the Jan van Riebeeck, was handed over to the Navy on 23 February 1953.
Meanwhile, negotiations were taking place between the British and South African governments on the future of the Royal Navy's base at Simon's Town. The outcome of these talks was that the base was transferred to the Union on 2 April 1957 under the terms of the Simonstown Agreement, and that the Navy would purchase four additional frigates, ten coastal minesweepers and five seaward defence boats from Britain. In 1963 the first of the Type-12 President-class frigates were delivered and in 1970 the Navy received the first of its three Daphné-class submarines from France.
Political unrest in Soweto and elsewhere prompted the apartheid government to take even sterner measures in an attempt to keep the opposition under control which in turn, led to a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa in 1977. As a result of this, two corvettes and two Agosta-class submarines that had been ordered for the Navy were not delivered. Instead, South Africa covertly ordered the Strike craft from Israel, three being built in Israel and six in South Africa.
In 1977 the then Chief of the South African Defence Force changed the Navy's focus to that of a coastal navy and as the Border War began to escalate, the Navy's budget was cut dramatically. The Border conflict ended in April 1989 and was followed by cut backs in all arms of the South African Defence Force and the Navy had to retrench approximately 23% of its personnel.
After the first democratic elections in South Africa, the South African Navy once again started showing the flag around the world and began participating in exercises with other navies. In 1997 the South African Navy celebrated 75 years with 15 countries sending ships for the festivities.
The need to re-equip the Navy was addressed by what is known as the Arms Deal and the Navy acquired four frigates (the South African Air Force also acquired helicopters for the frigates) as well as three submarines.
The Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) was located in a bunker at Silvermine. In 2004 this function passed from the Department of Defence to the South African Maritime Safety Authority (SAMSA), an agency of the Department of Transport (South Africa). The MRCC is located within the SAMSA Centre for Sea Watch and Response.
A budget of roughly R2.55 billion ($303 million at 2012 exchange rates) was allocated for the Navy for the 2012–2013 fiscal year. Despite an updated fleet, AllAfrica reported in December 2010 that the navy's capabilities are limited and it would have difficulty contributing to anti-piracy efforts off Somalia. AllAfrica reported in January 2011 that with the navy's current budget it would only be able to put one frigate and support ship to sea at any given time. It was thought that such a deployment would deplete the 2011 annual operational budget.
The South Africa Marine Corps was set up as a sub-branch of the Navy in 1979,:339 with the primary purpose of protecting harbours. Marines were also deployed at Katima Mulilo in South West Africa during the South African Border War, where they were responsible for patrolling the Zambezi River. The Marines also acted as regular infantry at the Border until 1988 as well as performing counter-insurgency operations inside South Africa. During township duties in the mid-1980s the detachment used facilities at SAS Rand in Johannesburg and on Signal Hill outside of Heidelberg. The Marines had an amphibious landing capability by operating from Tafelberg and Drakensberg. An elite company, named the Marine Amphibious Company (MAC), was formed to ensure the beach-head capability for landing large task forces. The Marines trained and fielded a small elite reconnaissance detachment between 1983 and 1989, under the direct control of the Marine CO, they received airborne, diver and urban counter measures training from other army units within the SADF.
Command, control & organisation
The command structure is depicted below. The Chief of the Navy, based at Navy Headquarters at the Navy Office (SAS Immortelle) located in Pretoria, heads up the South African Navy. All operational forces, including ships and submarines, fall under the control of the Flag Officer Fleet who is based in Simon's Town.
|Chief of the Navy||Vice Admiral Refiloe Mudimu|
|Deputy Chief of the Navy||Rear Admiral Samuel Hlongwane|
|Flag Officer Fleet||Rear Admiral Bubele Mhlana|
|Chief of Naval Staff||Rear Admiral Robert Higgs|
|Chief Director Maritime Strategy||Rear Admiral Hanno Teuteberg|
|Inspector General Navy||Rear Admiral (JG) Edward Ratala|
|Flag Captain||Capt Andre Katerinic|
Four directorates are responsible for the day to day control of Fleet Command:
- Director Fleet Force Preparations (DFPP) is responsible for the day-to-day running of the ships and submarines and for ensuring their operational readiness. The Maritime Reaction Squadron and Navcomcens also report to DFFP
- Director Fleet Human Resources (DFHR) is responsible for all training and manning and also controls the training units.
- Director Fleet Quality Assurance (DFQA) is responsible for the output of Fleet Command and monitoring quality assurance throughout Fleet Command
- Director Fleet Logistics (DFL) is responsible for all Logistics units as well as for the maintenance of the fleet.
The Navy operates the following naval bases:
- Naval Base Simon's Town – the only remaining full naval base in the SAN. All combat units have been concentrated here in an attempt to curb costs. The base also houses training facilities for the new frigates and submarines. A naval dockyard is also situated here, although it is in the process of being privatised.
- Naval Station Port Elizabeth – provides support to the fleet.
- Naval Station Durban – Naval Base Durban was scaled down to a naval station with the rationalisation of the fleet. However it was announced in April 2013 that the base would be re-opened to assist with the piracy mission on Africa's East coast.
- SAS Saldanha – located on the West Coast and provides training and development for ratings.
- SAS Wingfield – located in the Greater Cape Town area. Provides practical training for apprentices and the technical musterings
- SAS Simonsberg – training in gunnery, anti-submarine warfare, communications, diving and seamanship
- Naval College Gordon's Bay – training college for naval officers.
- Maritime Warfare School, Simon's Town
- NBCD School – Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, Damage Control training
As at 1 September 2011 there are approximately 6104 active uniformed members augmented by 1313 civilians and 1000 reserve members. The seven old Navy Reserve units were closed down during 2006. They were modeled on the Royal Naval Reserve unit system. A new Navy Reserve system was created consisting of roughly 1000 reserve posts. These posts are pooled and members drawn from them as needed to augment full-time units and ships' companies.
From 1922 to the 1950s the SA Navy was effectively part of the Royal Navy and wore the same uniforms and similar insignia. In 1959 the Crown in the SAN cap badge was replaced with the Lion of Nassau from the crest of the country's coat of arms. A black beret replaced the peaked cap in working uniforms.
In 2000 the new Coat of Arms was unveiled and the Chief of the Navy tasked Fleet Command to look at revising the Navy uniforms to reflect the new coat of arms. This saw new rank insignia for non commissioned officers being implemented as well as the introduction of a side cap.
The rank system is based on that of the (British) Royal Navy.
|Rank insignia of the South African Navy|
|Officer ranks||Admiral||Vice admiral||Rear admiral||Rear admiral junior grade||Captain||Commander||Lieutenant commander||Lieutenant||Sub lieutenant||Ensign||Midshipman|
Warrant Officers and other ranks
|Rank insignia of the South African Navy|
|Warrant officers and other ranks||Senior chief warrant officer||Chief warrant officer||Master warrant officer||Senior warrant officer||Warrant officer class 1||Warrant officer class 2||Chief petty officer||Petty officer||Leading seaman||Able seaman||Seaman|
The warrant officer ranks were expanded in 2008, with ranks that had been substantive based on the post now becoming a rank that the person maintained.
Ships and weapons
|Warrior class||Offshore patrol vessel||4||1979|
|River class||Mine counter measures vessels||4||1981|
|T class||Inshore patrol vessel||3||1992|
|Namacurra class||Harbour patrol boat||21||1981|
|SAS Drakensberg||Replenishment vessel (AOR)||1||1987|
|SAS Protea||Hecla-class survey vessel||1||1972|
|Tugboat||Harbour tug||3||1969, 1978 & 1995|
|Lima-class utility landing craft||Landing Craft Utility||6||1990|
Air Force maritime aircraft
Although the SAN does not operate any aircraft itself, aircraft used on ships or supporting the SAN are operated by 22 Squadron SAAF:
- 1 × Atlas Oryx – medium utility helicopter
- 4 × Westland Super Lynx 300 Mk64 – ASW and ASuW helicopter (deployed on the Valour-class frigates)
There is a planned programme to equip the frigates with UAVs to supplement the helicopters. Previously before its retirement the SAAF operated the Westland Wasp for the SAN in the anti-submarine warfare role.
Other weapon systems include:
- 533mm (21") torpedo
- 12.7mm M2 Browning machine gun (pintle mounts as well as in Reutech Rogue remotely operated turrets)
- Exocet MM40 Block 2 Anti-ship missile
- Umkhonto missile – short-range SAM
- Denel 35mm Dual Purpose Gun (CIWS)
- OTO Melara 76 mm Naval gun
- 7.62mm general purpose machine guns of various types: Browning M1919, FN MAG and Vektor SS-77
Maritime Reaction Squadron
The Maritime Reaction Squadron provides an amphibious, diving and small boat capability to the Navy, deploying infantry-trained South African Navy personnel in various peacekeeping roles within the African continent and to assist in boarding operations at sea, humanitarian operations and disaster relief. The Maritime Reaction Squadron was formed as the Naval Rapid Deployment Force (NRDF) in 2005.
The squadron consists of the following components:
- Operational Boat Division (OBD) with 10 Namacurra-class harbour patrol boats and six Lima-class utility landing craft
- Reaction Force Division (RFD) consisting of one naval infantry company with a command and support element
- Operational Diving Division (ODD) consisting of four operational diving teams of 17 divers.
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