|Member of the Queensland Parliament
15 April 1944 – 10 December 1949
|Preceded by||Ernest Riordan|
|Born||13 June 1897
|Died||7 October 1977
|Spouse(s)||Lucy Ethel Blackman
(m. 1924–1931; divorced)
(m. 1932–1977; his death)
|Alma mater||University of Queensland|
Frederick Woolnough 'Fred' Paterson (13 June 1897 – 7 October 1977) was an Australian politician, activist, unionist and lawyer. He was the only member of the Communist Party of Australia ever to be elected to a parliament anywhere in Australia.
Paterson was born and raised in Gladstone, Queensland. He was educated at Brisbane Grammar School and then studied classics at the University of Queensland, before joining the military when the First World War broke out. He subsequently saw action on the battlefields of France. While in France, he was involved in two food-related strikes, which were both successful.
In January 1920, Paterson moved to Merton College, Oxford to study theology, after becoming a Rhodes Scholar. However, by the time he sat for his honours degree in 1922, his belief in Christianity had changed. He had witnessed extreme poverty in Ireland and parts of London, and this concerned him. Not long after returning to Queensland, Paterson joined the Communist Party of Australia.
Paterson began studying law in 1923. By 1924, he was giving lectures on Marxism. Then, in 1925, he began working for the Workers' Educational Association. This saw him addressing unions, giving lectures on the history of the working-class, and trying to increase the association's membership.
Politics and the Communist Party
In 1931, Paterson was admitted to the Bar. He based himself in Brisbane, but later that year went to Townsville to defend two Italian workers, who were charged with assaulting the Italian consul. As the Great Depression set in, Paterson became involved in fighting racist employment policies in the sugar industry. At the time, the unions and employer associations had a policy of refusing employment to Italian workers to combat unemployment in the industry. Paterson led a campaign by both the Communist Party and the Italian community and was successful in ending the practice. In 1933, Paterson left Brisbane completely, and set up in Townsville. He spent his time juggling both a part-time legal career and his burgeoning role as a travelling activist for the Communist Party. By this time, he had gained a reputation as a fine public speaker.
During the late 1930s, the Communist Party continued to grow rapidly in North Queensland, with Paterson at the forefront. He played a significant role in the union movement in the sugar industry during a key strike over workplace conditions, and became involved in the anti-fascist movement.
In 1939, Paterson stood successfully as an alderman for the Townsville City Council, becoming the first member of the Communist Party to win such an office in Australia. He was then re-elected in 1943. The same year, he stood for the federal seat of Herbert, but was defeated.
The next year, he again made history, when at his third attempt, he won the State electoral seat of Bowen on 15 April 1944 (the 1944 Queensland state election). While Paterson had polled slightly behind his rival in Bowen itself, he was far in front in the mining and sugar-farming areas, which resulted in a significant victory. He retained the seat in the 1947 Queensland state election.
After being elected to Parliament, Paterson largely gave up the law, to concentrate on his political career. He continued being actively involved in public issues, particularly through the union movement, and was a vocal critic of the government of the time. He often made speeches at the Domain in central Brisbane. Paterson was rewarded, retaining his seat at the 1947 state election. During the 1948 railway strike, he regularly joined the picket line in the mornings before going to sit in Parliament. He also gave the picketers legal advice. Paterson knew that the police had the power to order the picketers to move, but that they did not have the power to order them where exactly to move. He then devised a strategy where, as they were moved on by the police, the picketers simply moved around the block.
On 17 March 1948, near Central station in Brisbane, Paterson intervened to stop a police officer who was assaulting a demonstrator. He was then struck from behind by another officer, and was rushed to hospital in an ambulance, unconscious. Paterson was unable to do any political activity for some months afterwards. An inquiry into the incident found that no wrongdoing had occurred and no police officer was ever arrested or charged with the assault. During his recovery period, the Queensland branch of the Returned and Services League of Australia decided to expel him as a member for being a Communist. However, his return to Townsville, once sufficiently recovered from his injuries to travel, was widely celebrated.
End of political career
In a 1949 redistribution, Paterson's electorate of Bowen was abolished, and split between two new electorates: Burdekin and Whitsunday. It has been suggested that the redistribution was done deliberately to split Paterson's electoral support and prevent him from being returned to parliament in the 1950 Queensland state election. At the time, Prime Minister Robert Menzies was launching his anti-Communist campaign, and was introducing legislation to prevented Communists from holding public office. Paterson contested the election in Whitsunday, but lost to Country Party candidate Lloyd Roberts, which can perhaps be attributed to the political climate of the time.
His defeat at the 1950 election largely ended Paterson's political career. However, he was involved in the successful campaign against Menzies' anti-Communist measures together with Max Julius, and he continued to be involved in the union movement and Communist Party right up until his death in 1977.
Paterson and fellow communist Gilbert Burns were constantly the subject of surveillance by the federal security service more correctly known as the Commonwealth Security Service (CSS). The Brisbane office of the CSS was run by Bob Wake. Bob Wake's role in maintaining a watch on the CPA in Queensland, especially during the state wide railway strike of 1948 is documented in his son's book No Ribbons or Medals, the story of 'Hereward' an Australian counter espionage officer.
- Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 1944–1947
- Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 1947–1950
- Menghetti 2000.
- "Jones Wins By 2843 Votes.". The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933–1954) (Brisbane, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 4 May 1934. p. 14. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Alphabetical Register of Members of the Legislative Assembly 1860-2012 and the Legislative Council 1860-1922". Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Communist Injured In Clash.". Goulburn Evening Post (NSW : 1940 - 1957) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 17 March 1948. p. 5 Edition: Daily and Evening. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Paterson expelled by Q'ld RSL council without a hearing.". Northern Standard (Darwin, NT : 1921 - 1955) (Darwin, NT: National Library of Australia). 28 May 1948. p. 8. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "TOWN BAND FOR M.L.A.". Northern Standard (Darwin, NT : 1921 - 1955) (Darwin, NT: National Library of Australia). 23 July 1948. p. 3. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "The St Patrick’s Day bashing of people’s champion". Ross Fitzgerald. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "NOMINATIONS RECEIVED FROM 174 CANDIDATES FOR 75 SEATS.". Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 4 April 1950. p. 5. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Fitzgerald, Ross (1997), The Peoples Champion: Fred Paterson – Australia's Only Communist Party Member of Parliament, St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, ISBN 0-7022-2959-8
- Menghetti, Diane (2000), "Paterson, Frederick Woolnough (Fred) (1897–1977)", Dictionary of Biography (Australian National University), archived from the original on 18 May 2013