Glimepiride

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Glimepiride
Glimepiride.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(4-[N-((1r,4r)-4-methylcyclohexylcarbamoyl)sulfamoyl]phenethyl)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide
Clinical data
Trade names Amaryl
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a696016
Pregnancy cat.
Legal status
  • Rx only
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Protein binding >99.5%
Half-life 5 hours
Excretion Urine, faeces
Identifiers
CAS number 93479-97-1 YesY
ATC code A10BB12
PubChem CID 3476
DrugBank DB00222
ChemSpider 16740595 YesY
UNII 6KY687524K YesY
KEGG D00593 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:5383 N
ChEMBL CHEMBL1481 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C24H34N4O5S 
Mol. mass 490.617 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Glimepiride is a medium- to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug. It is marketed as GLEAM by Franco Indian Pharmaceuticals,K-GLIM-1 by BLUE CROSS, Glucoryl by Alkem Lab PVT LTD , Amaryl by Sanofi-Aventis, GLIMPID by Ranbaxy Laboratories(Cardiovascular) and GLIMY by Dr.Reddy's Labs.

It is sometimes classified as either the first third-generation sulfonylurea,[1] or as second-generation.[2]

Indication / contraindications[edit]

Main article: Sulfonylurea

Glimepiride is indicated to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus; its mode of action is to increase insulin production by the pancreas. It is not used for type 1 diabetes because in type 1 diabetes the pancreas is not able to produce insulin.[3]

Its use is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to glimepiride or other sulfonylureas, and during pregnancy.

Adverse effects[edit]

Main article: Sulfonylurea

Side effects from taking glimepiride include gastrointestinal tract (GI) disturbances, occasional allergic reactions, and rarely blood production disorders including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemolytic anemia. In the initial weeks of treatment, the risk of hypoglycemia may be increased. Alcohol consumption and exposure to sunlight should be restricted because they can worsen side effects.[3]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

2-mg oral tablet of glimepiride

Gastrointestinal absorption is complete, with no interference from meals. Significant absorption can occur within one hour, and distribution is throughout the body, 99.5% bound to plasma protein. Metabolism is by oxidative biotransformation. Excretion in the urine is 65%, and the remainder is excreted in the feces.

Mechanism of action[edit]

Main article: Sulfonylurea

Like all sulfonylureas, glimepiride acts as an insulin secretagogue.[4] It lowers blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin by pancreatic beta cells and by inducing increased activity of intracellular insulin receptors.

Not all secondary sufonylureas have the same risks of hypoglycemia. Glibenclamide (glyburide) is associated with an incidence of hypoglycemia of up to 20–30%, compared to as low as 2% to 4% with glimepiride. Glibenclamide also interferes with the normal homeostatic suppression of insulin secretion in reaction to hypoglycemia, whereas glimepiride does not. Also, glibenclamide diminishes glucagon secretion in reaction to hypoglycemia, whereas glimepiride does not.[5]

Interactions[edit]

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as salicylates), sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, coumadin and probenecid) may potentiate the hypoglycemic action of glimepiride. Thiazides, other diuretics, phothiazides, thyroid products, oral contraceptives, and phenytoin tend to produce hyperglycemia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hamaguchi T, Hirose T, Asakawa H, et al. (December 2004). "Efficacy of glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients treated with glibenclamide". Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 66 Suppl 1: S129–32. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2003.12.012. PMID 15563963. 
  2. ^ Davis SN (2004). "The role of glimepiride in the effective management of Type 2 diabetes". J. Diabetes Complicat. 18 (6): 367–76. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2004.07.001. PMID 15531188. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a696016.html
  4. ^ Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Wolski K, et al. (April 2008). "Comparison of pioglitazone vs glimepiride on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: the PERISCOPE randomized controlled trial". JAMA 299 (13): 1561–73. doi:10.1001/jama.299.13.1561. PMID 18378631. 
  5. ^ Davis, Stephen N. (2005). "60. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, and the pharmacology of the endocrine pancreas". In Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L. (eds.). Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 1636. ISBN 0-07-142280-3. 

External links[edit]