||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (February 2009)|
|• Mayor||Guido Till (SPD)|
|• Total||59.22 km2 (22.86 sq mi)|
|• Density||940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Dialling codes||07161, 07165, 07163|
Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. It is the capital of the district Göppingen. It is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils.
Göppingen is home to Märklin, the world-famous toy company.
Tradition holds that the city was founded by an Alemannic leader called Geppo sometime in the 3rd or 4th century. A disastrous fire on August 25, 1782 destroyed most of the town, but it was immediately rebuilt. Industrialisation during the 19th century made the area into a centre of industry. The importance of such industry is still seen in the town in the present day in companies such as Märklin and Schuler.
Göppingen and the nearby village of Jebenhausen were home to a thriving Jewish community from 1777 until the Second World War. In 1777, the Baron von Liebenstein issued a "Letter of Protection" granting Elias Gutmann and other Jews permission to settle in Jebenhausen. The community grew and peaked in the mid-1800s, with the population center shifting from Jebenhausen to Göppingen and a substantial emigration of Jewish families to America by the late 19th Century. The Göppingen synagogue, constructed in 1881, was destroyed during the Kristallnacht from 9–10 November 1938. Detailed records of the communities were collected by Rabbi Dr. Aron Tänzer, who served the community from 1907-1937, and who was also a driving force behind the establishment of the secular city library in Göppingen. A comprehensive Jewish community history, Die Geschichte der Juden in Jebenhausen und Göppingen, was first produced by Tänzer in 1927, on the 150th anniversary of the settlement of Jebenhausen, and re-released in 1988 by the city of Göppingen with updated material added by Karl-Heinz Ruess. The Jewish Museum in Jebenhausen, opened in 1992, documents and preserves the history of the Jewish community of Jebenhausen and Göppingen.
In 1930, a civilian air field was built north of Göppingen. This was acquired by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) in 1935 and expanded into Fliegerhorst Kaserne. From 1945 through 1949, displaced persons and refugees were housed in the kaserne. In 1949, it was renamed Cooke Barracks in honor of Charles H. Cooke, Jr. who had been posthumously awarded the Silver Star and Soldier's Medal for gallantry in action. In late 1950, the VII (US) Corps had been reactivated in Stuttgart and U.S. Army units began to be stationed at Cooke Barracks. The barracks began to be expanded and was used as the 28th Infantry Division headquarters. The 28th Infantry was redesignated as the 9th Infantry Division (United States) in 1954 and was replaced by the 8th Infantry Division in 1956. They were then replaced by the 4th Armored Division in 1957, which was redesignated as the 1st Armored Division in 1971 and moved to Hindenburg Kaserne in Ansbach in 1972. The 1st Infantry Division (Forward) moved from Augsburg in 1972 until they were deactivated in 1991. Cooke Barracks was returned to the German government in 1992. The barracks were again used to house refugees for some time, then returned to civilian use. A website, CookeBarracks.com, is dedicated to those who served at Cooke Barracks.
- "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31.12.2012 (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 12 November 2013.
- "The Search for Traces: Jews in Jebenhausen and Göppingen". Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- "Die Reichspogromnacht in Göppingen". Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- "Rabbi Dr. Aron Tänzer". Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- "Die Geschichte der Juden in Jebenhausen und Göppingen". Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- "The Jewish Museum in Jebenhausen". Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- "U.S. Army Installations - Göppingen & Schw. Gmünd". U.S. Army in Germany. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
- "Cooke Barracks: A Chronology, 1945-2005". Retrieved 2015-03-22.