Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Indonesian Wikipedia. (February 2009)|
|Founded||August 14, 1961|
|Affiliation||World Organization of the Scout Movement|
Gerakan Pramuka is the national Scouting organization of Indonesia. Scouting was founded in the Dutch East Indies in 1912, and Indonesia became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1953. It has 17,103,793 members (as of 2011), making it the world's largest Scout association. Each year August 14 is celebrated as Pramuka Day to honor the organization's first public parade.
The name Pramuka was derived from the acronym of "Praja muda karana", Sanskrit meaning "young people willing to work".
Scouting came to Indonesia in 1912, as a branch of the Nederlandse Padvinders Organisatie (NPO, Netherlands Pathfinder Organisation). After 1916 it was called the Nederland Indische Padvinders Vereeniging (Netherlands Indies Scout Movement). Other Scouting organizations were established by the Indonesia Scouts in 1916. As the Dutch East Indies, Indonesia had been a branch of the Netherlands Scout Association, yet Scouting was very popular, and had achieved great numbers and standards.
When Indonesia became an independent country, there were more than 60 separate Boy Scout and Girl Guide organizations. Most were directly affiliated with some certain political parties or social groups. Attempts were made to unify all Scout organizations into one.
The thousands of islands made administration and supervision difficult, and the Japanese occupation caused some twenty separate Scout organizations to spring up, and it took time for them to coalesce. In September 1951 thirteen of the stronger Scout organizations met and decided to found a federating body to satisfy national and international needs. Ikatan Pandu Indonesia - Ipindo for short - came into being. Ipindo's motto was "Sedia", means "Be Prepared" in English. Tuan Soemardjo was elected chief commissioner, and Dr. Bahder Djohan, an old Scout and Minister of Education, became honorary President. Government approval of Ipindo was granted on February 22, 1952, and President Sukarno consented to become patron of the unifying and correlating National Scout Council. Indonesia has been a member of WOSM since 1953.
This resulted in the establishment of a single Scout Movement in Indonesia called "Gerakan Pramuka". In May 1961, the President of Indonesia signed a regulation making Gerakan Pramuka the official Scout organization in Indonesia.
Gerakan Pramuka is a former member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, having left WAGGGS and joined WOSM also for the girls in 2002.
After Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, other Indonesian recipients of the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, include Abdul Azis Saleh in 1978, John Beng Kiat Liem in 1982 and retired Lieutenant General Mashudi in 1985.
The Indonesia Scout Movement incorporates both boys and girls. It is an educational movement through Scouting activities, the education being directed toward a new, just, peaceful and prosperous Indonesian community based on the national ideology. Activities of the boys and girls are conducted separately from one another. They have joint activities whenever possible and necessary. Management of the Scout Movement is carried out by the National Headquarters.
Education for young members is carried out through activities to achieve General Skill Requirements (Syarat Kecakapan Umum/SKU) and Special Skill Requirements (Syarat Kecakapan Khusus/SKK) (merit badge system) towards achieving Garuda Scout.
To achieve the goals of Scouting, activities are carried out on the group and national level. Routine activities are focused on the development of character, patriotism, physical fitness, skill and intelligence of the Scouts themselves which are very important for their future life. Activities of the special troops are organized in order to develop specific personal interest and talent and enable them to serve the community with the knowledge, ability and skill he/she have learned.
The Scouts take an active part in community development service projects. They take an active part in combating illiteracy. The success of the campaign against illiteracy in one province, gained the Scouts worldwide recognition and won them a UNESCO award.
The Scouts also participate in the drive to improve health and nutrition in the community, especially children under five years of age. Acting as extension workers, they practice how to raise cattle, fish, breed hens and grow vegetables.
The Scout emblem incorporates the seed of the coconut palm, a common native Indonesian plant and all parts of which are used in Indonesian everyday life, symbolizing the philosophy of a true Scout, who must make him or herself useful in all aspects of life. The seed form represents the growing spirit, physical toughness, adaptability, and high aspiration of the Scout.
Gerakan Pramuka is divided in two major educational groups: the member section and the adult section. The first is divided in further age-groups with different educational systems, the second provides the leaders and supports the younger members.
The age-groups are:
- Cub Scouts ("Pramuka Siaga") – ages 7 to 10, or equal to elementary school's 1st-3rd grade, consists of:
- Siaga Mula
- Siaga Bantu
- Siaga Tata
- Scouts ("Pramuka Penggalang") – ages 11 to 15, or equal to elementary school's 4th-6th grade and junior high school's 7th-9th grade, consists of:
- Penggalang Ramu
- Penggalang Rakit
- Penggalang Terap
- Rover Scouts ("Pramuka Penegak") – ages 16 to 20, or equal to senior high school's 10th-12th grade, consists of:
- Senior Rover Scouts ("Pramuka Pandega") – ages 21 to 25, or equal to academy/university students.
- Adult members – ages 26 and older
Activities are mainly carried out to achieve advancement through the Syarat kecakapan Umum (SKU) or Advancement Badge and Syarat Kecakapan Khusus (TKK) or Merit Badge system. The highest rank in each age group is Pramuka Garuda (Eagle Scout).
Rover Scout Special Unit
In Pramuka, there are Rover Scout Special Unit called Satuan Karya (SAKA). In those units, the Rovers are able to learn various skills to be specialist that are useful for their future careers as well as to provide services to the community. There are nine different units:
- Law Enforcement Unit (Saka Bhayangkara)
- Air Mindedness Unit (Saka Dirgantara)
- Sea and Maritime Unit (Saka Bahari)
- Health service Unit (Saka Bhakti Husada)
- Family Care Unit (Saka Kencana)
- Agriculture Unit (Saka Taruna Bumi)
- Forest Preserver Unit (Saka Wana Bhakti)
- Homeland Defense Unit (Saka Wira Kartika)
- Tourism Guide Unit (Saka Pariwisata)
Scout Law (Dasa Dharma)
- Believe in God the Almighty
- Preserve nature and love each other
- Be an affable and knightly patriot
- Be obedient and collegial
- Help others with compliance and resilience
- Be diligent, skilled and cheerful
- Be provident and simple
- Exercise discipline, be brave and faithful
- Be accountable and trustworthy
- Have purity in mind, word and act
Scout Promise (Tri Satya)
On My Honour, I promise that I will do my best to:
- Fulfill my obligation to God and the Republic of Indonesia, and to obey Pancasila
- Help other people and get involved in community building
- Obey the Scout Law.
National Special Scout Jamborees
A National Special Scout Jamboree is held every five years for disabled Scouts. The seventh National Special Scouts Jamboree was held in 2007, in East Jakarta. The first jamboree of this sort to be held in Indonesia was in 1972.
International units in Indonesia
- "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010". World Organization of the Scout Movement. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Cempaka Health:Special scout jamboree opens doors for disabled students". 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Scouting 'Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959