Kilgour–Matas report

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David Kilgour, former Canadian Secretary of State (Asia-Pacific), investigated the Falun Gong allegations

The 2007 Kilgour–Matas report titled, Bloody Harvest, Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China[1] is an investigative report into allegations of live organ harvesting in China conducted by Canadian MP David Kilgour and human rights lawyer David Matas. The report can be downloaded free in 22 languages at organharvestinvestigation.net.[1]

The report was requested by the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (CIPFG) after allegations emerged that Falun Gong practitioners were secretly having their organs removed against their will at Sujiatun Thrombosis Hospital.[1]

The initial 6 July 2006 report, based on direct and circumstantial evidence,[2] concluded that "there has been, and continues today to be, large-scale organ seizures from unwilling Falun Gong practitioners".[3] The Communist Party of China has consistently denied the allegations.[4][5]

The initial report received a mixed reception. In the US, a Congressional Research Service report[6] by Thomas Lum stated, "For the most part, however, the report does not bring forth new or independently-obtained testimony and relies largely upon the making of logical inferences." and "The report’s conclusions rely heavily upon transcripts of telephone calls in which PRC respondents reportedly stated that organs removed from live Falun Gong detainees were used for transplants. Some argue that such apparent candor would seem unlikely given Chinese government controls over sensitive information, which may raise questions about the credibility of the telephone recordings."[6] The candor could be due to the large amounts of money being made.

U.N. special rapporteur Manfred Nowak said in March 2007 that the chain of evidence Kilgour and Matas were documenting showed a "coherent picture that causes concern",[7] which the United Nations Committee Against Torture followed up in November 2008 with a request for "a full explanation of the source of organ transplants", to investigate the claims of organ harvesting, and to take measures to prosecute those committing abuses.[8] Other investigators, such as Ethan Gutmann, followed the Kilgour–Matas report; Gutmann estimating that between 450,000 to 1 million Falun Gong members were detained at any given time, and estimated that tens of thousands may have been targeted for organ harvesting.[9][10]

Upon release of the initial report on 6 July 2006, Chinese officials declared that China abides by World Health Organization principles that prohibit the sale of human organs without written consent from donors. They denounced the report as smears "based on rumours and false allegations", and said the Chinese government had already investigated the claims and found them without any merit.[11][12] The report is banned in Russia and China.[13] Among international concerns, the US National Kidney Foundation expressed that it was "deeply concerned" about the allegations,[14] and Taiwan urged its citizens not to travel to China to receive transplants.[15]

In 2009, the authors published an updated version of the report as a book, titled Bloody Harvest,The killing of Falun Gong for their organs,[16][17] and in the same year received an award from the International Society for Human Rights.[18]

Background[edit]

Falun Gong[edit]

Falun Gong, a spiritual discipline that combines meditation and exercises with a moral philosophy, emerged in China in the 1990s; by 1999 the number of practitioners was estimated in the tens of millions.[19][20] In July 1999, following a large-scale demonstration to request official recognition, Chinese authorities banned the practice and initiated a campaign to suppress the group, creating the 610 Office to oversee and coordinate the elimination of Falun Gong.[21][22][23] The suppression that followed was accompanied by what Amnesty International called a "massive propaganda campaign,"[24] and the detention and imprisonment of tens of thousands of Falun Gong adherents; coercive “reeducation” of Falun Gong adherents sometimes resulted in deaths.[25][26][27] Former detainees reported that in some labour camps, Falun Gong practitioners comprised the majority population, and were singled out for abuse.[28] Due to limited access to victims and labour camp facilities, however, many specific reports of abuses are difficult to independently corroborate.[23]

Organ transplantation in China[edit]

China has had an organ transplantation programme since the 1960s. It is one of the largest organ transplant programmes in the world, peaking at over 13,000 transplants a year in 2004.[29] Involuntary organ harvesting is illegal under Chinese law, although under a 1984 regulation it became legal to remove organs from executed criminals with the prior consent of the criminal or permission of relatives. By the 1990s, growing concerns about possible ethical abuses arising from coerced consent and corruption led medical groups and human rights organizations to start condemning the practice.[30] These concerns resurfaced in 2001, when The Washington Post reported claims by a Chinese asylum-seeking doctor that he had taken part in organ extraction operations.

In December 2005, China's Deputy Health Minister acknowledged that the practice of removing organs from executed prisoners for transplant was widespread – as many as 95% of all organ transplants in China derived from executions,[31] and he promised steps to prevent abuse.[6][32]

In May 2006 the World Medical Association demanded that China immediately cease using prisoners as organ donors.[33]

Sujiatun[edit]

The first allegations of systematic organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners were made in March 2006 by two individuals claiming to possess knowledge of involuntary organ extractions at the Sujiatun Thrombosis Hospital in Shenyang, Liaoning province. The allegations were publicized by the Epoch Times, an international media organisation founded by Falun Gong practitioners.[34]

Within one month of the press coverage, third party investigators, including representatives of the US Department of State, said that there was insufficient evidence to prove the allegations[35](report doesn't say that).

Chinese dissident Harry Wu, who exposed organ harvesting from prison inmates at laogai (hard labour camps), questioned the credibility of the Sujiatun whistle-blowers.[36][37] On April 14, 2006, the US state department wrote that "U.S. representatives have found no evidence to support allegations that a site in northeast China has been used as a concentration camp to jail Falun Gong practitioners and harvest their organs", adding "independent of these specific allegations, the United States remains concerned over China’s repression of Falun Gong practitioners and by reports of organ harvesting."[38]

Soon thereafter, in May 2006, The Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong asked David Kilgour as well as Canadian human rights lawyer David Matas to investigate the broader allegations of organ harvesting from Falun Gong adherents in China. Kilgour and Matas agreed to investigate.[1][39]

The report[edit]

First report[edit]

The report's comparison of average wait-times, in days, for an adult kidney transplant, in different countries (source Kilgour & Matas)[1][40]

On 20 July 2006, Kilgour and Matas presented the findings of their two-month investigation as Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China.[39] The report presented 33 strands of direct and circumstantial evidence that Kilgour and Matas felt, in the absence of any disproof, cumulatively allowed the conclusion that "the government of China and its agencies in numerous parts of the country, in particular hospitals but also detention centres and 'people's courts', since 1999 have put to death a large but unknown number of Falun Gong prisoners of conscience. Their vital organs, including kidneys, livers, corneas and hearts, were seized involuntarily for sale at high prices, sometimes to foreigners, who normally face long waits for voluntary donations of such organs in their home countries."[1]

The report called attention to the extremely short wait times for organs in China—one to two weeks for a liver compared with 32.5 months in Canada—noting that this was indicative of organs being procured on demand. It also tracked a significant increase in the number of annual organ transplants in China beginning in 1999, corresponding with the onset of the persecution of Falun Gong. Despite very low levels of voluntary organ donation, China performs the second-highest number of transplants per year.

Kilgour and Matas also presented material from Chinese transplant center web sites advertising the immediate availability of organs from living donors, and transcripts of telephone interviews in which hospitals told prospective transplant recipients that they could obtain Falun Gong organs.[1] The authors qualified their findings by noting the difficulties in verifying the alleged crimes, such as: independent bodies were not allowed to investigate conditions in China, eyewitness evidence was difficult to obtain, official information about organ transplantation was often withheld, and Kilgour and Matas themselves were denied visas to go to China to investigate.[1]

Second report[edit]

In a January 2007 revision, Bloody Harvest: Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China, Kilgour and Matas felt that the Government of China had reinforced the basis of the first report by responding to it in an unpersuasive way, mostly as attacks on Falun Gong. For Kilgour and Matas, such attacks made possible the violation of the basic human rights of Falun Gong practitioners.[41] China identified two factual errors in the first version of the report—one in an appendix, in a caption heading, where Kilgour and Matas placed two Chinese cities in the wrong provinces; the authors dismissed those errors as have nothing to do with the analysis or conclusions of their report.[41] In the absence of evidence that would invalidate the organ harvesting allegations — such as a Chinese government registry showing the identity of every organ donor and donation — Kilgour and Matas concluded that the allegations of China's harvesting organs from live Falun Gong practitioners were true and the practice was ongoing. They called for a ban on Canadian citizens traveling to China for transplant operations.[42][43][44]

As of November 2014 the free report at organharvestinvestigation.net has been translated into 21 languages.[1] The first report has translations for 7 other languages.[3]

Books[edit]

In 2009, Kilgour and Matas published an updated version of the report as a book, titled Bloody Harvest,The killing of Falun Gong for their organs. It contained new material, reactions the final report received and the advocacy they undertook to end the abuse.[16][17] Bloody Harvest has been reviewed 11 times at amazon.com.[45]

In 2012, State Organs: Transplant Abuse in China, edited by David Matas and Dr. Torsten Trey was published with contributions from a dozen specialists.[46][47] On amazon.com State Organs has been reviewed 7 times and you can read a sample of the book.[48]

Ethan Gutmann did his own investigations into organ harvesting and in August 2014 published the book The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem.[49][50] He interviewed well over 100 individuals for The Slaughter. Among them was a surgeon with personal and direct knowledge of the organ harvesting of Falun Gong in the Chinese mainland.[51] Part of the book can be read on amazon.com.[52]

Response[edit]

Peaceful demonstration against forced organ harvesting in Great Britain.

The report's allegations of involuntary organ removal from Falun Gong adherents received considerable media coverage, particularly in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Several governments tightened transplant tourism practices and requested more information from the Chinese government. Chinese officials repeatedly and angrily denied the report's organ harvesting allegations.[4][5] Upon release of the initial report, China declared they abided by World Health Organization principles that prohibit the sale of human organs without written consent from donors. They denounced the report as smears "based on rumours and false allegations", said the claims had been investigated and found to be without any merit,[11][53] and banned publication of the report.[13]

Due to the nature of the claims, several observers expressed reservations with endorsing the Kilgour and Matas’s conclusions. Amnesty International in 2006 said it was “continuing to analyze sources of information” about the allegations.[54] David Ownby, a professor of history at of the University of Montreal and expert on Falun Gong, wrote in Falun Gong and the Future of China that Falun Gong practitioners were probable candidates for organ harvesting in Chinese prisons. However, he felt that Falun Gong spokespersons "overplayed their hand" with the concentration camp allegations, potentially losing credibility in the eyes of neutral observers, despite the real persecution they were suffering.[55]

A Congressional Research Service report[6] by Thomas Lum stated, "For the most part, however, the report does not bring forth new or independently-obtained testimony and relies largely upon the making of logical inferences." and "The report’s conclusions rely heavily upon transcripts of telephone calls in which PRC respondents reportedly stated that organs removed from live Falun Gong detainees were used for transplants. Some argue that such apparent candor would seem unlikely given Chinese government controls over sensitive information, which may raise questions about the credibility of the telephone recordings."[6] Glen McGregor of the Ottawa Citizen was skeptical about the logistical plausibility of the allegations after visiting Sujiatun at the invitation of the Chinese Medical Association. He said that, depending on who you believe, "the Kilgour–Matas report is either compelling evidence that proves the claims about Falun Gong ... or a collection of conjecture and inductive reasoning that fails to support its own conclusions".[56]

Some observors found the report and its figures plausible. Tom Treasure of Guy's Hospital, London, said the Kilgour–Matas report was "plausible from a medical standpoint" based on the numerical gap in the number of transplants and the short waiting times in China compared with other countries.[57] He noted the existence of blood tests of imprisoned Falun Gong followers, which is not useful for the victims but is critical to organ donation, and said the allegations were “credible.”

Non-fiction writer Scott Carney included the allegations in his book The Red Market, writing "No one is saying the Chinese government went after the Falun Gong specifically for their organs… but it seems to have been a remarkably convenient and profitable way to dispose of them. Dangerous political dissidents were executed while their organs created a comfortable revenue stream for hospitals and surgeons, and presumably many important Chinese officials received organs."[58] Using different research methods to Kilgour and Matas, Ethan Gutmann, adjunct fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, found that his estimate of the number of Falun Gong practitioners killed for organs of approximately 65,000 was close to the estimate of 62,250 by Kilgour and Matas.[9][59][60][61][62][63] In September 2014 he published his findings in The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China’s Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem.[60]

Kirk C. Allison, Associate Director of the Program in Human Rights and Medicine in the University of Minnesota, wrote that the "short time frame of an on-demand system [as in China] requires a large pool of donors pre-typed for blood group and HLA matching," and would be consistent with the Falun Gong allegations about the systematic tissue typing of practitioners held prisoner.[64] He wrote that the time constraints involved "cannot be assured on a random-death basis", and that physicians he queried about the matter indicated that they were selecting live prisoners to ensure quality and compatibility.[64]

The US National Kidney Foundation said they were "deeply concerned about recent allegations regarding the procurement of organs and tissues through coercive or exploitative practices" and that "any act which calls the ethical practice of donation and transplantation into question should be condemned by the worldwide transplantation community."[14][65]

A 2008 petition signed by 140 Canadian physicians urged the Canadian Government to "issue travel advisories warning Canadians that organ transplants in China are sourced almost entirely from non-consenting people, whether prisoners sentenced to death or Falun Gong practitioners".[66][67] Canadian Member of Parliament Borys Wrzesnewskyj, based on the findings of the Kilgour–Matas report, introduced a 2008 bill that would make it illegal for Canadians to get an organ transplant abroad if the organ was taken from an unwilling victim.[68] In 2013, Doctors Against forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) presented a petition of nearly 1.5 million signatures including over 300,000 from Europe to the Office of UN High Commissioner on Human Rights in Geneva.[69][70]

While Russia, along with China, banned the report;[13] Taiwan condemned, "in the strongest possible terms", China's harvesting of human organs from executed Falun Gong practitioners.[71] Taiwan's Department of Health, urged Taiwanese doctors to not encourage patients to get commercial organ transplants in mainland China.[72] Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv prohibited Jews from deriving any benefit from Chinese organ harvesting, "even in life-threatening situations"; other rabbis opposed the use of Chinese organs for transplants.[73]

In 2006 and 2008, United Nations Special Rapporteurs raised questions about the sources of organs, the short waiting times for finding perfectly matched organs, and the correlation between the sudden increase in organ transplants in China and the beginning of the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners. These requests were not satisfactorily addressed by the Chinese authorities.[74] In November 2008 the United Nations Committee Against Torture noted its concern at the allegations and called for China to "immediately conduct or commission an independent investigation of the claims", and take measures "to ensure that those responsible for such abuses are prosecuted and punished".[8]

In 2010, though the Chinese Medical Society had stated that organ transplants from executed prisoners must cease,[75] and changes in Chinese regulations prohibited transplant tourism,[76] a meeting of the Transplantation Society received over 30 papers containing data from several hundred transplants, where the donor source was likely executed prisoners.[77]

During the U.N. Human Rights Council meeting held on March 12, 2014, Anne-Tamara Lorre, the Canadian representative on human rights to the United Nations, raised the issue of organ harvesting in China. "We remain concerned that Falun Gong practitioners and other religious worshippers in China face persecution, and reports that organ transplants take place without free and informed consent of the donor are troubling."[78][79][80]

Kilgour and Matas received the 2009 Human Rights Award by the German-based International Society for Human Rights[18] and were nominated for the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize.[81]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i David Kilgour; David Matas (31 January 2007). BLOODY HARVEST: Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China (in 22 languages - Bosnian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish). organharvestinvestigation.net. pp. 237 (english version). 
  2. ^ David Kilgour (20 March 2013). Ending a crime against humanity in China. 
  3. ^ a b David Kilgour; David Matas. "The First Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China" (in 19 languages, including 7 the revised report hasn't been translated into - Croatian, Hungarian, Indonesian, Malay, Romanian, Slovakian, Vietnamese). Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b CTV.ca News Staff (6 July 2006 "Chinese embassy denies organ harvesting report", CTV.ca. Retrieved 8 July 2006.
  5. ^ a b Canadian Press (7 July 2006) "Report claims China kills prisoners to harvest organs for transplant", canada.com. Retrieved 8 July 2006.
  6. ^ a b c d e Thomas Lum (11 August 2006). "Congressional Research Report #RL33437 China and Falun Gong" (pdf). au.af.mil. 
  7. ^ "An Interview with U.N. Special Rapporteur on Organ Harvesting in China". David-kilgour.com. 12 March 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  8. ^ a b United Nations Committee Against Torture,CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 19 OF THE CONVENTION: Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture, Forty-first session, Geneva, 3–21 November 2008
  9. ^ a b Ethan Gutmann. "China's Gruesome Organ Harvest. The whole world isn't watching. Why not?". Weekly Standard. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  10. ^ Julia Duin (27 April 2010). "Chinese accused of vast trade in organs". The Washington Times. 
  11. ^ a b Chinese Embassy in Canada (6 July 2006). "Response to the so called "China's organ harvesting report". Retrieved 12 July 2009. 
  12. ^ "Exposing the Lies of 'Falun Gong' Cult". china-embassy.org. Retrieved 14 Jun 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c Joseph Brean (24 December 2011). "‘Extremist’ writings of ex-Canadian MP, lawyer banned in Russia because of criticisms of China". National Post. 
  14. ^ a b National Kidney Foundation Statement about Alleged Human Rights Violations in Organ Donation National Kidney Foundation, 14 August 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2006
  15. ^ Elizabeth Hsu. "Taiwan people urged not to travel to China for organ transplants". Taiwanese Central News Agency. 
  16. ^ a b David Kilgour, David Matas (2009). "Bloody Harvest, The killing of Falun Gong for their organs". seraphimeditions.com. p. 232. 
  17. ^ a b "Chinese accused of vast trade in organs". The Washington Times. 
  18. ^ a b Santin, Aldo (19 February 2010). "Winnipeg lawyer nominated for Nobel Peace Prize". Winnipeg Free Press. 
  19. ^ Seth Faison (27 April 1999). "In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protestors". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ Joseph Kahn (27 April 1999). "Notoriety Now for Movement's Leader". The New York Times. 
  21. ^ Sarah Cook and Leeshai Lemish, ‘The 610 Office:Policing the Chinese Spirit’, China Brief , Volume 11 Issue 17 (9 November 2011).
  22. ^ James Tong, “Revenge of the Forbidden City,” Oxford University Press (2009).
  23. ^ a b Mickey Spiegel (2002). Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-270-X. Retrieved 28 September 2007. 
  24. ^ Amnesty International 'China: The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called "heretical organization"' March 23, 2000
  25. ^ Ian Johnson (26 Dec 2000). "Death Trap - How One Chinese City Resorted to Atrocities To Control Falun Dafa". The Wall Street Journal. 
  26. ^ Philip Pan and John Pomfret (5 August 2000). "Torture is Breaking Falun Gong". The Washington Post. 
  27. ^ "2005 Country Report on Human Rights, China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". state.gov. 8 March 2006. 
  28. ^ "We Could Disappear at Any Time" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 7 Dec 2005. 
  29. ^ "Health-System-Reform-in-China" The Lancet, 20 October 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2010
  30. ^ "TTS' policy on Interactions with China". Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  31. ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report 2006 p. 59; note 224, p.201
  32. ^ Jane Macartney, "China to 'tidy up' trade in executed prisoners' organs", The Times, 3 December 2005
  33. ^ "World Medical Association Council Resolution on Organ Donation in China". World Medical Association. Retrieved 9 Jun 2010. 
  34. ^ Ji Da, New Witness Confirms Existence of Chinese Concentration Camp, Says Organs Removed from Live Victims, Epoch Times, 17 March 2006
  35. ^ Congressional Research Service report, Thomas Lum China and Falun Gong, page CRS-7, paragraph 3 Updated August 11, 2006
  36. ^ Frank Stirk. "Canadians probe Chinese organ harvesting claims". Canadian Christianity. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007. 
  37. ^ Harry Wu (8 June 2006). "Statement of Harry Wu about Sujiatun issue". Observechina.net. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. 
  38. ^ "U.S. Finds No Evidence of Alleged Concentration Camp in China". America.gov. 16 April 2006. 
  39. ^ a b "Independent Investigators to Present Findings From Investigation on China's Organ Harvesting From Prisoners of Conscience". wthr.com. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  40. ^ "Beyond The Red Wall – Documentary on the Persecution of Falun Gong". David-kilgour.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  41. ^ a b David Matas, David Kilgour (31 January 2007). "Bloody Harvest, Section 23) Massive arrests and 33) Government of China responses". organharvestinvestigation.net. 
  42. ^ Kirstin Endemann, CanWest News Service; Ottawa Citizen (6 July 2006)"Ottawa urged to stop Canadians travelling to China for transplants", Canada.com. Retrieved 6 July 2006
  43. ^ Reuters, AP (8 July 2006)"Falun Gong organ claim supported", The Age. Retrieved 7 July 2006
  44. ^ Calgary Herald (5 July 2006)"Rights concerns bedevil China—Doing trade with regime must be balanced with values", Canada.com. Retrieved 8 July 2006
  45. ^ David Kilgour, David Matas. "Bloody Harvest: Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China". amazon.com. 
  46. ^ Matthew Robertson (31 August 2012). "Book Exposes Organized Killing for Organs in China". Epoch Times. 
  47. ^ David Matas and Torsten Trey (2012). "State Organs, Transplant Abuse in China". seraphimeditions.com. 
  48. ^ David Matas and Torsten Trey (2012). "State Organs: Transplant Abuse in China". amazon.com. p. 144. 
  49. ^ Pam Mclennan (12 October 2014). "‘The Slaughter’: Shedding Light on China’s Illegal Organ Trade". Epoch Times. 
  50. ^ Ethan Gutmann (2014). "The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem". Prometheus Books. p. 368. 
  51. ^ Ethan Gutmann (25 April 2014). "The Slaughter – An Interview with DAFOH (Doctors Against Forced Harvesting)". ethan-gutmann.com. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  52. ^ Ethan Gutmann (2014). "The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem". amazon.com. p. 368. 
  53. ^ "Exposing the Lies of 'Falun Gong' Cult". china-embassy.org. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  54. ^ "Amnesty International Fact Sheet on Persecution of Falun Gong". amnesty.org.nz. 
  55. ^ David Ownby (19 Mar 2008). Falun Gong and the Future of China. Oxford University Press. pp. 224–226. 
  56. ^ Glen McGregor, "Inside China's 'crematorium'", Ottawa Citizen, 24 November 2007
  57. ^ Tom Treasure (March 2007). "The Falun Gong, organ transplantation, the holocaust and ourselves". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting) 100: 119–121. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  58. ^ Scott Carney (2011). The Red Market: On the Trail of the World's Organ Brokers, Bone Thieves, Blood Farmers, and Child Traffickers. Harper Collins. p. 62. 
  59. ^ Ethan Gutmann (28 April 2009). "How many harvested?". http://eastofethan.com. 
  60. ^ a b Jay Nordlinger (25 August 2014). "Face The Slaughter". National Review. 
  61. ^ Jaya Gibson. "UK MPs Briefed on Persecution in China". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
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  63. ^ Ethan Gutmann (2010). "The China Conundrum". Focus Quarterly. 
  64. ^ a b Kirk C. Allison (29 September 2006). "Falun Gong, Organ Harvesting in China, and the Human Rights Case for an Independent Congressional Investigation – testimony submitted by Kirk C. Allison" (PDF). Open Hearing of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 4 Feb 2010. 
  65. ^ "National Kidney Foundation Statement about Alleged Human Rights Violations in Organ Donation" (pdf). faluninfo.net. 15 August 2008. 
  66. ^ "The Medical Post, Canadian MD-activist likens Chinese organ trade to the Holocaust". david-kilgour.com. 12 March 2008. 
  67. ^ "Excerpt from Hansard of 13 December 2007, Canadian House of Commons". organharvestinvestigation.net. 13 December 2007. 
  68. ^ "The Epoch Times: One Member of Parliament's Crusade to Quell a Gruesome Trade". clearharmony.net. 
  69. ^ "US House-resolution end organ harvesting in China". theepochtimes.com. 
  70. ^ "Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting petition against Falun Gong practioners". globalbioethics. 16 December 2013. 
  71. ^ "China Post: Taiwan condemns China's organ harvesting". cipfg.org. 
  72. ^ "Taiwan: Director of Department of Health Orders Doctors in Taiwan Not to Get Involved with China's Inhumane Organ Transplantation". cipfg.org. 
  73. ^ Mathew Wagner (3 Jun 2007). "Chinese TV airs Elyashiv's opposition to organ harvesting". The Jerusalem Post. 
  74. ^ "United Nations Human Rights Special Rapporteurs Reiterate Findings on China's Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners". Falun Gong Human Rights Working Group, through egovmonitor.com. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  75. ^ "Chinese Medical Association Reaches Agreement With World Medical Association Against Transplantation Of Prisioners's Organs". medicalnewstoday.com. 7 October 2007. 
  76. ^ C. Ding (2008). "Latest development of legal regulations of organ transplant in China". J Int Bioethique (162): 61–81. 
  77. ^ G.M. Danovitch1, M. E. Shapiro and J. Lave (22 Feb 2011). "The Use of Executed Prisoners as a Source of Organ Transplants in China Must Stop". American Journal of Transplantation. 
  78. ^ Matthew Little (15 March 2014). "Canada Raises Organ Harvesting at UN". theepochtimes.com. 
  79. ^ "The European Parliament’s resolution on unethical organ harvesting in China is succeeded by a chain of international reactions". dafoh.org. 
  80. ^ Human Rights Council (12 March 2014). "Council reviews reports on the use of drones in the fight against terrorism, and on freedom of religion". ohchr.org. 
  81. ^ Aldo Santin (20 Feb 2010). "Crusader up for Nobel Prize Lawyer lauded for investigating abuses in China". Winnipeg Free Press. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]