Kumbh Mela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kumbh Mela
Nashik during 1989 Kumbh Mela.jpg
Nashik Pilgrims gather for the Shahi Snan (royal bath) in Ramkund in Dakshin Ganga River, 1991.
Official name Kumbh Mela, Kumbha Mela, Maha Kumbh Mela, Kumbha Melam
Observed by Hindus
Type Religious
Observances Shahi Snanam (bathing for purification from sin)
Begins Baisakha Purnima[1]
Ends Maha Shivaratri
Date main pilgrimage: every three years (2010/2013/2016/..); other: see chart
2013 date 14 Jan – 10 Mar[2]
2014 date -
2015 date 29 Aug – 18 Sep[3]
2016 date 22 April – 21 May 2016[4]

Kumbh Mela (/ˌkʊm ˈmlə/ or /ˌkʊm məˈlɑː/; Devanagari: कुम्भ मेला "kumbha mēlā", Marathi: कुंभमेळा "kumbh mela") is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river. It is considered to be the largest peaceful gathering in the world where around 100 million people were expected to visit during the Maha Kumbh Mela in 2013 in Allahabad.[5][6] It is held every third year at one of the four places by rotation: Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayaga), Nashik and Ujjain. Thus the Kumbh Mela is held at each of these four places every twelfth year. Ardha ("Half") Kumbh Mela is held at only two places, Haridwar and Allahabad, every sixth year. The rivers at these five places are: the Ganges (Ganga) at Haridwar, the confluence (Sangam) of the Ganges and the Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati at Allahabad, the Godawari at Nashik, the Shipra at Ujjain and the kausiki at Chataradham

The name Kumbh Mela comes from Hindi, and in the original Sanskrit and other Indian languages it is more often known as Kumbha Mela. Kumbha means a pitcher and Mela means fair in Sanskrit. The pilgrimage is held for about one and a half months at each of these four places where it is believed in Hinduism that drops of nectar fell from the kumbha carried by gods after the sea was churned. The festival is billed as the "world’s largest congregation of religious pilgrims".[7] There is no precise method of ascertaining the number of pilgrims, and the estimates of the number of pilgrims bathing on the most auspicious day may vary; approximately 80 million people attended on 14 February 2013.

Mauni Amavasya traditionally attracted the largest crowds at the mela, held here every 12 years. The current Kumbh Mela was held on 14 January 2013 at Allahabad. The day marked the second and the biggest Shahi Snanam (royal bath) of this event, with 13 akharas taking to the Sangam. 10 Feb 2013 was the biggest bathing day at the Maha Kumbh Mela and probably the largest human gathering on a single day. Over 30 million devotees and ascetics took holy dip on the occasion of Mauni Amavasya.[8]

Haridwar Pilgrims gather at the third Shahi Snanam in Har ki Pauri to take the royal bath in Ganga River, 2010.

History[edit]

The first written evidence of the Kumbh Mela can be found in the accounts of Chinese monk Xuanzang (玄奘, alternately Hsuan Tsang) who visited India in 629–645 CE, during the reign of King Harshavardhana.[9][10] However, similar observances date back many centuries, where the river festivals first started getting organised. According to medieval Hindu theology, its origin is found in one of the most popular medieval puranas, the Bhagavata Purana. The Samudra manthan episode (Churning of the ocean of milk), is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana, Vishnu Purana, the Mahabharata, and the Ramayana.[11]

The account goes that the Devas had lost their strength by the curse of Durväsä Muni, and to regain it, they approached Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva. They directed all the demigods to Lord Vishnu[12] (full story on kumbh mela) and after praying to Lord Vishnu, he instructed them to churn the ocean of milk Ksheera Sagara (primordial ocean of milk) to receive amrita (the nectar of immortality). This required them to make a temporary agreement with their arch enemies, the Asuras, to work together with a promise of sharing the wealth equally thereafter.[13] However, when the Kumbha (urn) containing the amrita appeared, a fight ensued. For twelve days and twelve nights (equivalent to twelve human years) the Devas and Asuras fought in the sky for the pot of amrita. It is believed that during the battle, Lord Vishnu (incarnated as Mohini-Mürti) flew away with the Kumbha of elixir spilling drops of amrita at four places: Allahabad (Prayag), Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik.[14]

Places[edit]

Kumbh Mela takes place every thirteen years at one of four places: Allahabad, Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik. The Mela in its different forms alternates between Prayag, Nashik, Ujjain and Haridwar every third year.[15][16][17]

  • Kumbh Mela: Held at all four places every three years.[18]
  • Ardha Kumbh Mela: Held at Haridwar and Prayag every 6 years.
  • Purna Kumbh Mela: Held only at Prayag every 12 years.[19]
  • Maha Kumbh Mela: Held only at Prayag every 144 years.[20][21]

Prayag[edit]

The Triveni Sangam, or the intersection of Yamuna River and Ganges River and the mythical Sarasvati River, where devotees perform rituals.

Triveni Sangam, the meeting place, of the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Sarasvati.[22]

Kumbh Mela 2013 Sangam, Allahabad

Haridwar[edit]

On the bank of river Ganga.

Nashik[edit]

There are 14 Akhadas, of which 11 belong to the Shaiva sect (of the 11 Shaiva Akhadasa, one—Bhudada Akhada—is defunct, while 10 are active) and 3 to the Vaishnava sect. The Shaiva Akhadas take a holy dip at Kushavart in Trimbakeshwar, about 30 km from Nashik.[23] The Vaishnav Akhadas perform rituals at Ramkund in Godavari and stay at Tapovan.[24] The Vaishnava Akhadas have Khalsas (religious groups headed by Mahantas attached with Akhadas) attached with them. Both Shaiva and Vaishnava Sadhus used to take the holy dip in Trimbakeshwar, until 1838, when a clash between them led to bloodshed and the Peshwa ruler requested Shaiva sadhus to perform rituals at Trimbakeshwar and Vaishnavs to move downstream to Ramakunda in Nasik.

Ujjain[edit]

On the bank of river Shipra.

Venues[edit]

Year Prayag Nashik Ujjain Haridwar
1983 Ardha Kumbh
1989 Purna Kumbh
1991 Kumbh
1992 Kumbh Ardha kumbh
1995 Ardha Kumbh
1998 Kumbh
2001 Purna[25] Kumbh
2003 Kumbh
2004 Sihasth Ardha Kumbh
2007 Ardha Kumbh
2010 Kumbh
2013 Maha[26] Kumbh -
2015 Kumbh
2016 Sihasth Ardha Kumbh
2019 Ardha Kumbh
2022 Kumbh

Upcoming Kumbh Mela festivals:

  • The next Kumbh Mela will be held at Nashik on the bank of the river Godavari in 2015 (15 August to 13 September). The Kumbh at Ujjain is also called "Simhastha"(as Guru will be in Singh Rashi).[27]
  • Ujjain Purna Kumbh Mela 2016

Timing[edit]

Planetary positions during 2013 Kumbh Mela at Allahabad (Prayag)

Kumbh Mela is celebrated at different locations depending on the position of the planet of Bṛhaspati (Jupiter) and the sun. When Jupiter and the sun are in the zodiac sign Leo (Simha Rashi) it is held in Trimbakeshwar, Nashik; when the sun is in Aquarius (Kumbh Rashi) it is celebrated at Haridwar; when Jupiter is in Taurus (Vrishabha Rashi ) and the sun is in Capricorn (Makar Rashi) Kumbh Mela is celebrated at Prayag; and Jupiter and the sun are in Scorpio (Vrishchik Rashi) the Mela is celebrated at Ujjain.[28][29] Each site's celebration dates are calculated in advance according to a special combination of zodiacal positions of Sun, Moon, and Jupiter.[30]

Attendance[edit]

Kumbh Mela at Prayag, 2001
A saint in Maha Kumbh 2013

According to The Imperial Gazetteer of India, an outbreak of cholera occurred at the 1892 Mela at Haridwar leading to the rapid improvement of arrangements by the authorities and to the formation of Haridwar Improvement Society. In 1903 about 400,000 people are recorded as attending the fair.[29] During the 1954 Kumbh Mela stampede at Prayag, around 500 people were killed, and scores were injured. Ten million people gathered at Haridwar for the Kumbh on 14 April 1998.[9]

In 2001, more than 40 million gathered on the busiest of its 55 days.[31]

According to the Mela Administration's estimates, around 70 million people participated in the 45-day Ardha Kumbh Mela at Prayag in 2007.[32]

The last "Kumbh Mela" held in 2001 in Prayag was estimated by the authorities to have attracted between 30 and 70 million people.[33][34][35]

The current Maha Kumbh Mela began on 14 January 2013 at Prayag.[36] According to expectations more than 100 million people attended the 2013 Kumbh mela.[37][38]

The ritual[edit]

Naga sadhu procession 1998 Kumbh Mela

The major event of the festival is ritual bathing at the banks of the river in whichever town Kumbh Mela being held:Ganga in Haridwar, Godavari in Nasik, Kshipra in Ujjain and Sangam (confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati) in Allahabad (Prayag). Nasik has registered maximum visitors to 75 million. Other activities include religious discussions, devotional singing, mass feeding of holy men and women and the poor, and religious assemblies where doctrines are debated and standardised. Kumbh Mela is the most sacred of all the pilgrimages.[citation needed] Thousands of holy men and women attend, and the auspiciousness of the festival is in part attributable to this. The sadhus are seen clad in saffron sheets with Vibhuti ashes dabbed on their skin as per the requirements of ancient traditions. Some, called naga sanyasis, may not wear any clothes even in severe winter.[citation needed]

After visiting the Kumbh Mela of 1895, Mark Twain wrote:

The order of entering the water is fixed, with the Juna, the Niranjani and Mahanirvani akharas preceding.[40]

Most significant days during the Kumbh Mela[edit]

Bhishma Ekadasi Snan

On this day, Bhishma Pithamaha, the oldest, wisest, most powerful and most righteous person belonging to the Kuru dynasty (approx. over 5000 years ago), narrated the greatness of Lord Krishna through Sri Vishnu Sahasranama to Yudhishtira, the oldest brother of Pandavas.[41]

Recent Kumbh Melas[edit]

1894[edit]

According to Paramahansa Yogananda in his work the Autobiography of a Yogi, it was during the Kumbh Mela in January 1894 at Prayag that his Guru Sri Yukteswar met Mahavatar Babaji for the first time.[42]

2003[edit]

When the Kumbh Mela was held in Nashik, India, from 27 July to 7 September 2003, 39 pilgrims (28 women and 11 men) were trampled to death and 57 were injured. Devotees had gathered on the banks of the Godavari river for the maha snaanam or holy bath. Over 30,000 pilgrims were being held back by barricades in a narrow street leading to the Ramkund, a holy spot, so the sadhus could take the first ceremonial bath. Reportedly, a sadhu threw some silver coins into the crowd and the subsequent scramble led to the stampede.[43][44]

2004[edit]

Sinhastha Mela help in Ujjain, India in the year of 2004 on the banks of River Kshipra where pilgrims took numerous religious baths.

2007[edit]

More than 70 million people visited Ardh Kumbh Mela at Prayag.[45]

2010[edit]

Haridwar hosted the Purna Kumbh mela from Makar Sankranti (14 January 2010) to Shakh Purnima Snan (28 April 2010). Millions of Hindu pilgrims attended the mela. On 14 April 2010, alone approximately 10 million people bathed in the Ganges river.[46] According to officials by mid April about 40 million people had bathed since 14 January 2010.[47] Hundreds of foreigners joined Indian pilgrims in the festival which is thought to be the largest religious gathering in the world.[47][48] To accommodate the large number of pilgrims Indian Railways ran special trains.[49] At least 5 people died in a stampede after clashes between holy men and devotees.[50]

Indian Space Research Organisation took satellite pictures of the crowds with the hope of improving the conduct of the festival in the future.[51]

2013[edit]

The Maha Kumbh Mela was held at Allahabad (Prayag) (14 January to 10 March 2013). An estimated 30 million people visited the Maha Kumbh Mela on 10 February 2013 and an estimated 100 million were expected to visit the place during the festival spread over 55 days.[5] On 10 February 2013, a stampede at the railway station killed 36 and injured at least 39.[52]

Here are the details of most auspicious days (bathing dates) in year 2013 during Maha Kumbh Festival (mela).[53]

  • 14 January 2013 (Monday) - Makar Sankranti
  • 27 January 2013 (Sunday) - Paush Purnima
  • 6 February 2013 (Wednesday) - Ekadashi Snan
  • 10 February 2013 (Sunday) - Mauni Amavasya Snan (Main Bathing Day)
  • 15 February 2013 (Friday) - Vasant Panchami Snan
  • 17 February 2013 (Sunday) - Rath Saptami Snan
  • 21 February 2013 (Thursday) - Bhisma Ekadashi Snan
  • 25 February 2013 (Monday) - Maghi Purnima Snan
  • 10 March 2013 (Sunday) - Mahashivratri

2015[edit]

The next Kumbha Mela will be held at Nashik (Maharashtra) from 14 July to 25 September.[54] The details of most auspicious days (bathing dates) in year 2015 during Nashik Kumbh Mela are[55]

  • 26 August 2015 (Wednesday): Shravan Shudha- First Snan
  • 29 August 2015 (Saturday): Shravan Purnima - First Shahi Snan at Ram Kunda
  • 13 September 2015 (Sunday): Bhadrapad Amavasya - Second Shahi Snan/ Main bathing day
  • 18 September 2015 (Friday): Bhadrapad Shukla Panchmi (Rushipanchami) - Third Shahi Snan
  • 25 September 2015 (Friday): Bhadrapad Shukla Dwadashi - Vaman Dwadashi Snan

Kumbh Mela in media[edit]

1982[edit]

Amrita Kumbher Sandhane, a 1982 Bengali feature film directed by Dilip Roy, documents the Kumbh Mela. Kumbh Mela has been theme for many a documentaries, including "Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth" (2001) directed by Graham Day,[56] On 24 September, The Hindu reported the great faith in god displayed in Kumbh Mela at Nasik which had more than 70 million visitors in 2003 Kumbh Mela. (2004), by Maurizio Benazzo and Nick Day,[57][58] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004), by Nadeem Uddin,[59] and Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008).[60]

2004[edit]

Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela is a 2004 documentary film was set in the 2001 Maha Kumbh Mela at Allahabad. This film is directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo".[61]

2010[edit]

On 18 April 2010, a popular American morning show The CBS Sunday Morning gave an extensive coverage on Haridwar's Kumbh Mela "The Largest Pilgrimage on Earth". Calling it "one of the most extraordinary displays of faith on Earth, a spectacular journey drawing tens of millions of people".

On 28 April 2010, BBC reported an audio and a video report on Kumbh Mela, titled "Kumbh Mela 'greatest show on earth'.

On 30 September 2010, the Kumbh Mela featured in the second episode of the Sky One TV series "An Idiot Abroad" with Karl Pilkington visiting the festival.

2011[edit]

In 2011 the documentary on Kumbh Mela, 'Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas', was produced.

2012[edit]

"Amrit: Nectar of Immortality" (2012) is a documentary which was shot at the Kumbh Mela 2010 in Haridwar, this film is directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer.[62]

2013[edit]

Allahabad: Kumbh Mela 2013, considered to be the biggest congregation of Pilgrims and devotees across the world, yet it turned out also to be a big congregation of Technology.

State government took this opportunity to showcase its achievements.

On 10 Feb 2013, Media reported that 36 people died in a stampede at the Allahabad railway station, the union and state governments have denied that organizational lapses may have contributed to the tragedy; they say the massive rush of passengers, returning from a dip in the waters of the Ganga and Yamuna, at the Maha Kumbh, the world's largest religious festival.

In March, 2013, the documentary "Inside the Mahakumbh" by the National Geographic Channel produced this documentary which also featured the California-born Baba Rampuri, the first foreigner to become a Sadhu.

In June 2013 Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot produced a documentary "Kumbh Mela 2013: living with Mahatiagi" based on their own ethnographic experience with this denomination at Sangam.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Simhastha – The Kumbh Mela Ujjain". ujjainkumbh.com. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "The month of Baisakha The bright fortnight The full moon day (Purnima)" 
  2. ^ "Business Line : Features News : Stage set for Maha Kumbh Mela 2013". Business Line. 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "will conclude on Maha Shivaratri on March 10" 
  3. ^ "Nashik Kumbh Mela dates declared – Indian Express". The Indian Express. 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "First Shahi Snaanam will be held on August 29, 2015, at Rama Kunda, the second on September 13 and the third on September 18" 
  4. ^ "Ujjain 2016 Kumbh Mela – Ujjain Maha Kumbh Mela 2016 Information News Updates". kumbh-mela.euttaranchal.com. 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "22 April – 21 May 2016" 
  5. ^ a b "India's Kumbh Mela festival holds most auspicious day". BBC News. 11 February 2013. 
  6. ^ Sugden, Joanna (2 February 2013). "How the Kumbh Mela Crowds Are Counted - India Real Time - WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  7. ^ The Maha Kumbh Mela 2001 indianembassy.org
  8. ^ Rashid, Omar (February 11, 2013). "Over three crore devotees take the dip at Sangam". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  9. ^ a b Kumbh Mela – Timeline What Is Hinduism?: Modern Adventures into a Profound Global Faith, by Editors of Hinduism Today, Hinduism Today Magazine Editors. Published by Himalayan Academy Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-934145-00-9. 242–243.
  10. ^ Kumbh Mela Channel 4.
  11. ^ Ramayana, Book I; Canto: XLV – The Quest for the Amrit Ramayana of Valmiki.
  12. ^ in Vaikuntha Story of Maha Kumbh Mela from Srimad Bhagvatam
  13. ^ The Holiest Day in History Time, 31 January 1977.
  14. ^ Urn Festival Time, 1 May 1950.
  15. ^ official 2013 Kumbh website
  16. ^ K Shadananan Nair, "Role of water in the development of civilization of India: A review of ancient literature, traditional practices and beliefs", pp. 160–166 of The Basis of Civilization: Water Science?, ed. J. C. Rodda and Lucio Ubertini (Wallingford, Oxon: International Association of Hydrological Science, 2004. ISBN 1-901502-57-0), p.165. Here [1] at Google Books.
  17. ^ John C. Rodda; Lucio Ubertini; Symposium on the Basis of Civilization Water Science ( (2004). Water Science. IAHS Press. pp. 165–. ISBN 978-1-901502-57-2. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  18. ^ "Kumbh Mela". hindusphere.com. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "Kumbh Mela is organised every three years on a rotation basis of Prayag, Nashik or Nasik, Haridwar and tuttiwater town." 
  19. ^ http://www.ekantipur.com/np/2070/12/17/full-story/386629.html "Purna Kumbh Mela at Prayag". Explora Films. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  20. ^ Huston Smith; Phil Cousineau (4 September 2012). And Live Rejoicing: Chapters from a Charmed Life: Personal Encounters With Spiritual Mavericks, Remarkable Seekers, and the World's Great Religious Leaders. New World Library. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-1-60868-071-9. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  21. ^ Chris Philpott (24 January 2011). Green Spirituality: One Answer to Global Environmental Problems and World Poverty. AuthorHouse. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-1-4520-8290-5. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  22. ^ "Thousands take holy dip as 'Maha Kumbh' begins". zeenews.india.com. 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "millions of pilgrims in taking a holy dip in the Sangam the confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati" 
  23. ^ "Preparation for 2015 Kumbh caught in bureaucratic procedures, politics". The Times of India. 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "The Shaiv Akhadas take a holy dip at Kushavart in Trimbakeshwar" 
  24. ^ "Shahi Snanam begins at Kumbh Mela". mid-day.com. 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "The Vaishnavites have a bath in Nashik, while the Shaivaites at Trimbakeshawar." 
  25. ^ http://www.kumbhmela.co.in/kumbhmela.html
  26. ^ http://zeenews.india.com/news/uttar-pradesh/thousands-take-holy-dip-as-maha-kumbh-begins_822770.html
  27. ^ "Madhya Pradesh clears Rs 192 crore for water facility during 2016 Kumbh Mela". Ahmedabad Mirror. 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "2016 Simhastha Kumbh Mela in Ujjain." 
  28. ^ Kumbh Mela Students' Britannica India, by Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani. Published by Popular Prakashan, 2000. ISBN 0-85229-760-2.Page 259-260.
  29. ^ a b Haridwar The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 52.
  30. ^ Kumbh Mela 'Encyclopædia Britannica.
  31. ^ India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Prayag, a 14 January 2013 article from BBC News
  32. ^ "Ardha Kumbh – 2007: The Ganges River". Mela Administration. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  33. ^ Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history BBC News, 26 January 2001.
  34. ^ Kumbh Mela: the largest pilgrimage – Pictures: Kumbh Mela by Karoki Lewis The Times, 22 March 2008. Behind paywall.
  35. ^ Kumbh Mela, New Scientist, 25 January 2001
  36. ^ [2]
  37. ^ "Millions of Hindus take to the Ganges at Maha Kumbh Mela | Reuters". Reuters. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "Officials believe that over the next two months as many as 100 million people passed" 
  38. ^ "Kumbh Mela: 'Eight million' bathers on first day of festival". BBC. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. "More than 100 million people attended the 55-day festival." 
  39. ^ Mark Twain, "Following the Equator: A journey around the world"
  40. ^ Nandita Sengupta (13 February 2010). "Naga sadhus steal the show at Kumbh", TNN
  41. ^ "Kumbh Mela – Expert Bulletin". Expertbulletin.com. 
  42. ^ Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda Chapter 36 Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda, wikisource.
  43. ^ 39 killed in Kumbh Mela stampede The Hindu, 28 August 2003
  44. ^ "Holy man's gift blamed for 39 dead in stampede" The Guardian, 28 August 2003.
  45. ^ http://www.niticentral.com/2013/02/10-things-about-kumbh-mela-that-you-never-knew.html
  46. ^ Yardley, Jim; Kumar,Hari (14 April 2010). "Taking a Sacred Plunge, One Wave of Humanity at a Time". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  47. ^ a b Millions dip in Ganges at world's biggest festival, Agence France-Presse, 13 April 2010
  48. ^ Foreigners join huge crowds at India’s holy river festival, The Gazette, 14 April 2010
  49. ^ "More trains during Kumbh Mela". The Times of India. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  50. ^ Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival, BBC, 14 April 2010
  51. ^ ISRO taking satellite pictures of MahaKumbh mela, Press Trust of India, 13 April 2010
  52. ^ "Allahabad stampede kills 36 Kumbh Mela pilgrims". Reuters. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  53. ^ Allahabad Maha Kumbh 2013 Bathing Dates
  54. ^ "10 million to gather for 2015 Nashik Kumbh Mela". Zee News. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  55. ^ "Special Bathing Dates of Nasik Kumbh Mela- 2015". Prayag Heritage. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  56. ^ Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth at the Internet Movie Database
  57. ^ Short Cut to Nirvana at the Internet Movie Database
  58. ^ Mela films
  59. ^ Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River at the Internet Movie Database
  60. ^ Invocation, Kumbh Mela at the Internet Movie Database
  61. ^ http://melafilms.com
  62. ^ http://amritfilm.net, Amrit Nectar of Immortality Website
  63. ^ http://ahamot.org/en/kumbhmela2013-living-with-mahatiagi | Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi

Further reading[edit]

  • Maclean, Kama (2008) Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954 New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-533894-2
  • Narain, Badri and Kedar Narain (2010) Kumbh Mela and the Sadhus - The Quest for Immortality Varanasi: Pilgrims Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7769-805-3

External links[edit]