Penjor lining a road in Bali at Galungan
|Observed by||Balinese Hinduism|
|Observances||Prayers, Religious rituals|
|Date||Decided by the Hindu Balinese pawukon calendar|
Galungan is a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma. It marks the time when the ancestral spirits visit the Earth. The last day of the celebration is Kuningan, when they return. The date is calculated according to the 210-day Balinese calendar.
Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremonies. The spirits of deceased relatives who have died and been cremated return to visit their former homes, and the current inhabitants have a responsibility to be hospitable through prayers and offerings. The most obvious sign of the celebrations are the penjor - bamboo poles with offerings suspended at the end. These are installed by the side of roads. A number of days around the Kuningan day have special names, and are marked by the organization of particular activities.
|Name of day||Activities|
|3 days before||Penyekeban||Cooking of bananas for offerings|
|2 days before||Penyajaan||Making of jaja (fried rice cakes)|
|1 day before||Penampahan||Slaughtering of pigs and turtles for feasts|
|1 day after||Manis Galungan||Visiting family|
|10 days after||Kuningan||Prayers, offerings - spirits return to heaven|
|11 days after||Manis Kuningan||Fun|
Galungan begins on the Wednesday (Buda) of Dunggulan, the 11th week of the 210-day pawukon calendar. This means that there are often two celebrations per solar year. Dates for 2013-2015 are as follows:
|2013||March 27||April 6|
|2013||October 23||November 2|
|2014||May 21||May 31|
|2014||December 17||December 27|
|2015||July 15||July 25|
- About.com Southeast Asia TravelSearch Accessed 26 May 2014
- Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekala and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion, Ritual and Art pp 182-185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6
- Pancorbo, Lo balinés", en "Fiestas del Mundo. Las Máscaras de la Luna". pp. 33–41. Ediciones del Serbal, Barcelona, 1996.
- Esimeman (1989) p353
- Esimeman (1989) p183