Great Books

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"Great Book" redirects here. For the anthology of modern Irish art, see The Great Book of Ireland.

The great books are those books that are thought to constitute an essential foundation in the literature of Western culture. Specified sets of great books typically range from 100–150, though they differ according to purpose and context. For instance, some lists are built to be read by undergraduates in a college semester system (130 books, Torrey Honors Institute),[1] some are compiled to be sold as a single set of volumes (500 books, Mortimer Adler), while some lists aim at a thorough literary criticism (2,400 books, Harold Bloom).[2]

Concept[edit]

The great books are those that tradition, and various institutions and authorities, have regarded as constituting or best expressing the foundations of Western culture (the Western canon is a similar but broader designation); derivatively the term also refers to a curriculum or method of education based around a list of such books. Mortimer Adler lists three criteria for including a book on the list:

  • the book has contemporary significance; that is, it has relevance to the problems and issues of our times;
  • the book is inexhaustible; it can be read again and again with benefit; "This is an exacting criterion, an ideal that is fully attained by only a small number of the 511 works that we selected. It is approximated in varying degrees by the rest."[3]
  • the book is relevant to a large number of the great ideas and great issues that have occupied the minds of thinking individuals for the last 25 centuries.[4]

Origin[edit]

Thomas Jefferson,[5] well known for his interest in higher education, frequently composed great books lists for his friends and correspondents, for example, for Peter Carr in 1785[6] and again in 1787.[7]

In 1909, Harvard University published a 51-volume great books series, titled the Harvard Classics. These volumes are now in the public domain.

The Great Books of the Western World came about as the result of a discussion among American academics and educators, starting in the 1920s and 1930s and begun by Prof. John Erskine of Columbia University,[8] about how to improve the higher education system by returning it to the western liberal arts tradition of broad cross-disciplinary learning. These academics and educators included Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, Jacques Barzun, and Alexander Meiklejohn. The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought.

They were at odds both with much of the existing educational establishment and with contemporary educational theory. Educational theorists like Sidney Hook[9] and John Dewey (see pragmatism) disagreed with the premise that there was crossover in education.[citation needed]

Program[edit]

The Great Books Program is a curriculum that makes use of this list of texts. As much as possible, students rely on primary sources. The emphasis is on open discussion with limited guidance by a professor, facilitator, or tutor. Students are also expected to write papers.

In 1920, Professor Erskine taught the first course based on the "great books" program, titled "General Honors", at Columbia University.[10][11] He helped mold its core curriculum. It initially failed, however, shortly after its introduction due to fallings-out between the senior faculty over the best ways to conduct classes and due to concerns about the rigor of the courses. Thus junior faculty including Mark Van Doren and Mortimer Adler after 1923, taught a part of the course. The course was discontinued in 1928, though later reconstituted. Adler left for the University of Chicago in 1929, where he continued his work on the theme, and along with the University president, Robert M. Hutchins, held an annual seminar of great books. In 1937, when Mark Van Doren redesigned the course, it was already being taught at St. John's College, Annapolis, besides University of Chicago. This course later became Humanities A for freshmen, and subsequently evolved into Literature Humanities.[10] Survivors, however, include Columbia's Core Curriculum, the Common Core at Chicago, and the Core Curriculum at Boston University, each heavily focused on the "great books" of the Western canon.

A university or college Great Books Program is a program inspired by the Great Books movement begun in the United States in the 1920s. The aim of such programs is a return to the Western Liberal Arts tradition in education, as a corrective to the extreme disciplinary specialisation common within the academy. The essential component of such programs is a high degree of engagement with whole primary texts, called the Great Books. The curricula of Great Books programs often follow a canon of texts considered more or less essential to a student's education, such as Plato's Republic, or Dante's Divine Comedy. Such programs often focus exclusively on Western culture. Their employment of primary texts dictates an interdisciplinary approach, as most of the Great Books do not fall neatly under the prerogative of a single contemporary academic discipline. Great Books programs often include designated discussion groups as well as lectures, and have small class sizes. In general students in such programs receive an abnormally high degree of attention from their professors, as part of the overall aim of fostering a community of learning.

There are only a few true "Great Books Programs" still in operation. These schools focus almost exclusively on the Great Books Curriculum throughout enrollment and do not offer classes analogous to those commonly offered at other colleges. The first and best known of these schools is St. John's College in Annapolis and Santa Fe (program established in 1937);[12] it was followed by Shimer College in Chicago, The Integral Program at Saint Mary's College of California (1955), The College of Saint Mary Magdalen in Warner, New Hampshire, and Thomas Aquinas College in Santa Paula, California. More recent schools with this type of curriculum include Gutenberg College in Eugene, Oregon (est. 1994), Harrison Middleton University in Tempe, Arizona (est. 1998), Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming (est. 2005), and Imago Dei College in Oak Glen, California (est. 2010). The University of Notre Dame's Program of Liberal Studies, established in 1950, is a highly regarded Great Books Program that operates as a separate institution within the College of Liberal Arts. At the high school level, the Old Western Culture curriculum was developed by Wesley Callihan, a well-known classicist, speaker, and an author of Classical Christian Education and the Homeschool.

The Center for the Study of the Great Ideas advances the Great Conversation found in the great books by providing Adler's guidance, and resource materials through both live and on-line seminars, educational and philosophical consultation, international presence on the Internet, access to the Center's library collection of books, essays, articles, journals and audio/video programs. Center programs are unique in that they do not replicate other existing programs either started or developed by Adler.

Universities[edit]

Over 100 institutions of higher learning in the United States, Canada, and Europe maintain some version of a Great Books Program as an option for students.[13] Among these are:

United States

Canada

Europe

Asia

Controversy[edit]

In contemporary scholarship, the great books curriculum was drawn into the popular debate about multiculturalism, traditional education, the "culture war," and the role of the intellectual in American life. Much of this debate centered on reactions to the publication of The Closing of the American Mind in 1987 by Allan Bloom.[44]

Series[edit]

The Great Books of the Western World is a hardcover 60-volume collection (originally 54 volumes) of the books on the great books list (about 517 individual works). Many of the books in the collection were translated into English for the first time. A prominent feature of the collection is a two-volume Syntopicon that includes essays written by Mortimer Adler on 102 "great ideas." Following each essay is an extensive outline of the idea with page references to relevant passages throughout the collection. Familiar to many Americans, the collection is available from Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., which owns the copyright.

Shortly after Adler retired from the Great Books Foundation in 1989, a second edition (1990) of the Great Books of the Western World was published; it included more Hispanic and female authors and, for the first time, works by black authors.[45] During his tenure as president of the Foundation, Adler had resisted such additions.[46]

We did not base our selections on an author's nationality, religion, politics, or field of study; nor on an author's race or gender. Great books were not chosen to make up quotas of any kind; there was no "affirmative action" in the process ... we chose the great books on the basis of their relevance to at least 25 of the 102 great ideas. Many of the great books are relevant to a much larger number of the 102 great ideas, as many as 75 or more great ideas, a few to all 102 great ideas. In sharp contrast are the good books that are relevant to less than 10 or even as few as 4 or 5 great ideas. We placed such books in the lists of Recommended Readings to be found in the last section in each of the 102 chapters of the "Syntopicon". Here readers will find many twentieth-century female authors, black authors, and Latin American authors whose works we recommended but did not include in the second edition of the great books.[3]

Sample list[edit]

Any recommended set of great books is expected to change with the times, as reflected in the following statement by Robert Hutchins:

In the course of history ... new books have been written that have won their place in the list. Books once thought entitled to belong to it have been superseded; and this process of change will continue as long as men can think and write. It is the task of every generation to reassess the tradition in which it lives, to discard what it cannot use, and to bring into context with the distant and intermediate past the most recent contributions to the Great Conversation.[47]

The following is an example list, in chronological order, compiled from How to Read a Book by Mortimer Adler (1940), and How to Read a Book, 2nd ed. by Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren (1972):

  1. HomerIliad; Odyssey
  2. The Old Testament
  3. Aeschylus – Tragedies
  4. Sophocles – Tragedies
  5. HerodotusHistories
  6. Euripides – Tragedies
  7. ThucydidesHistory of the Peloponnesian War
  8. Hippocrates – Medical Writings
  9. Aristophanes – Comedies
  10. Plato – Dialogues
  11. Aristotle – Works
  12. Epicurus – "Letter to Herodotus"; "Letter to Menoecus"
  13. EuclidElements
  14. Archimedes – Works
  15. ApolloniusConics
  16. Cicero – Works (esp. Orations; On Friendship; On Old Age; Republic; Laws; Tusculan Disputations; Offices)
  17. LucretiusOn the Nature of Things
  18. Virgil – Works (esp. Aeneid)
  19. Horace – Works (esp. Odes and Epodes; The Art of Poetry)
  20. LivyHistory of Rome
  21. Ovid – Works (esp. Metamorphoses)
  22. QuintilianInstitutes of Oratory
  23. PlutarchParallel Lives; Moralia
  24. TacitusHistories; Annals; Agricola; Germania; Dialogus de oratoribus (Dialogue on Oratory)
  25. Nicomachus of GerasaIntroduction to Arithmetic
  26. Epictetus – Discourses; Enchiridion
  27. PtolemyAlmagest
  28. Lucian – Works (esp. The Way to Write History; The True History; The Sale of Creeds; Alexander the Oracle Monger; Charon; The Sale of Lives; The Fisherman; Dialogue of the Gods; Dialogues of the Sea-Gods; Dialogues of the Dead)
  29. Marcus AureliusMeditations
  30. GalenOn the Natural Faculties
  31. The New Testament
  32. PlotinusThe Enneads
  33. St. Augustine – "On the Teacher"; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
  34. The Volsungs Saga or Nibelungenlied
  35. The Song of Roland
  36. The Saga of Burnt Njál
  37. MaimonidesThe Guide for the Perplexed
  38. St. Thomas AquinasOf Being and Essence; Summa Contra Gentiles; Of the Governance of Rulers; Summa Theologica
  39. Dante AlighieriThe New Life (La Vita Nuova); "On Monarchy"; Divine Comedy
  40. Geoffrey ChaucerTroilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
  41. Thomas à KempisThe Imitation of Christ
  42. Leonardo da VinciNotebooks
  43. Niccolò MachiavelliThe Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
  44. Desiderius ErasmusThe Praise of Folly; Colloquies
  45. Nicolaus CopernicusOn the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
  46. Thomas MoreUtopia
  47. Martin LutherTable Talk; Three Treatises
  48. François RabelaisGargantua and Pantagruel
  49. John CalvinInstitutes of the Christian Religion
  50. Michel de MontaigneEssays
  51. William GilbertOn the Lodestone and Magnetic Bodies
  52. Miguel de CervantesDon Quixote
  53. Edmund SpenserProthalamion; The Faerie Queene
  54. Francis BaconEssays; The Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum; New Atlantis
  55. William Shakespeare – Poetry and Plays
  56. Galileo GalileiStarry Messenger; Two New Sciences
  57. Johannes KeplerThe Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Harmonices Mundi
  58. William HarveyOn the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; Generation of Animals
  59. GrotiusThe Law of War and Peace
  60. Thomas HobbesLeviathan; Elements of Philosophy
  61. René DescartesRules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy; Principles of Philosophy; The Passions of the Soul
  62. Corneille – Tragedies (esp. The Cid, Cinna)
  63. John Milton – Works (esp. the minor poems; Areopagitica; Paradise Lost; Samson Agonistes)
  64. Molière – Comedies (esp. The Miser; The School for Wives; The Misanthrope; The Doctor in Spite of Himself; Tartuffe; The Tradesman Turned Gentleman; The Imaginary Invalid; The Affected Ladies)
  65. Blaise PascalThe Provincial Letters; Pensées; Scientific Treatises
  66. BoyleThe Sceptical Chymist
  67. Christiaan HuygensTreatise on Light
  68. Benedict de SpinozaPolitical Treatises; Ethics
  69. John LockeA Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  70. Jean Baptiste Racine – Tragedies (esp. Andromache; Phaedra; Athalie (Athaliah))
  71. Isaac NewtonMathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Opticks
  72. Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizDiscourse on Metaphysics; New Essays on Human Understanding; Monadology
  73. Daniel DefoeRobinson Crusoe; Moll Flanders
  74. Jonathan SwiftThe Battle of the Books; A Tale of a Tub; A Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
  75. William CongreveThe Way of the World
  76. George BerkeleyA New Theory of Vision; A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  77. Alexander PopeAn Essay on Criticism; The Rape of the Lock; An Essay on Man
  78. Charles de Secondat, baron de MontesquieuPersian Letters; The Spirit of the Laws
  79. VoltaireLetters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
  80. Henry FieldingJoseph Andrews; Tom Jones
  81. Samuel JohnsonThe Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; Lives of the Poets
  82. David HumeA Treatise of Human Nature; Essays Moral and Political; An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; History of England
  83. Jean-Jacques RousseauDiscourse on Inequality; On Political Economy; Emile; The Social Contract; Confessions
  84. Laurence SterneTristram Shandy; A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy
  85. Adam SmithThe Theory of Moral Sentiments; The Wealth of Nations
  86. William BlackstoneCommentaries on the Laws of England
  87. Immanuel KantCritique of Pure Reason; Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals; Critique of Practical Reason; Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics; The Science of Right; Critique of Judgment; Perpetual Peace
  88. Edward GibbonThe History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Autobiography
  89. James BoswellJournal; The Life of Samuel Johnson
  90. Antoine Laurent LavoisierTraité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elements of Chemistry)
  91. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James MadisonFederalist Papers (together with the Articles of Confederation; United States Constitution and United States Declaration of Independence)
  92. Jeremy BenthamComment on the Commentaries; Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation; Theory of Fictions
  93. Johann Wolfgang von GoetheFaust; Poetry and Truth
  94. Thomas Robert MalthusAn Essay on the Principle of Population
  95. John DaltonA New System of Chemical Philosophy
  96. Jean Baptiste Joseph FourierAnalytical Theory of Heat
  97. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HegelThe Phenomenology of Spirit; Science of Logic; Elements of the Philosophy of Right; Lectures on the Philosophy of History
  98. William Wordsworth – Poems (esp. Lyrical Ballads; Lucy poems; sonnets; The Prelude)
  99. Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Poems (esp. Kubla Khan; The Rime of the Ancient Mariner ); Biographia Literaria
  100. David RicardoOn the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
  101. Jane AustenPride and Prejudice; Emma
  102. Carl von ClausewitzOn War
  103. StendhalThe Red and the Black; The Charterhouse of Parma; On Love
  104. François GuizotHistory of Civilization in France
  105. Lord ByronDon Juan
  106. Arthur SchopenhauerStudies in Pessimism
  107. Michael FaradayThe Chemical History of a Candle; Experimental Researches in Electricity
  108. Nikolai LobachevskyGeometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels
  109. Charles LyellPrinciples of Geology
  110. Auguste ComteThe Positive Philosophy
  111. Honoré de Balzac – Works (esp. Le Père Goriot; Le Cousin Pons; Eugénie Grandet; Cousin Bette; César Birotteau)
  112. Ralph Waldo EmersonRepresentative Men; Essays; Journal
  113. Nathaniel HawthorneThe Scarlet Letter
  114. Alexis de TocquevilleDemocracy in America
  115. John Stuart MillA System of Logic; Principles of Political Economy; On Liberty; Considerations on Representative Government; Utilitarianism; The Subjection of Women; Autobiography
  116. Charles DarwinOn the Origin of Species; The Descent of Man; Autobiography
  117. William Makepeace Thackeray – Works (esp. Vanity Fair; The History of Henry Esmond; The Virginians; Pendennis)
  118. Charles Dickens – Works (esp. Pickwick Papers; Our Mutual Friend; David Copperfield; Dombey and Son; Oliver Twist; A Tale of Two Cities; Hard Times)
  119. Claude BernardIntroduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine
  120. George BooleThe Laws of Thought
  121. Henry David ThoreauCivil Disobedience; Walden
  122. Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsDas Kapital (Capital); The Communist Manifesto
  123. George EliotAdam Bede; Middlemarch
  124. Herman MelvilleTypee; Moby-Dick; Billy Budd
  125. Fyodor DostoyevskyCrime and Punishment; The Idiot; The Brothers Karamazov
  126. Gustave FlaubertMadame Bovary; Three Stories
  127. Henry Thomas BuckleA History of Civilization in England
  128. Francis GaltonInquiries into Human Faculties and Its Development
  129. Bernhard RiemannThe Hypotheses of Geometry
  130. Henrik Ibsen – Plays (esp. Peer Gynt; Brand; Hedda Gabler; Emperor and Galilean; A Doll's House; The Wild Duck; The Master Builder)
  131. Leo TolstoyWar and Peace; Anna Karenina; "What Is Art?"; Twenty-Three Tales
  132. Richard DedekindTheory of Numbers
  133. Wilhelm WundtPhysiological Psychology; Outline of Psychology
  134. Mark TwainThe Innocents Abroad; Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; The Mysterious Stranger
  135. Henry AdamsHistory of the United States; Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres; The Education of Henry Adams; Degradation of Democratic Dogma
  136. Charles PeirceChance, Love, and Logic; Collected Papers
  137. William SumnerFolkways
  138. Oliver Wendell HolmesThe Common Law; Collected Legal Papers
  139. William JamesThe Principles of Psychology; The Varieties of Religious Experience; Pragmatism; A Pluralistic Universe; Essays in Radical Empiricism
  140. Henry JamesThe American; The Ambassadors
  141. Friedrich Wilhelm NietzscheThus Spoke Zarathustra; Beyond Good and Evil; On the Genealogy of Morality; The Will to Power; Twilight of the Idols; The Antichrist
  142. Georg CantorTransfinite Numbers
  143. Jules Henri PoincaréScience and Hypothesis; Science and Method; The Foundations of Science
  144. Sigmund FreudThe Interpretation of Dreams; Three Essays to the Theory of Sex; Introduction to Psychoanalysis; Beyond the Pleasure Principle; Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents; New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis
  145. George Bernard Shaw – Plays and Prefaces
  146. Max PlanckOrigin and Development of the Quantum Theory; Where Is Science Going?; Scientific Autobiography
  147. Henri BergsonTime and Free Will; Matter and Memory; Creative Evolution; The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
  148. John DeweyHow We Think; Democracy and Education; Experience and Nature; The Quest for Certainty; Logic – The Theory of Inquiry
  149. Alfred North WhiteheadA Treatise on Universal Algebra; An Introduction to Mathematics; Science and the Modern World; Process and Reality; The Aims of Education and Other Essays; Adventures of Ideas
  150. George SantayanaThe Life of Reason; Scepticism and Animal Faith; The Realms of Being (which discusses the Realms of Essence, Matter and Truth); Persons and Places
  151. Vladimir LeninImperialism; The State and Revolution
  152. Marcel ProustIn Search of Lost Time (formerly translated as Remembrance of Things Past)
  153. Bertrand RussellPrinciples of Mathematics; The Problems of Philosophy; Principia Mathematica; The Analysis of Mind; An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth; Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits
  154. Thomas MannThe Magic Mountain; Joseph and His Brothers
  155. Albert EinsteinThe Theory of Relativity; Sidelights on Relativity; The Meaning of Relativity; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; The Evolution of Physics
  156. James Joyce"The Dead" in Dubliners; A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Ulysses
  157. Jacques MaritainArt and Scholasticism; The Degrees of Knowledge; Freedom and the Modern World; A Preface to Metaphysics; The Rights of Man and Natural Law; True Humanism
  158. Franz KafkaThe Trial; The Castle
  159. Arnold J. ToynbeeA Study of History; Civilization on Trial
  160. Jean-Paul SartreNausea; No Exit; Being and Nothingness
  161. Aleksandr SolzhenitsynThe First Circle; Cancer Ward

The original edition of How to Read a Book contained a separate "contemporary list" because "Here one's judgment must be tentative"[48] All but the following authors were incorporated into the single list of the revised edition:

  1. Ivan PavlovConditioned Reflexes
  2. Thorstein VeblenThe Theory of the Leisure Class; The Higher Learning in America; The Place of Science in Modern Civilization; Vested Interests and the State of Industrial Arts; Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times
  3. Franz BoasThe Mind of Primitive Man; Anthropology and Modern Life
  4. Leon TrotskyThe History of the Russian Revolution

Television[edit]

In 1954 Mortimer Adler hosted a live weekly television series in San Francisco, comprising 52 half-hour programs entitled The Great Ideas. These programs were produced by the Institute for Philosophical Research and were carried as a public service by the American Broadcasting Company, presented by National Educational Television (NET), the precursor to what is now PBS. Adler bequeathed these films to the Center for the Study of the Great Ideas, where they are available for purchase. Video Purchase Site

In 1993 and 1994, The Learning Channel created a series of one hour programs discussing many of the great books of history and their impact on the world. It was narrated by Donald Sutherland and Morgan Freeman, amongst others.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Reading List | Torrey Honors Institute, Biola University". 
  2. ^ Teeter, Robert. "Bloom. Western Canon". 
  3. ^ a b Adler, Mortimer J. "Selecting Works for the 1990 Edition of the Great Books of the Western World". Retrieved 2014-11-06. 
  4. ^ Adler, "Second Look", pg 142
  5. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Reading Lists". John-uebersax.com. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  6. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (An honest heart, a knowing head; Paris, August 19, 1785). In: Merril D. Peterson (ed.), Thomas Jefferson Works, 1984. (pp. 814 – 818)
  7. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (The homage to Reason; Paris, August 10, 1787). In: Merril D. Peterson (ed.), Thomas Jefferson Works, 1984. (pp. 900 – 906).
  8. ^ "radicalacademy.com". radicalacademy.com. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  9. ^ Hook, Sidney (1946). "A Critical Appraisal of the St. John's College Curriculum". Education for Modern Man. New York, NY: The Dial Press. Reprinted with some minor changes from The New Leader, May 26 and June 4, 1944 
  10. ^ a b c "The Beginnings of the Great Books Movement at Columbia". Columbia Magazine. Winter 2001. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  11. ^ "An Oasis of Order: The Core Curriculum at Columbia College:Faculty Profiles:John Erskine". Columbia College. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  12. ^ "St. John’s College | Academic Program | The Reading List". Stjohnscollege.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  13. ^ Casement, William. "College Great Books Programs". The Association for Core Texts and Courses (ACTC). Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Baylor University || Great Texts". Baylor.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  15. ^ "About « Torrey Honors Institute « Biola University". Biola.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  16. ^ "index". Ecu.edu. 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  17. ^ "The Honors Program « Franciscan University". Franciscan.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  18. ^ "Gutenberg College Great Books". Gutenberg.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  19. ^ "Curriculum - Harrison Middleton University". Hmu.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  20. ^ "Honors College". Hbu.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  21. ^ "Mercer Great Books". Departments.mercer.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  22. ^ "Honors Program | Palm Beach Atlantic University". Pba.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  23. ^ "Great Books". Seaver.pepperdine.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  24. ^ "The Integral Program". St. Mary's College. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  25. ^ [1][dead link]
  26. ^ "St. John’s College". Stjohnscollege.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  27. ^ The Newman Guide, "The College of Saint Mary Magdalen", accessed 9-19-2013
  28. ^ "Templeton Honors College and Eastern University". Eastern University. Retrieved 2014-11-06. 
  29. ^ "The Great Books | Thomas Aquinas College". Thomasaquinas.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  30. ^ "The Thomas More College Curriculum". Thomasmorecollege.edu. 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  31. ^ "The College Core Curriculum". University of Chicago. Retrieved 2014-08-10. 
  32. ^ "Association for Core Texts and Courses & The ACTC Liberal Arts Institute » College Great Books Programs". Coretexts.org. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  33. ^ "St. Ignatius Institute – University of San Francisco (USF)". Usfca.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  34. ^ "Program of Liberal Studies". University of Notre Dame. 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-06. 
  35. ^ "Thomas Jefferson Center for the Study of Core Texts and Ideas". Utexas.edu. 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  36. ^ "Academics » The Great Books". Wyoming Catholic College. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  37. ^ "Great Books". St Thomas University. 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-06. 
  38. ^ "Foundation Year Programme | University of King’s College". Ukings.ca. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  39. ^ "Bachelor of Humanities - The College of the Humanities". .carleton.ca. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  40. ^ "Welcome - Liberal Arts College - Concordia University - Montreal, Quebec, Canada". Liberalartscollege.concordia.ca. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  41. ^ "Arts One Program". ubc.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  42. ^ "UCP - Instituto de Estudos Políticos". Iep.lisboa.ucp.pt. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  43. ^ "A Great Books College". Shalem College. Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  44. ^ John Searle, "The Storm Over the University," The New York Review of Books, December 6, 1990
  45. ^ Sabrina Walters (2001-07-01). "Great Books won Adler fame, scorn". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  46. ^ Peter Temes (2001-07-03). "Death of a Great Reader and Philosopher". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2007-11-04. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  47. ^ Great Books – The Foundation of a Liberal Education, New York – Simon & Schuster, 1954.
  48. ^ How to Read a Book, 1940, p. 375

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]