Doxapram hydrochloride (marketed as Dopram, Stimulex or Respiram) is a respiratory stimulant. Administered intravenously, doxapram stimulates an increase in tidal volume, and respiratory rate.
Mechanism of Action 
Doxapram stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory centre in the brain stem.
Doxapram is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder that is stable in light and air. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether. Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially available injections.
Doxapram is used in intensive care settings to stimulate the respiratory rate in patients with respiratory failure. It may be useful for treating respiratory depression in patients who have taken excessive doses of drugs such as buprenorphine which may fail to respond adequately to treatment with naloxone.
It is equally effective as pethidine in suppressing shivering after surgery.
Side effects 
High blood pressure, panic attacks, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), tremor, sweating and vomiting may occur. Convulsions have been reported. It cannot be used in patients with coronary heart disease, epilepsy and high blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in newborns and small children, mainly due to the presence of benzyl alcohol.
- ^ Buprenorphine Drug Data Sheet
- ^ Singh, P; Dimitriou, V; Mahajan, RP; Crossley, AW (1993). "Double-blind comparison between doxapram and pethidine in the treatment of postanaesthetic shivering". British journal of anaesthesia 71 (5): 685–8. doi:10.1093/bja/71.5.685. PMID 8251281.