Galungan

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Galungan
PenjorKuningan.jpg
Penjor lining a road in Bali at Galungan
Also called Galungan
Observed by Balinese Hinduism
Type Hindus, cultural
Observances Prayers, Religious rituals
Date Decided by the Hindu Balinese pawukon calendar

Galungan is a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma.[1] It marks the time when the ancestral spirits visit the Earth. The last day of the celebration is Kuningan, when they return. The date is calculated according to the 210-day Balinese calendar.

Significance[edit]

Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremonies. The spirits of deceased relatives who have died and been cremated return to visit their former homes, and the current inhabitants have a responsibility to be hospitable through prayers and offerings. The most obvious sign of the celebrations are the penjor - bamboo poles weighed down by offerings suspended at the end. These can be seen by the side of roads. A number of days around the Kuningan day itself have special names, with particular activities being organized.[2]

Name of day Activities
3 days before Penyekeban Cooking of bananas for offerings
2 days before Penyajaan Making of jaja (fried rice cakes)
1 day before Penampahan Slaughtering of pigs and turtles for feasts
1 day after Manis Galungan Visiting family
10 days after Kuningan Prayers, offerings - spirits return to heaven
11 days after Manis Kuningan Fun

Dates[edit]

Galungan begins on the Wednesday (Buda) of Dunggulan, the 11th week of the 210-day pawukon calendar. This means that there are often two celebrations per solar year. Dates for 2012-2014 are as follows:[3]

Year Galungan Kuningan
2012 February 1 February 11
2012 August 29 September 8
2013 March 27 April 6
2013 October 23 November 2
2014 May 21 May 31

References[edit]

  • About.com Southeast Asia TravelSearch Accessed 16 August 2012
  • Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekala and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion, Ritual and Art pp 182-185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6
  • Pancorbo, Lo balinés", en "Fiestas del Mundo. Las Máscaras de la Luna". pp. 33–41. Ediciones del Serbal, Barcelona, 1996.


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Esimeman (1989) p353
  2. ^ Esimeman (1989) p183
  3. ^ About.com

External links[edit]