Page semi-protected

Indonesian Army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
TNI-AD
Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat
(Indonesian Army)
Lambang TNI AD.png
TNI-AD insignia
Active 1945 – present
Country Indonesia
Type Army
Size 233,000(regular)[1]
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Motto Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
Engagements Indonesian Independence
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
Papua conflict
Commanders
Indonesian Army Chief of Staff General Gatot Nurmantyo
(25 July 2014-present)
Insignia
Army Aviation Roundel Roundel Indonesia army aviation.svg

The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel.[1] The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.[2]

Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh, Maluku and Papua.

The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units.

The Military Area Commands (Kodam) as of 2007
RM-70 rocket launchers, Indonesia has seven units, which are spread throughout the country
Indonesian Anoa armoured vehicles on parade.

History

In the week following the Japanese surrender of 1945, the Giyugun (PETA) and Heiho groups were disbanded by the Japanese. Most PETA and Heiho members did not yet know about the declaration of independence. Command structures and membership vital for a national army were consequently dismantled. Thus, rather than being formed from a trained, armed, and organised army, the Republican armed forces began to grow in September from usually younger, less trained groups built around charismatic leaders.[3] Creating a rational military structure that was obedient to central authority from such disorganisation, was one of the major problems of the revolution, a problem that remains through to contemporary times.[4] In the self-created Indonesian army, Japanese-trained Indonesian officers prevailed over those trained by the Dutch[citation needed]. A thirty year-old former school teacher, Sudirman, was elected 'commander-in-chief' at the first meeting of Division Commanders in Yogyakarta on 12 November 1945.[5]

On 17 November 1952, General Nasution is suspended as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government. From the 1950s, the military articulated the doctrines of dwifungsi and hankamrata, a military roles in the country's socio-political development as well as security; and a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces. On 5 July 1959, Sukarno, with armed forces support, issued a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers. He assumed the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.

The army was heavily involved in the Indonesian killings of 1965–1966. The killings were an anti-communist purge following a failed coup of the 30 September Movement. The most widely accepted estimates are that more than 500,000 people were killed. The purge was a pivotal event in the transition to the "New Order"; the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) was eliminated as a political force. The failed coup released pent-up communal hatreds which were fanned by the Indonesian Army, which quickly blamed the PKI. Communists were purged from political, social, and military life, and the PKI itself was banned. The massacres began in October 1965, in the weeks following the coup attempt, and reached their peak over the remainder of the year before subsiding in the early months of 1966. They started in the capital, Jakarta, and spread to Central and East Java and, later, Bali. Thousands of local vigilantes and army units killed actual and alleged PKI members. Although killings occurred across Indonesia, the worst were in the PKI strongholds of Central Java, East Java, Bali, and northern Sumatra. It is possible that over one million people were imprisoned at one time or another.

Sukarno's balancing act of "Nasakom" (nationalism, religion and communism) had been unraveled. His most significant pillar of support, the PKI, had been effectively eliminated by the other two pillars—the army and political Islam; and the army was on the way to unchallenged power. In March 1968, Suharto was formally elected president.

The killings are skipped over in most Indonesian history books and have received little introspection by Indonesians and comparatively little international attention. Satisfactory explanations for the scale and frenzy of the violence have challenged scholars from all ideological perspectives. The possibility of a return to similar upheavals is cited as a factor in the "New Order" administration's political conservatism and tight control of the political system. Vigilance against a perceived communist threat remained a hallmark of Suharto's thirty-year presidency. The CIA described the massacre as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century, along with the Soviet purges of the 1930s, the Nazi mass murders during the Second World War, and the Maoist bloodbath of the early 1950s."[6]

Later army operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.[7][8]

The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel, one armoured cavalry brigade, part of Kostrad (one tank battalion, plus support units), 14 infantry brigades (90 infantry, 1 para, 9 artillery, 11 anti-aircraft, and 9 engineer battalions) of which three of the brigades were in Kostrad, two airborne brigades totaling six battalions, also part of Kostrad, one independent tank battalion, 7 independent armoured cavalry battalions, and four independent para-commando battalions.[9][9]

Organization

Territorial commands Current commander Current chief of staff Location of headquarters
KODAM Iskandar Muda (Kodam IM) MayJend Agus Kriswanto BrigJend Purwadi Mukson Banda Aceh, Aceh
Kodam I/Bukit Barisan (Kodam I/BB) MayJend Winston Pardamean Simanjuntak BrigJend Cucu Sumantri Medan, North Sumatra
Kodam II/Sriwijaya (Kodam II/Swj) MayJend Bambang Budi Waluyo BrigJend Toto S. Moerasad Palembang, South Sumatra
Komando Daerah Militer Jayakarta (Kodam Jaya) MayJend Agus Sutomo BrigJend Teddy Lhaksmana Cawang, East Jakarta
KODAM III/Siliwangi (Kodam III/Slw) MayJend Dedi Kusnadi Thamim BrigJend Suyatno Bandung, West Java
Kodam IV/Diponegoro (Kodam IV/Dip) MayJend Sunindyo BrigJend Ibnu Darmawan Semarang, Central Java
Komando Daerah Militer V/Brawijaya (Kodam V/Brw) MayJend Eko Wiratmoko BrigJend Kustanto Widiatmoko Surabaya, East Java
Komando Daerah Militer XII/Tanjungpura (Kodam XII/Tpr) MayJend Ibrahim Saleh BrigJend Aris Martono Haryadi Pontianak, West Kalimantan
Kodam VI/Mulawarman (Kodam VI/Mlw) MayJend Benny Indra Pujihastono BrigJend Lodewyk Pusung Balikpapan, East Kalimantan
Kodam VII/Wirabuana (Kodam VII/Wrb) MayJend Bachtiar BrigJend Rukman Ahmad Makassar, South Sulawesi
Kodam IX/Udayana (Kodam IX/Udy) MayJend Wisnu Bawa Tenaya BrigJend Ruslian Hariadi Denpasar, Bali
Kodam XVI/Pattimura (Kodam XVI/Ptm) MayJend Meris Wiryadi BrigJend Juwondo Ambon, Maluku
Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih (Kodam XVII/Cen) MayJend Fransen G. Siahaan BrigJend Deliaman Th. Damanik Jayapura, Papua
Operational commands Current commander Current chief of staff Location of headquarters
Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat (Kostrad) LetJend Mulyono MayJend M. Setyo Sularso Gambir, Central Jakarta
Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) MayJend Doni Monardo n/a Cijantung, East Jakarta
Executive agencies Current commander Current chief of staff Location of headquarters
Pusat Polisi Militer Angkatan Darat (Puspomad) (Military Police) MayJend Unggul K. Yudoyono BrigJend Dodik Wijanarko Central Jakarta
Pusat Intelijen Angkatan Darat (Pusintelad) (Military Intelligence) BrigJend Teddy Lhaksamana W.K. n/a Matraman, East Jakarta
Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat (Puspenerbad) (Army Aviation) n/a n/a n/a
Pusat Teritorial Angkatan Darat (Pusterad) (Territorial) n/a n/a Cilangkap, East Jakarta
Direktorat Topografi Angkatan Darat (Dittopad) (Topographical) BrigJend Dedy Hadria n/a Matraman, East Jakarta
Direktorat Ajudan Jenderal Angkatan Darat (Ditajenad) (Adjutant General) BrigJend Budi Prasetyono n/a Matraman, East Jakarta
Direktorat Kesehatan Angkatan Darat (Ditkesad) (Medical) BrigJend Dubel Meriyones n/a n/a
Direktorat Keuangan Angkatan Darat (Ditkuad) (Finance) BrigJend Bambang Ratnanto n/a n/a
Direktorat Zeni Angkatan Darat (Ditziad) (Engineer) BrigJend Irwan n/a Matraman, East Jakarta
Direktorat Pembekalan Angkutan Angkatan Darat (Ditbekangad) (Logistics and Transport) BrigJend Hadi Sutrisno n/a n/a
Direktorat Perhubungan Angkatan Darat (Dithubad) (Communication) BrigJend n/a n/a
Direktorat Hukum Angkatan Darat (Ditkumad) (Judge Advocate General) Kol Purwanti n/a n/a
Direktorat Peralatan Angkatan Darat (Ditpalad) (Ordnance) BrigJend n/a Matraman, East Jakarta
Dinas Penerangan Angkatan Darat (Dispenad) (Information) BrigJend Sisriadi n/a Central Jakarta
Dinas Psikologi Angkatan Darat (Dispsiad) (Psychology) BrigJend Ketut Ngurah Sumitra Jaya Utama n/a Bandung, West Java
Dinas Informasi dan Pengolahan Data Angkatan Darat (Disinfolahtad) (Information and Data Processing) BrigJend n/a n/a
Dinas Jasmani Angkatan Darat (Disjasad) (Health) BrigJend n/a n/a
Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan Angkatan Darat (Dislitbangad) (Research and Development) BrigJend n/a n/a
Dinas Pembinaan Mental Angkatan Darat (Disbintalad) (Chaplain) BrigJend n/a n/a

Territorial Commands

The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.

The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.[10]

A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services.[11] The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.

The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers.[12] Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands.

Infantry battalions in progress of forming:

Operational Commands

Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters.[13] Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified.

Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops.[14] It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.

  • Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.

Equipment

Small arms and infantry weapons

Name Origin Type Caliber Notes
Pindad P1/P2[15]  Indonesia Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm Local copy of the Browning Hi-Power. Approximately 30,000 P1s and 2,000 P2s manufactured.
M1911  United States Semi-automatic pistol .45 ACP
SIG Sauer P226   Switzerland Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm For use by Kopassus.
Pindad PM2[15]  Indonesia Submachine gun 9x19mm
MP5 series  Germany Submachine gun 9x19mm Used by special forces
Pindad SS1[15]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Pindad SS2[15]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Modernized SS1.
M16[15]  United States Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Steyr AUG[15]  Austria Assault rifle 5.56x45mm For use by Kopassus.
G36[16]  Germany Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Used by special forces
Accuracy International AWM[16]  United Kingdom Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum Used by special forces
Pindad SPR-1[15]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-3[15]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-2[15]  Indonesia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7x99mm
Pindad SM3  Indonesia Light machine gun 5.56x45mm Locally produced version of the FN Minimi.
Pindad SM2  Indonesia General purpose machine gun 7.62x51mm Locally produced version of the FN MAG.
Pindad SMB-QCB  Indonesia Heavy machine gun 12.7x99mm Locally produced version of the CIS 50MG.
Name Origin Type Notes
M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'  Indonesia Under barrel grenade launcher First locally produced grenade Launcher.
M79 grenade launcher  United States Single-shot grenade launcher
AT-13 Metis M  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
AT-5 Sprandel  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
MBT LAW  Sweden Anti tank missile launchers [17][18][19]
FGM-148 Javelin  United States Anti tank guided missile On order[20][21][22]
C90-CR (M3)  Spain Anti tank rocket launchers
PF-89  China Anti tank rocket launcher
M80 Rocket Launcher[23]  Yugoslavia Shoulder-fired missile

Tanks

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
GermanyLeopard 2 Main Battle Tank 2+ (IISS 2014) With approximately U.S. $287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4 and 63 units of the Leopard 2 Revolution plus 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.[24] 26 delivered.[25][26][27]
France AMX-13 Light tank 275[28] Including self-propelled artillery variants. Not all operational and the remaining tanks will be upgraded.
United KingdomFV101 Scorpion 90 Light tank 60 (IISS 2014) Armed with 90mm Cockerill

Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Armored Personnel Carriers

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
GermanyMarder 1A3 Infantry fighting vehicle 2+ (IISS 2014) With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.[29][30][31]
United StatesM113A1 Armoured Personnel Carrier 80[32] Acquired from Belgium
United KingdomAlvis Stormer Armoured Personnel Carrier 40[33] Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.[34]
FranceAMX-VTT Armoured Personnel Carrier 75 75 figure is IISS Military Balance 2014.
South KoreaDoosan DST Tarantula (6x6) Amphibious Armored Fighting Vehicle 28[35] Equipped with Cockerill 90 mm gun [36][37][38][39]
IndonesiaPindad Panser (6x6) Armoured Personnel Carrier 150 (IISS 2014)
IndonesiaPindad Panser APR-1V (4x4) Armoured Personnel Carrier 14 Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
FranceVéhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB)(4x4) Armoured Personnel Carrier 46[40] 14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.[41]
United StatesCadillac Gage Commando (4x4) Light Armoured Car 100 (IISS 2014) Less than 200 operational
IndonesiaPindad Komodo Light Tactical Vehicle 56[42] . The Indonesian Army has officially ordered 6 Komodos. The Mistral Mobile SAM launcher is also scheduled for orders with the Indonesian Army with a total of 56 Komodos.[43][44] An additional fifty Komodos are ordered from Pindad.[45] 8 Komodos modified to house communications equipments were also ordered.[46][47]
FranceRenault Sherpa 2 Light Tactical Vehicle 12[48][49] Announced in July 2011.[50]
Soviet UnionBTR-40 Armoured Personnel Carrier 40 (IISS 2014) Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.[51]

Utility and logistics vehicles

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
M151 MUTT Light utility vehicle
Land Rover LWB Light utility vehicle
Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP Light utility vehicle
Nissan Q4W73 Light truck
DAF YA400 Transport truck
Unimog Medium truck
Isuzu Elf[52][53] Medium truck
Steyr 680M Medium truck
Bedford MK Light truck and light tank transporter
Steyr 17M29 Medium truck
Iveco Astra Heavy tank transporter
Cakra FAV Fast attack vehicle

Artillery and Air Defence Systems

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
Brazil ASTROS II Multiple rocket launcher 36[54] on order
Indonesia Rhan 122 122mm Multiple rocket launcher Unknown 122 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
Indonesia NDL-40 77mm Multiple rocket launcher 50 77 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
France Nexter CAESAR 155mm Self-propelled howitzer 37[55] on order
South Korea KH-179 155mm Towed artillery 18[56][57] on order
Singapore FH-2000[58] 155mm Towed artillery 8
United StatesM101 howitzer & KH 178 105mm[58] 105mm Towed artillery 54
Poland ZUR-23-2KG 23 mm Anti-aircraft artillery 14 .[59]
China Giant Bow I 23 mm Anti-aircraft artillery 18 .[60]
Soviet Union 57 mm AZP S-60 57mm Anti-aircraft artillery 256
SwedenBofors 40 mm[citation needed] 40mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown
Switzerland Oerlikon Skyshield[61] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery 6 .[62][63][64][65][66]
Switzerland Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon[61] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown .[67][68]
Sweden RBS-70 Surface-to-air missile 45 .[69][70][71]
China TD-2000B Surface-to-air missile unknown .[72][73]
United Kingdom Starstreak (missile)[74] surface-to-air missile unknown .[75][76][77]
France Mistral Surface-to-air missile unknown .[78]
China QW-3[61] Surface-to-air missile unknown .[72][79]
Poland POPRAD Grom (missile) Surface-to-air missile 155

Aircraft

Aircraft Type Versions In service[80] Notes
Russia Mil Mi-35 Attack helicopter Mi-35 6 (IISS 2014) [81]
France Eurocopter Fennec Utility helicopter AS550,AS350,AS355 12[82] on order
Russia Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter Mi-17-V5 17 (IISS 2014) One lost to crash 2013.[83]
United States Bell UH-1 Iroquois Utility helicopter UH-1D 10
Germany Eurocopter Bo 105 Utility helicopter 15[84] Built under license by PTDI
Canada Bell 412 Utility helicopter 412
412SP
412EP
14
14
16
Built under license by PTDI[85]
Spain CASA C-212 Aviocar Tactical transport 4
United States Cessna 310 Light transport 4
United States Aero Commander Light transport 680 3

List of Army Chief of Staffs

Notes

  1. ^ a b IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
  2. ^ Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference RICKLEFSp214 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Friend (2003), page 35
  5. ^ Reid (1974), page 78
  6. ^ David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (2007). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 80–81.
  7. ^ Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
  8. ^ Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
  9. ^ a b IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
  10. ^ Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
  11. ^ Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
  12. ^ The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
  13. ^ For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
  14. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "TNI Angkatan Darat - Situs Resmi TNI Angkatan Darat" (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  17. ^ Pertahanan Bangsa. "TNI AD Membeli ATGM NLAW dan ATGM JAVELIN 1". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  18. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  19. ^ "TNI-AD Uji Terima Roket Anti Tank NLAW". March 21, 2013. 
  20. ^ Indonesia & Jordan; Javelin missile order - Dmilt.com, May 26, 2013
  21. ^ "TNI Borong Rudal Anti-Tank Buatan Amerika Serikat". June 10, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Raytheon - Lockheed Martin's Javelin JV Gets Contract to Produce Block I Javelin Missile for Indonesia and Other Countries". November 18, 2013. 
  23. ^ ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia (PDF), Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010 
  24. ^ "Approves Sale of Tanks to Indonesia". May 8, 2013. 
  25. ^ Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 25 September 2013
  26. ^ "Rheinmetall to Supply the Indonesian Army With Leopard 2 Simulators". May 23, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Tank Leopard dan Marder Datang di Tanjung Priok". August 31, 2014. 
  28. ^ "AMX-13 : Tank Tempur Utama TNI-AD". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Garuda Militer. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  30. ^ Satria. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  31. ^ "Beli 114 tank Leopard, Indonesia dapat 50 tank". May 15, 2013. 
  32. ^ "M113 A1: Transformasi Dari APC Hingga IFV Berdaya Gempur Sedang". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  33. ^ "Alvis Stormer : Tank APC Modern TNI-AD". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  34. ^ "Stormer - Light Armoured Vehicles - Jane's Land Forces". Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. 
  35. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  36. ^ "Production of Tarantula 6x6 has been Completed". May 21, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Korea Selatan Segera Kirim Panser Tarantula Pesanan TNI AD". May 25, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Tarantula 6×6 Armoured Fire Support Vehicle". June 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ "[Foto] Sengatan sang Laba-Laba". October 10, 2013. 
  40. ^ "VAB : Kisah Panser Perisai Ibu Kota". IndoMiliter. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  41. ^ "TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  42. ^ Satria. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  43. ^ "Mistral Komodo Akan Memperkuat Arhanud". October 6, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Pindad Produksi Lima Varian Rantis Komodo". November 13, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Kopassus & Brimob, Pengguna Pertama Komodo Tempur" (in Indonesian). Medan Bisnis. 2013-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  46. ^ "PINDAD Kebut Pesanan KOMODO". January 13, 2013. 
  47. ^ "Komodo, Other Milestone for PT Pindad?". May 5, 2013. 
  48. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  49. ^ "Renault APCs set for Indonesian army". UPI. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  50. ^ http://www.renault-trucks-defense.com/en/news/renault-trucks-defense-receive-new-orders-from-indonesia.html
  51. ^ BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
  52. ^ "Kemhan dan Isuzu Bahas Pengadaan Truk Militer". April 4, 2013. 
  53. ^ "TNI Pesan 965 Truk Isuzu". November 15, 2013. 
  54. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  55. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  56. ^ Iwan Hermawan. "ARCinc - Kh-179, Artileri Negeri Ginseng Untuk TNI-AD". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  57. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  58. ^ a b http://pussenarmed.kodiklat-tniad.mil.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=57
  59. ^ "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  60. ^ "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  61. ^ a b c pensosbud. "Air Force Orders Anti-Aircraft Weapons". Embassy of Indonesia in Oslo. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  62. ^ "Senjata Oerlikon Skyshield TNI AU". May 28, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Perkuat Dirgantara, Indonesia Beli Perisai Udara". May 29, 2013. 
  64. ^ "Indonesia has ordered Rheinmetall-made Oerlikon Skyshield air defence system". February 11, 2014. 
  65. ^ "Indonesia orders more German air defense systems". February 20, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Skyshield 35 Mk-2 Tameng Denhannud Paskhas". September 17, 2014. 
  67. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  68. ^ "Paskhas Akan Dapat OERLIKON 35 mm, Denhanud disiapkan". May 18, 2013. 
  69. ^ Satria. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  70. ^ "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  71. ^ NurW. "DEFENSE STUDIES". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  72. ^ a b "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  73. ^ Garuda Militer. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  74. ^ Satria. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  75. ^ "Thales Announces Order for FORCESHIELD Integrated Air Defence System and STARSTREAK Missiles for Indonesian Ministry of Defence". January 15, 2014. 
  76. ^ "Sistem Pertahanan Udara Terintegrasi ForceSHIELD". January 20, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Indonesian SAMs Break Cover, Promising Enhanced Anti-UAV Capability". June 27, 2014. 
  78. ^ Garuda Militer. "Garuda Militer". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  79. ^ "Lanud Supadio Kini Dilengkapi dengan Rudal QW-3". June 6, 2013. 
  80. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  81. ^ "OrBat Indonesia - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  82. ^ "Indonesian Army and Navy Expand Fleets". Aviation International News. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  83. ^ http://idrw.org/?p=29067
  84. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/media/reports_pdf/world-air-forces-2014-108161.aspx
  85. ^ "PT DI Serahkan 3 CN 295 dan 6 Bell 412 EP kepada Kemenhan". December 17, 2013. 
  86. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/docs/v14i2a02p_0007.htm
  87. ^ "Letjen Budiman Ditunjuk Gantikan Jenderal Moeldoko". August 30, 2013. 
  88. ^ "Presiden SBY Resmi Lantik Gatot Nurmantyo Menjadi KSAD". July 25, 2014. 
  89. ^ "KSAD Resmi Berpangkat Jenderal TNI". August 9, 2014. 

Further reading

  • Harold Crouch, The Army and Politics in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1978
  • Sukarti Rinakit, The Indonesian Military after the New Order, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen and Singapore, 2005

External links