Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
Indonesian Army insignia
|Active||1945 – present|
|Part of||Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Motto||Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
|Indonesian Army Chief of Staff||General Gatot Nurmantyo
(25 July 2014-present)
|Army Aviation Roundel|
The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel. The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.
Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.
The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel.
- 1 Organization
- 2 Territorial Commands
- 3 Operational Commands
- 4 Equipment
- 5 List of Army Chief of Staffs
- 6 Notes and references
- 7 External links
The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.
The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.
A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services. The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.
The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers. Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands, and these are:
- Korem 011/Lilawangsa, based in Lhokseumawe, manned by personnel from
- Korem 012/Teuku Umar, based in Meulaboh, manned by personnel from
- Kodam IM HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam IM), based in Aceh Besar Regency, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam IM
Kodam I/Bukit Barisan, overseeing northern Sumatra provinces of North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Riau and Riau Islands. There are four Korems, one strike force brigade and one HQ regiment included in Kodam I/BB.
- Korem 022/Pantai Timur, based in Pematangsiantar, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 126/Kala Cakti, based in Asahan Regency.
- Korem 023/Kawal Samudra, based in Sibolga, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 123/Rajawali, based in Padangsidempuan.
- Korem 031/Wirapratama, based in Pekanbaru, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 132/Bima Sakti, based in Kampar Regency.
- Korem 032/Wirabima, based in Padang, manned by personnel from
- Korem 033/Wirabraja, based in Tanjungpinang, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 134/Tuah Sakti, based in Batam.
- Infantry brigade 7/Rimba Raya, as brigade size strike force, manned by personnel from
- Kodam I/BB HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam I/BB), based in Medan, manned by personnel from
- Assault Infantry battalion 100/Raider, based in Langkat Regency.
- Cavalry battalion 6/Naga Karimata, based in Medan.
- Combat Engineer battalion 1/Dhira Dharma, based in Medan.
- Field Artillery battalion 2/Kilap Sumagan, based in Medan.
- Medium Air Defense Artillery battalion 11/Wira Bhuana Yudha, based in Binjai.
- Detached units of Kodam I/BB
- Cavalry company 6/Rajawali Bhakti Tama, based in Pekanbaru.
- Combat Engineer detachment 2/Prasada Sakti, based in Limapuluh Koto Regency.
- Medium Air Defense Artillery battalion 13/Parigha Bhuana Yudha, based in Pekanbaru.
- Medium Air Defense Artillery detachment 004/Wira Satya Bhuana Yudha, based in Dumai.
- Korem 041/Garuda Emas, based in Bengkulu (city), manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 144/Jaya Yudha, based in Bengkulu (city).
- Korem 042/Garuda Putih, based in Jambi City, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 142/Satria Jaya, based in Jambi City.
- Korem 043/Garuda Hitam, based in Bandar Lampung, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 143/Triwara Eka Jaya, based in South Lampung Regency.
- Korem 044/Garuda Dempo, based in Palembang, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 141/Aneka Yudha, based in Muara Enim Regency.
- Korem 045/Garuda Jaya, based in Pangkalpinang
- Kodam II/Swj HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam II/Swj), based in Palembang, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam II/Swj
- Cavalry battalion 5/Dwi Pangga Ceta, based in Muara Enim Regency.
- Combat Training Center Cavalry company/Lebah Cetia Cakti, based in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency.
- Combat Engineer battalion 2/Samara Grawira, based in Prabumulih.
- Field Artillery battalion 15/Cailendra, based in East Ogan Komering Ulu Regency.
Kodam Jaya, overseeing Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia. Kodam Jaya also oversees three regions outside Jakarta of Bekasi and Depok which actually in West Java province and Tangerang which is in Banten province. There are two Korems, one strike force brigade, one air defense artillery regiment and one HQ regiment included in Kodam Jaya.
- Korem 051/Wijayakarta
- Korem 052/Wijayakrama
- Infantry brigade 1/Jayasakti, as brigade size strike force, manned by personnel from
- Air Defense Artillery regiment 1/Putra Yudha, manned by personnel from
- Medium Air Defense Artillery battalion 6/Baladika Akaca Yudha.
- Medium Air Defense Artillery battalion 10/Agni Bhuana Cakti.
- Medium Air Defense Artillery detachment 003/Akasa Rakca Ksatrya.
- Kodam Jaya HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam Jaya), based in East Jakarta, manned by personnel from
- Cavalry battalion 7/Pragosa Satya.
- Field Artillery battalion 7/Bring Galih.
- Combat Engineer detachment 3/Agni Tirta Dharma.
- Construction Engineer battalion 11/Durdhaga Wighra, based in South Jakarta.
- Construction Engineer battalion 13/Karya Etmaka, based in South Jakarta.
- Construction Engineer battalion 14/Sradha Wirya Samertitaya, based in South Jakarta.
- Bomb Difusal Company
- Nuclear, Biology & Chemical Engineer Company
- Korem 061/Surya Kencana, based in Bogor, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 315/Garuda, based in Bogor
- Korem 062/Taruma Nagara, based in Garut Regency
- Korem 063/Sunan Gunung Jati, based in Cirebon Regency, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 301/Prabu Kian Santang, based in Sumedang Regency.
- Korem 064/Maulana Yusuf, based in Serang, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 320/Badak Putih, based in Pandeglang Regency.
- Infantry brigade 15/Kujang II, manned by personnel from
- Kodam III/Slw HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam III/Slw), based in Bandung, manned by personnel from
- Cavalry battalion 4/Kijang Cakti, based in Bandung.
- Cavalry company 4/Tarantula Hitam Cakti, based in Bandung.
- Horsed Cavalry detachment/Bala Turangga Cakti, based in Bandung.
- Combat Engineer battalion 3/Yudha Wyogrha, based in Bandung Regency.
- Light Air Defense Artillery battalion 3/Yudha Bhuana Yakca, based in Cimahi.
- Field Artillery battalion 4/Parahyangan, based in Cimahi.
- Detached units of Kodam III/Slw
- Korem 071/Wijayakusuma, based in Purwokerto
- Korem 072/Pamungkas, based in Yogyakarta, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 403/Wirasada Pratista, based in Yogyakarta.
- Korem 073/Makutarama, based in Salatiga, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 410/Alugora, based in Blora Regency.
- Korem 074/Warastratama, based in Surakarta, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 408/Suhbrasta, based in Sragen.
- Infantry brigade 4/Dewa Ratna, as brigade size strike force, manned by personnel from
- Kodam IV/Dip HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam IV/Dip), based in Semarang, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam IV/Dip
- Korem 081/Dhirot Saha Jaya, based in Madiun
- Korem 082/Citra Panca Yudha Jaya, based in Mojokerto
- Korem 083/Bala Dika Jaya, based in Malang, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 512/Quratara Yudha, based in Malang.
- Korem 084/Bhaskara Jaya, based in Surabaya, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 516/Caraka Yudha, based in Surabaya.
- Infantry brigade 16/Wira Yudha, as brigade size strike force, manned by personnel from
- Kodam V/Brw HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam V/Brw), based in Surabaya, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam V/Brw
- Korem 102/Panju Panjung, based in Palangkaraya, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 631/Antang Elang, based in Palangkaraya.
- Korem 121/Alambhana Wanawai, based in Pontianak, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 643/Wanara Sakti, based in Pontianak Regency.
- Infantry brigade 19/Khatulistiwa, as brigade size strike force, based in Singkawang, manned by personnel from
- Kodam XII/Tpr HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam XII/Tpr), based in Pontianak, manned by personnel from
- Korem 091/Aji Surya Natakesuma, based in Samarinda, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 611/Awang Long, based in Samarinda.
- Korem 101/Antasari, based in Banjarmasin, manned by personnel from
- Infantry brigade 24/Bulungan Cakti, as brigade size strike force, based in Bulungan Regency, manned by personnel from
- Kodam VI/Mlw HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam VI/Mlw), based in Balikpapan, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam VI/Mlw
Kodam VII/Wirabuana, overseeing all provinces on Sulawesi island of Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi and West Sulawesi. There are four Korems, one strike force brigade and one HQ regiment included in Kodam VII/Wrb.
- Korem 131/Santiago, based in Manado, manned by personnel from
- Assault Infantry battalion 712/Raider, based in Manado.
- Korem 132/Tadaluko, based in Palu, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 714/Sintu Maroso, based in Poso Regency.
- Korem 141/Toddo Puli, based in Bone Regency, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 726/Tamalatea, based in Takalar Regency.
- Korem 142/Taroada Tarogau, based in Pare-pare, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 721/Makkasau, based in Pinrang Regency.
- Korem 143/Halu Oleo, based in Kendari, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 725/Woroagi, based in Kendari.
- Infantry brigade 22/Ota Manasa, as brigade size strike force, based in Gorontalo (city), manned by personnel from
- Kodam VII/Wrb HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam VII/Wrb), based in Makassar, manned by personnel from
- Assault Infantry battalion 700/Raider, based in Makassar.
- Cavalry battalion 10/Mendagiri, based in Makassar.
- Field Artillery battalion 6/Tamarunang, based in Makassar.
- Light Air Defense battery 141/Sula Bhuana Cakti, based in Makassar.
- Combat Engineer battalion 8/Sakti Mandraguna, based in Makassar.
- Detached units of Kodam VII/Wrb
Kodam IX/Udayana, overseeing provinces of Bali, East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The former Indonesian province of East Timor was also under the jurisdiction of Kodam IX/Udayana. There are three Korems, one strike force brigade and one HQ regiment included in Kodam IX/Udy.
- Korem 161/Wirasakti, based in Kupang
- Korem 162/Wirabhakti, based in Mataram (city), manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 742/Satya Wira Yudha, based in Mataram (city).
- Korem 163/Wirasatya, based in Denpasar
- Infantry brigade 21/Komodo, as brigade size strike force, based in Kupang Regency, manned by personnel from
- Kodam IX/Udy HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam IX/Udy), based in Denpasar, manned by personnel from
- Korem 151/Binaya, based in Ambon, manned by personnel from
- Infantry battalion 731/Kabaresi Central Maluku Regency.
- Korem 152/Baabullah, based in Ternate
- Infantry battalion 732/Banau, based in West Halmahera Regency.
- Kodam XVI/Ptm HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam XVI/Ptm), based in Ambon, manned by personnel from
- Detached units of Kodam XVI/Ptm
- Infantry battalion 734/Lor Labay, based in Western Southeast Maluku Regency.
- Korem 171/Praja Wira Tama, based in Sorong
- Infantry battalion 752/Vira Yudha Sakti, based in Sorong.
- Korem 172/Praja Wira Yakti, based in Jayapura
- Assault Infantry battalion 751/Raider, based in Jayapura Regency.
- Korem 173/Praja Wira Braja, based in Biak
- Infantry battalion 753/Arga Vira Tama, based in Nabire Regency.
- Korem 174/Anim Ti Waninggap, based in Merauke
- Infantry brigade 20/Ima Jayakeramo, as brigade size strike force, based in Mimika Regency, manned by personnel from
- Kodam XVII/Cen HQ and HQ Regiment (Rindam XVII/Cen), based in Jayapura, manned by personnel from
- Cavalry detachment 3/Serigala Ceta
- Combat Engineer detachment 10/Kesatria Yudha Dharma, based in Jayapura.
- Detached units of Kodam XVII/Cen
Infantry battalions in progress of forming:
- Infantry battalion 147/BSY, will be based in East Belitung Regency.
- Infantry battalion 612, will be based in East Kutai Regency.
- Infantry battalion 622, will be based in Tanah Laut Regency.
- Infantry battalion 632/Panglima Batur, will be based in North Barito Regency.
- Infantry battalion 735, will be based in Morotai Island Regency.
Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters. Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified.
- Group 1/Eka Wastu Baladhika, based in Serang, composed of
- Commando battalion 11/Atulo Sena Baladhika.
- Commando battalion 12/Asabha Sena Baladhika.
- Commando battalion 13/Thikkaviro Sena Baladhika.
- Grup 2/Dwi Dharma Bhirawa Yudha, based in Kartasura, composed of
- Commando battalion 21/Bhirawa Yudha.
- Commando battalion 22/Manggala Yudha.
- Commando battalion 23/Dhanuja Yudha.
- Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha, based in East Jakarta, composed of
- Commando battalion 31/Eka Sandhi Yudha Utama.
- Commando battalion 32/Apta Sandhi Prayudha Utama.
- Commando battalion 33/Wira Sandhi Yudha Sakti.
- Special Forces Training Center in West Bandung Regency
- Unit 81/Counter Terrorist, based in East Jakarta, composed of
- Commando battalion 811.
- Commando battalion 812.
- Support battalion.
Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops. It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
- Infantry Division 1 Kostrad, based in Bogor Regency. The division composed of:
- Headquarters Command Infantry division 1 in Bogor Regency
- Airborne Infantry brigade 17/Kujang I
- Infantry brigade 13/Galuh
- Field Artillery regiment 2/Sthira Yudha, Sadang, Purwakarta, West Java
- Light Air Defense Artillery battalion 1/Purwa Bajra Cakti, based in South Tangerang.
- Heavy Cavalry battalion 1/Badak Ceta Cakti, based in East Jakarta.
- Parachute Combat Engineer battalion 9/Lang Lang Bhuwana, based in Bandung.
- Supply and Transport battalion 1/Tri Bhakti Yudha.
- Reconnaissance Cavalry company 1/Elang Setia Cakti
- Medical battalion 1/Yudha Krida Husada
- Infantry Division 2 Kostrad. The division composed of:
- Headquarters Infantry Division 2
- Infantry brigade 6/Trisakti Baladaya, based in Surakarta, consist of
- Infantry brigade 9/Daraka Yudha,
- Airborne Infantry brigade 18/Trisula, based in Malang Regency, consist of
- Field Artillery regiment 1/Putra Yudha, consist of
- Light Air Defense Artillery battalion 2/Amwanga Bhuana Wicesa
- Heavy Cavalry battalion 8/Narasinga Wiratama, based in Pasuruan Regency.
- Combat Engineer battalion 10/Jaladri Palaka, based in Pasuruan Regency.
- Medical battalion 2/Yudha Bhakti Husada, based in Malang Regency
- Supply and Transport battalion 2/Mawwat Wastwan Jaya
- Reconnaissance Cavalry company 2/Kala Setia Cakti, based in Malang Regency.
- Airborne Infantry brigade 3/Tri Budi Mahasakti, based in Makassar, consist of
- Airborne Infantry battalion 431/Satria Setia Perkasa
- Airborne Infantry battalion 432/Dharma Putera
- Airborne Infantry battalion 433/Julu Siri
- Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
Small arms and infantry weapons
|M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'||Indonesia||Under barrel grenade launcher||First locally produced grenade Launcher.|
|M79 grenade launcher||United States||Single-shot grenade launcher|
|AT-13 Metis M||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|AT-5 Sprandel||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|MBT LAW||Sweden||Anti tank missile launchers|||
|FGM-148 Javelin||United States||Anti tank guided missile||On order|
|C90-CR (M3)||Spain||Anti tank rocket launchers|
|PF-89||China||Anti tank rocket launcher|
|M80 Rocket Launcher||Yugoslavia||Shoulder-fired missile|
|Leopard 2||Main Battle Tank||103||With approximately U.S. $287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4 and 63 units of the Leopard 2 Revolution plus 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks. 26 delivered.|
|AMX-13||Light tank||275||Including self-propelled artillery variants. Not all operational and the remaining tanks will be upgraded.|
|FV101 Scorpion 90||Light tank||90||Armed with 90mm cockerill|
Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Armored Personnel Carriers
|Marder 1A3||Infantry fighting vehicle||50||With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.|
|AMX-VTT||Armoured Personnel Carrier||200||less than 200 operational|
|Alvis Stormer||Armoured Personnel Carrier||40||Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.|
|Doosan DST Tarantula (6x6)||Amphibious Armored Fighting Vehicle||28||
|Pindad Panser (6x6)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||226|
|Pindad Panser APR-1V (4x4)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||14||Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.|
|Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB)(4x4)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||46||14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.|
|Cadillac Gage Commando (4x4)||Light Armoured Car||200|
|FV601 Saladin||Armoured Car||69|
|Pindad Komodo||Light Tactical Vehicle||56||.||The Indonesian Army has officially ordered 6 Komodos. The Mistral Mobile SAM launcher is also scheduled for orders with the Indonesian Army with a total of 56 Komodos. An additional fifty Komodos are ordered from Pindad. 8 Komodos modified to house communications equipments were also ordered.|
|Renault Sherpa 2||Light Tactical Vehicle||12||Announced in July 2011.|
|BTR-40||Light Tactical Vehicle||85||Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.|
Utility and logistics vehicles
|M151 MUTT||Light utility vehicle|
|Land Rover LWB||Light utility vehicle|
|Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP||Light utility vehicle|
|Nissan Q4W73||Light truck|
|DAF YA400||Transport truck|
|Isuzu Elf||Medium truck|
|Steyr 680M||Medium truck|
|Bedford MK||Light truck|
|Steyr 17M29||Medium truck|
|Cakra FAV||Fast attack vehicle|
Artillery and Air Defence Systems
|Boeing AH-64 Apache||Attack helicopter||AH-64E||8||Deal finalized|
|Mil Mi-35||Attack helicopter||Mi-35||8|||
|Eurocopter Fennec||Utility helicopter||AS550,AS350,AS355||12||on order|
|Mil Mi-17||Transport Helicopter||Mi-17-V5||15||One lost to crash 2013.|
|Bell UH-1 Iroquois||Utility helicopter||UH-1D||10|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Utility helicopter||15||Built under license by PTDI|
|Bell 412||Utility helicopter||412
|Built under license by PTDI|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Tactical transport||4|
|Cessna 310||Light transport||4|
|Aero Commander||Light transport||680||3|
List of Army Chief of Staffs
- Col. GPH Djatikusumo (1948–1949)
- Col. AH Nasution (1949–1952)
- Col. / Maj. Gen. Bambang Sugeng (1952–1955)
- Maj. Gen. Bambang Utoyo (1955)
- Maj. Gen. AH Nasution (1955–1962)
- Let. Gen. Ahmad Yani (1962–1965)
- Maj. Gen. Pranoto Reksosamudra (temporary) (1965)
- Maj. Gen. Suharto (1965–1967)
- Gen. Maraden Panggabean (1967–1969)
- Gen. Umar Wirahadikusumah (1969–1973)
- Gen. Surono (1973–1974)
- Gen. Makmun Murod (1974–1978)
- Gen. Widodo (1978–1980)
- Gen. Poniman (1980–1983)
- Gen. Rudini (1983–1986)
- Gen. Try Sutrisno (1986–1988)
- Gen. Edi Sudrajat (1988–1993)
- Gen. Wismoyo Arismunandar (1993–1995)
- Gen. Hartono (1995–1997)
- Gen. Wiranto (1997–1998)
- Gen. Subagyo Hadi Siswoyo (1998–1999)
- Gen. Tyasno Sudarto (1999–2000)
- Gen. Endriartono Sutarto (2000–2002)
- Gen. Ryamizard Ryacudu (2002–2005)
- Gen. Djoko Santoso (2005–2008)
- Gen. Agustadi Sasongko Purnomo (2008–2009)
- Gen. George Toisutta (2009–2011)
- Gen. Pramono Edhie Wibowo (2011–2013)
- Gen. Moeldoko (May 2013–August 2013)
- Gen. Budiman (2013–July 2014)
- Gen. Gatot Nurmantyo (25 July 2014 – present)
Notes and references
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
- Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
- Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
- Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
- IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
- Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
- Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
- The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
- For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
- "TNI Angkatan Darat - Situs Resmi TNI Angkatan Darat" (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "TNI-AD Uji Terima Roket Anti Tank NLAW". March 21, 2013.
- Indonesia & Jordan; Javelin missile order - Dmilt.com, May 26, 2013
- "TNI Borong Rudal Anti-Tank Buatan Amerika Serikat". June 10, 2013.
- "Raytheon - Lockheed Martin's Javelin JV Gets Contract to Produce Block I Javelin Missile for Indonesia and Other Countries". November 18, 2013.
- ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010
- "Approves Sale of Tanks to Indonesia". May 8, 2013.
- Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 25 September 2013
- "Rheinmetall to Supply the Indonesian Army With Leopard 2 Simulators". May 23, 2014.
- "Tank Leopard dan Marder Datang di Tanjung Priok". August 31, 2014.
- Marder, Lapis Baja One Stop Services
- "Beli 114 tank Leopard, Indonesia dapat 50 tank". May 15, 2013.
- "Stormer - Light Armoured Vehicles - Jane's Land Forces". Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009.
- "Production of Tarantula 6x6 has been Completed". May 21, 2013.
- "Korea Selatan Segera Kirim Panser Tarantula Pesanan TNI AD". May 25, 2013.
- "Tarantula 6×6 Armoured Fire Support Vehicle". June 12, 2013.
- "[Foto] Sengatan sang Laba-Laba". October 10, 2013.
- "TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Mistral Komodo Akan Memperkuat Arhanud". October 6, 2012.
- "Pindad Produksi Lima Varian Rantis Komodo". November 13, 2012.
- "Kopassus & Brimob, Pengguna Pertama Komodo Tempur" (in Bahasa Indonesia). Medan Bisnis. 2013-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "PINDAD Kebut Pesanan KOMODO". January 13, 2013.
- "Komodo, Other Milestone for PT Pindad?". May 5, 2013.
- BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
- "Kemhan dan Isuzu Bahas Pengadaan Truk Militer". April 4, 2013.
- "TNI Pesan 965 Truk Isuzu". November 15, 2013.
- "Senjata Oerlikon Skyshield TNI AU". May 28, 2013.
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- Songsong Kedatangan PSU Baru, Korpaskhas akan Kirim Personil untuk Berlatih di Swiss
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- Saab AB Tawarkan Giraffe AMB dan RBS-70NG kepada TNI AD
- Uji terima ulang Sista Hanud Terintegrasi TD-2000B Rudal Meriam
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- "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
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- IndoWiki KODAMs
- Official website of TNI-AD (Army)
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Armed Forces
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Special Forces
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