|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
Empagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), and causes sugar in the blood to be absorbed by the kidneys and eliminated in urine.
Mode of action
Empagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), which is found almost exclusively in the proximal tubules of nephronic components in the kidneys. SGLT-2 accounts for about 90 percent of glucose reabsorption into the blood. Blocking SGLT-2 reduces blood glucose by blocking glucose reabsorption in the kidney and thereby excreting glucose (i.e., blood sugar) via the urine.
When taken in dosages of 10 or 25 mg once a day, the incidence of adverse events was similar to placebo. However, there was a higher frequency of genital infections at both the 10 mg and the 25 mg dosages.
As of May 2013, Boehringer and Lilly had submitted applications for marketing approval to the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The drug was approved in Europe in May 2014 and was approved by the FDA in August 2014 The FDA required four postmarketing studies: a cardiovascular outcomes trial, and two studies in children, and a toxicity study in animals related to the pediatric trials.
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- Abdul-Ghani MA, DeFronzo RA (September 2008). "Inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption: a novel strategy for achieving glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Endocr Pract 14 (6): 782–90. doi:10.4158/ep.14.6.782. PMID 18996802.
- Nair S, Wilding JP (January 2010). "Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors as a new treatment for diabetes mellitus". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1210/jc.2009-0473. PMID 19892839.
- Bays H (March 2009). "From victim to ally: the kidney as an emerging target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus". Curr Med Res Opin 25 (3): 671–81. doi:10.1185/03007990802710422. PMID 19232040.
- Miriam E. Tucker for Medscape Medical News. May 07, 2013 First Details of Empagliflozin Trials Follow US and EU Filings
- NICE. Type 2 diabetes: empagliflozin
- Elizabeth Mechatie for Clinical Endocrinology News Digital Network August 1, 2014 FDA approves empagliflozin for adults with type 2 diabetes