Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
Indonesian Army insignia
|Active||1945 – present|
|Part of||Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Motto||Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
Free Papua Movement
|Indonesian Army Chief of Staff||General Moeldoko
(22 May 2013-present)
|Army Aviation Roundel|
The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel.The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.
Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.
The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel.
Military Area Commands
The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.
The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.
A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services. The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.
The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers. Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands, and these are:
- Kodam Iskandar Muda, overseeing Aceh province as part of the Aceh special autonomy law. Previously under the Kodam I/Bukit Barisan.
- Kodam I/Bukit Barisan, overseeing northern Sumatra provinces of North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Riau and Riau Islands.
- In 1997, before the split of Kodam I into Kodam I and Kodam Iskandar Muda, territorial military district commands included Korem 011 (HQ Lhokseumawe), Korem 012 (HQ Banda Aceh), Korem 022 (HQ Pematang Siantar), Korem 023 (HQ Sibolga), Korem 031 (HQ Pekanbaru), and Korem 032 (HQ Padang).
- Kodam II/Sriwijaya, overseeing southern provinces on Sumatra island of Jambi, Bengkulu, Bangka Belitung, South Sumatra and Lampung.
- Korems in 1997 included Korem 041 (HQ Palembang), Korem 042 (HQ Jambi), Korem 043 (HQ Lampung), and Korem 044 (HQ Serong).
- Kodam Jaya, overseeing Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia. Kodam Jaya also oversees three regions outside Jakarta of Bekasi and Depok which actually in West Java province and Tangerang which is in Banten province.
- Kodam III/Siliwangi, overseeing West Java and Banten provinces.
- Kodam IV/Diponegoro, overseeing Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces.
- Kodam V/Brawijaya, overseeing East Java province.
- Kodam VI/Tanjungpura, overseeing all provinces on Kalimantan island (Borneo) of Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan.
- Kodam VII/Wirabuana, overseeing all provinces on Sulawesi island of Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi and West Sulawesi.
- Units include Batalyon Infanteri 714
- Kodam IX/Udayana, overseeing provinces of Bali, East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The former Indonesian province of East Timor was also under the jurisdiction of Kodam IX/Udayana.
- Kodam XVI/Pattimura, overseeing Maluku and North Maluku provinces.
- Kodam XVII/Cendrawasih, overseeing West Papua and Papua provinces.
- Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters. Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified. Of note is the unusual nature of Group IV, possibly also called "Sandhy Yudha," which consists of select members from Groups I, II, and III. The duties of these specially trained personnel include attacking behind enemy lines (Infiltration tactics). Group IV also, reportedly[who?], works with the Joint Intelligence Unit on interrogations, and carries out clandestine operations around the country.
- Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops. It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
- Infantry Division 1 Kostrad, with 13th Infantry Brigade and the 17th Airborne Brigade, plus Field Artillery Regiment 2
- 2nd Division, with 6th and 9th Infantry, and the 18th Airborne Brigades, plus a field artillery regiment
- 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade, Ujung Pandang (ex-Kopassus 3rd Group)
- KOSTRAD also commands several combat service support units such as combat engineers.
- Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
- Squadron 11 Heli Serbu (light assault) (Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
- Squadron 21 Sena (support) (Pondok Cabe, Jakarta)
- Squadron 31 Heli Serbu (heavy assault squadron)(Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
Small arms and infantry weapons
|M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'||Indonesia||Under barrel grenade launcher||First locally produced grenade Launcher.|
|M79 grenade launcher||United States||Single-shot grenade launcher|
|AT-13 Metis M||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|AT-5 Sprandel||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|MBT LAW||Sweden||Anti tank missile launchers||.|
|C90-CR (M3)||Spain||Anti tank rocket launchers|
|PF-89||China||Anti tank rocket launcher|
|M80 Rocket Launcher||Yugoslavia||Shoulder-fired missile|
|AMX-13||Light tank||300||Including self-propelled artillery variants. To be upgraded|
|FV101 Scorpion 90||Light tank||100|
|Marder 1A3||IFV/Light tank||-||50||With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.|
|Leopard 2A4||Main battle tank||-||40||With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4, Leopard 2 Revolution 63 units and 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.|
|Leopard 2 Revolution||Main battle tank||-||61||With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4, Leopard 2 Revolution 63 units and 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.|
|AMX-VTT||Armoured Personnel Carrier||200|
|K21||Infantry Fighting Vehicle||22|
|BMP-3||Infantry Fighting Vehicle|
|Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||46||14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.|
|Alvis Stormer||Armoured Personnel Carrier||~70||Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.|
|Pindad Panser||Armoured Personnel Carrier||154||2008–2010||20 units were received in February 2009, 40 were received in July 2009 while another 33 were received in Jan 2010.|
|Pindad Panser APR-1V||Armoured Personnel Carrier||14||2004||Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.|
|FV601 Saladin||Armoured Car||69|
|Ferret||Armoured Car||55|
|Cadillac Gage Scout||Armoured Car||26||1983|
|BTR-40||Armoured Car||100-130||1963–1965||Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.|
Utility and logistics vehicles
|M151 MUTT||Light utility vehicle|
|Renault Sherpa 2||Light utility vehicle||30||July 2011||Announced in July 2011|
|Land Rover LWB||Light utility vehicle|
|Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP||Light utility vehicle|
|Nissan Q4W73||Light truck|
|DAF YA400||Transport truck|
|Isuzu Elf||Medium truck|
|Steyr 680M||Medium truck|
|Bedford MK||Light truck|
|Steyr 17M29||Medium truck|
|Cakra FAV||Fast attack vehicle|
Artillery and Air Defence Systems
|Aero Commander||Utility helicopter||680||3|
|Bell 47||utility helicopter||47G||10|
|Bell UH-1 Iroquois||utility helicopter||UH-1D||10|
|Bell 412||Utility helicopter||412
|Built under license by PTDI|
|Britten-Norman Islander||utility transport||BN-2A||1||Possibly not operational|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||tactical transport||4||Fully tranfer to produce on PTDI|
|Cessna 310||Utility helicopter||4|
|C-47 Skytrain||tactical transport||2||Possibly not operational|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Utility helicopter||30||Built under license by PTDI|
|Mil Mi-17 Hip-H||transport & light attack helicopter||Mi-17-V5||16|
|Mil Mi-35 Hind||Attack helicopter||Mi-35 Hind-F||8|||
|Schweizer 300||utility helicopter||300C||6|
List of Army Chief of Staffs
- Col. GPH Djatikusumo (1948–1949)
- Col. AH Nasution (1949–1952)
- Col. / Maj. Gen. Bambang Sugeng (1952–1955)
- Maj. Gen. Bambang Utoyo (1955)
- Maj. Gen. AH Nasution (1955–1962)
- Let. Gen. Ahmad Yani (1962–1965)
- Maj. Gen. Pranoto Reksosamudra (temporary) (1965)
- Maj. Gen. Suharto (1965–1967)
- Gen. Maraden Panggabean (1967–1969)
- Gen. Umar Wirahadikusumah (1969–1973)
- Gen. Surono (1973–1974)
- Gen. Makmun Murod (1974–1978)
- Gen. Widodo (1978–1980)
- Gen. Poniman (1980–1983)
- Gen. Rudini (1983–1986)
- Gen. Try Sutrisno (1986–1988)
- Gen. Edi Sudrajat (1988–1993)
- Gen. Wismoyo Arismunandar (1993–1995)
- Gen. Hartono (1995–1997)
- Gen. Wiranto (1997–1998)
- Gen. Subagyo Hadi Siswoyo (1998–1999)
- Gen. Tyasno Sudarto (1999–2000)
- Gen. Endriartono Sutarto (2000–2002)
- Gen. Ryamizard Ryacudu (2002–2005)
- Gen. Djoko Santoso (2005–2008)
- Gen. Agustadi Sasongko Purnomo (2008–2009)
- Gen. George Toisutta (2009–2011)
- Gen. Pramono Edhie Wibowo (2011–2013)
- Gen. Moeldoko (2013-present)
Notes and references
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
- Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
- Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
- IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
- Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
- Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
- The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
- Huxley 1997, p.39
- BBC, RI Military Area Commander Files Complaint Over Political Candidates, January 2009
- For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
- Independent status of 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade is as reported in Tim Huxley, 'Indonesia's armed forces face up to new threats,' Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, p.40
- "TNI Angkatan Darat - Situs Resmi TNI Angkatan Darat" (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "TNI-AD Uji Terima Roket Anti Tank NLAW". March 21, 2013.
- ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010
- Marder, Lapis Baja One Stop Services
- "Beli 114 tank Leopard, Indonesia dapat 50 tank". May 15, 2013.
- Kemhan Akui Kontrak Pembelian Leopard Telah Diteken
- "Approves Sale of Tanks to Indonesia". May 08, 2013.
- "Tank Leopard Tiba pada Oktober 2013". April 19, 2013.
- "Germany Approves Indonesian Purchase of 100 Leopard 2 Tanks and 50 Marder Infantry Fighting Vehicles". May 05, 2013.
- "TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Stormer - Light Armoured Vehicles - Jane's Land Forces". Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009.
- "PINDAD DELIVERS 40 UNITS OF 6x6 ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER TO DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE" (Press release). Pindad. August 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "First made-in-Indonesia APCs handed to Army". The Jakarta Post. 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "TNI to receive 40 new armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Pindad Serahkan 33 Panser". Media Indonesia. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 010-01-13.
- BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
- "Kemhan dan Isuzu Bahas Pengadaan Truk Militer". April 04, 2013.
- Indonesia Ordered 36 Astros II Rocket Systems
- Songsong Kedatangan PSU Baru, Korpaskhas akan Kirim Personil untuk Berlatih di Swiss
- Uji terima ulang Sista Hanud Terintegrasi TD-2000B Rudal Meriam
- Saab AB Tawarkan Giraffe AMB dan RBS-70NG kepada TNI AD
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
- PTDI Serahkan 4 Helikopter Bell 412EP untuk TNI AD
- "PT DI Serahkan 6 Helikopter Bersenjata ke TNI AD". March 16, 2013.
- "Sore ini SBY Lantik Letjen Moeldoko Sebagai KSAD". Mei 22, 2013.
- IndoWiki KODAMs
- Official website of TNI-AD (Army)
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Armed Forces
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Special Forces
- Jane's Intelligence Review - January 1997 and March 1997
- Indonesian Civil-Military Relations - Civil-Military Relations in Post-Suharto Indonesia and the Implications for Democracy Today: A Preliminary Analysis
- Israel, Fauzi. Tactical Assault & Combat Training. 2008
- "ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet"