Ugadi

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For the Indian film, see Ugadi (film).
Ugadi Pacchadi.jpg
Ugadi
UgadiPachadi.JPG
Observed by Hindus
Type Kannadigas, Telugu, Konkani, Balinese New Year's Day, Mauritius
Celebrations 1 day
Begins Chaitra Shuddha Padyami
Date March (generally), April (occasionally)
2013 date April 11
2014 date March 31

Yugādi,(Ugādi 'Samvatsarādi Kannada: ಯುಗಾದಿ Yugadi, Telugu: Ugadi/Yugadi (ఉగాది/యుగాది), Konkani/Marathi: युगादि yugādi) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. The name Yugadi or Ugadi is derived from the Sanskrit words yuga (age) and ādi (beginning): "the beginning of a new age". It falls on a different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Ugadi marks the first day of the new year. Chaitra is the first month in Panchanga which is the Indian calendar.

While the people of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka use the term Yugadi/Ugadi for this festival, the people of Maharashtra term the same festival, observed on the same day, Gudi Padwa (Marathi: गुढी पाडवा). Marwari, people of Rajasthan celebrate the same day as their new year day Thapna. Sindhis, people from Sindh, celebrate the same day as their New Year day Cheti Chand.[1] Manipuris also celebrate their New Year (Sajibu nongma panba) on the same day. The Hindu New Year, however, is observed as Baisakhi in Punjab, seri Saja in Himachal Kullu Vally, Puthandu in Tamil Nadu and Pohela Boishakh in West Bengal on April 14 or 15. It is also celebrated in Mauritius.[2] Hindus of Bali and Indonesia also celebrate their new year on the same day as Nyepi. This tri-state festival could be the result of the common rulers from the Satavahana Dynasty

Lunar Almanac[edit]

The word Yugadi can be explained as; 'Yuga' is the word for 'epoch' or 'era', and 'ādi' stands for 'the beginning' in Sanskrit. Yugadi specifically refers to the start of the age we are living in now, Kali Yuga. Kali Yuga started the moment when Lord Krishna left the world. Maharshi Vedavyasa describes this event with the words "Yesmin Krishno divamvyataha, Tasmat eeva pratipannam Kaliyugam". Kali Yuga began on February 17/18 at midnight in 3102 BCE[citation needed].

The festival marks the new year day for people between Vindhyas and Kaveri river who follow the South Indian lunar calendar, pervasively adhered to in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa.

This calendar reckons dates based on the Shalivahana era[citation needed] (Shalivahana Shaka), which begins its count from the supposed date of the founding of the Empire by the legendary hero Shalivahana[citation needed]. The Satavahana king Shalivahana (also identified as Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of this era known as Shalivahana. The Salivahana era begins its count of years from the year corresponding to 78 CE of the Gregorian calendar. Thus, the year 2000 CE corresponds to the year 1922 of the Salivahana Era.[citation needed]

In the terminology used by this lunar calendar (also each year is identified as per Indian Calendar)[citation needed], Yugadi falls on "Chaitra Shudhdha Paadyami" or the first day of the bright half of the Indian month of Chaitra.[citation needed] This generally falls in the months of March or April of the Gregorian calendar. In 2013, Ugadi falls on April 11. In 2014, Ugadi falls on 31 March.

Lunar calendars have a 60-year cycle and starts the new year on Yugadi i.e., on "Chaitra Sudhdha Paadyami". After the completion of 60 years,[3] the calendar starts a new with the first year.

Yugadi (start of new year) is based on Bhāskara II[citation needed] lunar calculations in the 12th century. It starts on the first new moon after Sun crosses equator from south to north on Spring Equinox. For example, the time for the new moon for Bijapur where Bhaskaracharya was born can be determined from the website [1] However, people celebrate Yugadi on the next morning as Indian day starts from sun rise. Many Indians in America also celebrate Yugadi.

Observance of the festival[edit]

The Kannada,Telugu, Marathi, Kodava and the Konkani diaspora in Karnataka,Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala celebrate the festival with great fanfare; gatherings of the extended family and a sumptuous feast are 'de rigueur'. The day, begins with ritual showers (oil bath) followed by prayers.

Symbolic eating of a dish with six tastes[edit]

Bevu-Bella (ಬೇವು-ಬೆಲ್ಲ) in Kannada,[4] symbolizes the fact that life is a mixture of different experiences (sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise), which should be accepted together and with equanimity through the New Year and The eating of a specific mixture of six tastes (షడ్రుచులు), called Ugadi Pachhadi (ఉగాది పచ్చడి) in Telugu the pachadi varies in different regions, in case of Telangana it is more liquefied.

The special mixture consists of:

Special dishes[edit]

Obbattu or Bhakshalu/Holigey -prepared on Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

In Karnataka a special dish called Obbattu or Holige, is prepared. It consists of a filling (gram and jaggery/sugar boiled and made in to a paste) stuffed in a flat roti-like bread. It is usually eaten hot or cold with ghee or milk topping or coconut milk at some places of Karnataka.In Andhra Pradesh, a special dish called Bobbattu (Polelu) (Puran Poli) (Oliga)are prepared on this occasion.

Another dish which is prepared on occasion of Ugadi is Ugadi pachhadi (mentioned above).

Recitation of Almanac[edit]

Later, people traditionally gather to listen to the recitation of the religious Panchangam (almanac) of the new year, and the general forecast of the year to come. This is called the 'Panchanga Sravanam', an informal social function where an elderly and respected person will read the almanac.

In Kannada, the greeting is "Yugadi Habbada Shubhashayagalu" - ಯುಗಾದಿ ಹಬ್ಬದ ಶುಭಾಶಯಗಳು (Greetings for the festival of Yugadi) or "Hosa varshada shubhashayagaLu" - ಹೊಸ ವರ್ಷದ ಶುಭಾಶಯಗಳು (Greetings on the new year).

In Telugu, the greeting is "ugadi subhakankshalu" -ఉగాది శుభాకాంక్షలు

In Konkani, it would be Navve varsache shubhashay, Samsar padvyache shubhashay.

In Marathi, it would be 'गुढी पाडव्याच्या हार्दिक शुभेच्छा' (Gudhi padvyachya hardik shubhechcha).

In 2012, the year greeting should be Sri Nandana Nama Shubhakankshalu.

2013 is called as Sri Vijayanama Samvatsara.

The year beginning on 31 March 2014 is called Sri Jaya Nama Samvatsaram

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ugadi a time to rejoice". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 April 2005. 
  2. ^ "Festivals, Cultural Events and Public Holidays in Mauritius". Mauritius Tourism Authority . Retrieved 2012-01-28. 
  3. ^ http://ladieslounge.co.in/recipe/ugadi-pacchadi/
  4. ^ "B'lore welcomes Kannada New Year". IBN live. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 

External links[edit]