HAL Dhruv

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Dhruv
Indian air force dhruv helicopter j4042 arp.jpg
Dhruv helicopter of the Indian Air Force Sarang Helicopter Display Team in 2008.
Role Multirole helicopter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
First flight 20 August 1992[1]
Introduction March 2002[2]
Status In service
Primary users Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Indian Navy
Ecuadorian Air Force
Produced 1992-present
Number built 150+ through October 2013[3]
Unit cost
approx. INR400 million (US$6.6 million)[4]
Developed into HAL Light Combat Helicopter
HAL Rudra

The HAL Dhruv (Sanskrit: ध्रुव, "Polaris") is a utility helicopter developed and manufactured by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Dhruv was first announced in November 1984. The ALH was designed with assistance from MBB in Germany. The Dhruv first flew in 1992; but development was prolonged due to multiple factors: the Indian Army's requirement alterations, budget restrictions, and sanctions placed on India following the 1998 Pokhran-II Indian nuclear testing.

The Dhruv entered into service in 2002. Dhruv is designed to meet the requirement of both military and civil operators. It is being supplied to the Indian Armed Forces along with a variant for civilian/commercial use. The helicopter was first exported to Nepal and Israel.[5] It is on order by several other countries for both military and commercial uses.

Military versions in production are for transport, utility, reconnaissance and medical evacuation roles. Based on the Dhruv platform, the HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) attack helicopter, and HAL Light Observation Helicopter (LOH) a utility and observation helicopter are being developed. As of August 2013, more than 140 HAL Dhruv have been produced for different customers.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

Dhruv production line at HAL, Bangalore

The Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) for an indigenous 5-ton multirole helicopter was initiated in May 1979 by the Indian Air Force and Navy.[6] HAL were given a contract by the Indian government in 1984 to develop the helicopter;[6][7] Germany's Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) were contracted in July 1984 as a design consultant and collaborative partner on the programme.[8][9] Although originally scheduled to fly in 1989, the first prototype ALH (Z-3182) made its maiden flight on 20 August 1992 at Bangalore with then-Indian Vice President K. R. Narayanan in attendance.[10] This was followed by a second prototype (Z-3183) on 18 April 1993, an Army/Air Force version (Z-3268) and a navalised prototype (IN.901) with Allied Signal CTS800 engines and a retractable tricycle undercarriage.[11] Development problems arose due to changing military demands and a funding shortfall in the wake of the 1991 India economic crisis.[6]

Naval testing on board the INS Viraat and other ships started in March 1998, and around the same time a weight-reduction programme was initiated.[12] However, further delays in development were caused when sanctions upon India were implemented following several Indian nuclear tests in 1998 and the continued refusal to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the intended engine for the helicopter, the LHTEC T800, was embargoed.[12][13] The Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turboshaft engine was selected as a replacement; in addition Turbomeca agreed to develop a more powerful engine with HAL, originally known as the Ardiden.[14] Turbomeca also assisted in the development of the helicopter, stress analysis and studies of rotor dynamics were conducted in France.[15] The first flight of a Dhruv with the new engine, renamed the Shakti, took place on 16 August 2007.[16][17]

Further development[edit]

The HAL Rudra, earlier known as Dhruv-WSI (Weapons Systems Integrated), is an attack variant for the Indian Army.[18] Development was sanctioned in December 1998,[19] the prototype first flew on 16 August 2007; it is to be armed with both anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles, and a 20-mm turret-mounted cannon.[20] The Dhruv-WSI is to be capable of conducting combat air support (CAS) and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) roles as well.[21] In addition to the Dhruv-WSI, HAL is also developing the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) based on the Dhruv for the Indian Armed Forces. It is fitted with stub wings for carrying up to eight anti-armour missiles, four air-to-air missiles, or four pods loaded with either 70mm or 68mm rockets. The LCH will also have FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared), a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, and a target acquisition system with laser rangefinder and thermal vision.[22]

A Dhruv of the Indian Army

In 2005, following a crash landing of a Dhruv, the entire fleet was grounded when it was discovered to have been caused by excessive vibration in the area of the tail rotor. Following a redesign of the tail rotor, which incorporated new materials in addition to changes in design methodology, the Dhruv undertook recertification and returned to service shortly after March 2006.[23][24] In April 2007, a report published by the Indian Committee of Defence noted the Dhruv as one of four "focus areas" identified as having high export potential.[25] In January 2011, HAL and partner Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) announced that they were jointly developing the Dhruv to operate as an unmanned maritime helicopter, stating customer interest in such a feature.[26]

The first five production Dhruv Mk III, powered by the more powerful Shakti engine, were delivered to the Leh-based 205 Aviation Squadron on 7 February 2011 during a ceremony at HAL's Helicopter Division.[27] In July 2011, India's Directorate General of Civil Aviation certified a Dhruv simulator developed by HAL and Canadian developer CAE Inc; the simulator is easily modifiable to simulate different variants of the Dhruv and other helicopters such as the Eurocopter Dauphin.[28] India’s Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL) has been developing an oxygen life-support system to improve helicopter's high-altitude performance, as of August 2010 the IAF has ordered development of this system for the Dhruv.[29]

In February 2012, HAL reported that the Indian Army had ordered a further 159 Dhruvs.[30]

Design[edit]

Indian Army Dhruv at ILA 2008

The HAL Dhruv is of conventional design; about 29 percent of its empty weight (constituting 60 percent of the airframe's surface area) is composite materials.[31] It has been reported that the unique carbon fibre composite developed by HAL reduced the helicopter's weight by 50%.[32] The high tail boom allows easy access to the rear doors. The twin 1000 shp Turbomeca TM333-2B turboshafts are mounted above the cabin and drive a four-blade composite main rotor. The main rotor can be manually folded; the blades are mounted between carbon-fibre-reinforced plates, the rotor head is constructed from fibre elastomers.[8] In February 2004, US helicopter company Lord Corporation were awarded a contract to develop an active vibration control system (AVCS), which monitors onboard conditions and cancels out fuselage vibrations.[33]

The cockpit section of the fuselage is of Kevlar and carbon-fibre construction; it is also fitted with crumple zones and crashworthy seats. The aircraft is equipped with a SFIM Inc four-axis automatic flight control system. Avionics systems include a HF/UHF communications radio, IFF recognition, Doppler navigation, and a radio altimeter; a weather radar and the Omega navigation system were options for the naval variant.[34] IAI has also developed targeting systems and an electronic warfare suite for the Dhruv, as well as avionics for day-and-night flight observation.[26] HAL's claim that the Dhruv is indigenous has been challenged by Comptroller and Auditor General of India, who reported that as of August 2010 the helicopter was: "...against the envisaged indigenisation level of 50% (by 2008), 90% of the value of material used in each ALH is still imported from foreign suppliers".[35]

In September 2010, it was reported that the Dhruv's Integrated Dynamic System (IDS), which combines several key rotor control functions into a single module carrying the engine's power to the rotors,[8] was suffering from excessive wearing and was necessitating frequent replacement; as a consequence the cruising speed had been restricted to 250 km/h and high-altitude performance was lessened as well.[36] HAL contracted Italian aerospace firm Avio for consultancy purposes, Avio replicated production of the IDS in Italy in order to isolate the problem; the early testing of the Dhruv has been criticised as "rushed".[36] In June 2011 HAL has reported that the issue was now resolved and not present in the Dhruv Mk III, a number of alterations both to the design and production had been made to improve the IDS; a programme of retrofitting the Mk I and Mk II was also completed by June 2011.[37]

The ALH Mk-III with Shakti engines has very good high altitude performance operating at altitudes over 6 km. It comes with seating for 14 fully equipped troops. DGCA has praised its crashworthy design as a few accidents have not caused any fatalities.[38]

Operational history[edit]

Indian service[edit]

Deliveries of the Dhruv commenced in January 2002, nine years after the prototype's first flight, and nearly eighteen years after the program was initiated.[11] The Indian Coast Guard was the first service to operate the Dhruv; this was followed by the Indian Army, Indian Navy, Indian Air Force and the Border Security Force. 75 Dhruvs were delivered to the Indian armed forces by 2007, as of 2008 it is planned to produce 40 helicopters annually.[39] The Indian Air Force's Sarang aerobatic display team performs using 4 Dhruv helicopters.[40] In 2007, a further order for 166 helicopters was placed by the Indian Army.[41][42] India may order up to 12 ambulance variant Dhruvs, outfitted with an onboard emergence medical suite, to be used by the Armed Forces Medical Services for MEDEVAC purposes.[43]

The Dhruv is capable of flying at high altitudes, it was an Army requirement to operate in the Siachen Glacier and Kashmir region. In September 2007, the Dhruv Mk.3 was cleared for high-altitude flying in the Siachen Sector after six months of trials.[44][45] In October 2007, a Dhruv Mk.3 flew to an altitude of 27,500 feet (8,400 m) ASL in Siachen.[46] An Indian Army report in 2009 criticised the Dhruv's performance, stating: "The ALH was not able to fly above 5,000m, though the army's requirements stipulated an ability to fly up to 6,500m"; this has been blamed on the TM333 engine, the Army had to continue relying on the older Cheetah/Cheetal helicopters to meet the shortfall.[47] The more powerful Shakti engine has since been introduced on the Dhruv Mk.3; on one test it carried 600 kg load to Sonam Post against the Army's target of 200 kg.[48] The Indian Army received the first batch of Dhruv Mk.3s during Aero India 2011.[49]

In October 2008, Defence Minister A. K. Antony announced that the Indian Navy will deploy the Dhruv in the utility role. The proposed anti-submarine warfare (ASW) variant had been deemed unsuited by the Navy, who was reportedly dissatisfied with the folding blade performance and maintenance record.[50][51] The Navy has considered the Dhruv for maritime surveillance and search and rescue roles;[52] in 2008 a senior Navy official said: "The ALH has a long way to go before the programme matures sufficiently for it to undertake basic naval roles such as search and rescue (SAR) and communication duties."[53] In 2013, the Indian Navy was reporedly interest in the HAL Rudra, the armed version of the Dhruv.[54][54]On 12 November 2013, the Indian Navy commissioned their first Dhruv squadron (INAS 322, Guardians); Vice Admiral Sinha stated that "In the Navy, Dhruv helicopters had transformed into an advanced search and rescue (SAR) helicopter, which is also used for missions like heliborne operations, and armed patrol with night vision devices".[55]

IAF Sarang display team uses modified Dhruvs

Civil Dhruv variants are produced for transport, rescue, policing, offshore operations, air-ambulance, and other roles.[56] The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) placed an order for 12 Dhruv helicopters, to feature a full medical suite, including ventilators and two stretchers.[57] In 2008, it was announced that India's Home Ministry had ordered six Dhruvs.[58] The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation are to use the Dhruv for offshore operations. Several Indian state governments are to use Dhruvs for police and transportation duties.[43] In March 2011, India's Directorate General of Civil Aviation released a proposed airworthiness directive asking all civilian Dhruv operators to temporarily ground their aircraft due to cracks potentially forming in the tail area, and recommended reinforcing affected areas.[59][60]

Following the 2011 Sikkim earthquake, four Dhruvs conducted rescue operations.[61] In October 2011, Jharkhand's regional government appealed for Mil Mi-17 helicopters as operations of their Dhruvs had been disrupted by prolonged maintenance delays and a major crash.[62][63] In October 2011, The Telegraph reported that a spate of helicopter crashes, including the Dhruv, were alleged caused by low quality maintenance work performed by Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd.[64] In February 2012, the Home Ministry reported that the Dhruv remained grounded and that other helicopters such as the Mi-17 were being wet-leased in its place; in the long term, the Dhruv fleet is to be replaced.[65]

Six Army Dhruvs along with 18 Air Force Dhruvs were used during rescue operations after the 2013 North India floods. Their compact size, agility, the ability to carry up to 16 people to heights of 10,000 feet and evacuate stranded people from inaccessible regions was praised.[66][67][68] It could carry more people from high-altitude helipads than the heavier Mi-17, and land where the lighter Bell 407 could not. Total flight time during Operation Rahat and Operation Surya Hope was 630 hours, of which 550 hours were dedicated to SAR missions.[66][69]

In January 2014, the Geological Survey of India (GSI) inducted a Dhruv equipped with a heliborne geophysical survey system (HGSS). Costing INR63 crore (US$10 million), the HGSS can conduct magnetic, spectrometric and gravity surveys.[70][71][72]

Foreign sales[edit]

Overview[edit]

The Dhruv has become the first major Indian weapons system to have secured large foreign sales. In 2004 HAL stated that it hoped to sell 120 Dhruvs over the next eight years,[73] and has been displaying the Dhruv at airshows, including Farnborough and Paris in order to market the Dhruv.[74] HAL has entered into a partnership with Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) to develop and promote the Dhruv, IAI has also helped develop new avionics and a glass cockpit for newer variants of the Dhruv.[75]

With a unit price at least 15% less than its rivals, Dhruv has elicited interest in many countries, mostly from Latin America, Africa, West Asia, South East Asia and the Pacific Rim nations. Air forces from around 35 countries have sent in their inquiries, along with requests for demonstrations.[4] Flight certification for Europe and North America has also been planned in order to tap the large civilian market there.[76]

South America[edit]

Dhruv helicopters of the Ecuadorian Air Force

HAL also secured an order from the Ecuadorian Air Force (EAF) for 7 Dhruvs. HAL won the order amidst strong competition from Elbit, Eurocopter and Kazan. HAL's offer of US$50.7 million for seven helicopters was about 32% lower than the second lowest bid from Elbit.[77] 5 helicopters were delivered in February 2009, during Aero India 2009.[78] Both the Ecuadorian Army and Ecuadorian Navy have since expressed interest in the Dhruvs.[79] The Dhruv has been involved in search and rescue, transport, and MEDIVAC missions in the north of the country.[80]

Following the crash of one of the Dhruvs in October 2009, Ecuador reportedly considered returning their six helicopters to HAL amid claims of being unfit for service;[81] EAF commander Rodrigo Bohorquez stated "If it is a major problem that can't be easily remedied, we would have to return [the Dhruv]." HAL assisted the crash investigation, which found the cause to be pilot error.[82] In February 2011, the EAF were reported satisfied with the Dhruv's performance and considering further orders.[83] In July 2011, reports stemming from the Associated Press of Pakistan emerged that Ecuador had experienced significant issues with the Dhruv's maintenance, such as a "poor after sales service, expensive spares and... over-invoicing";[84][85][86] the authenticity of these reports has been challenged by HAL and the EAF.[87]

The Dhruv participated in a Chilean tender for eight to ten twin-engined helicopters, conducting a series of evaluation flights to demonstrate the capabilities of its avionics and flight performance; however it lost out to the Bell 412,[88][89] there were media accusations of unfair pressure being exercised by the US Government to favour Bell.[4][90]

In June 2008, the government of Peru ordered two air ambulance Dhruvs for use by the Peruvian health services.[91] HAL has reportedly been negotiating with Bolivia for five Dhruvs; and with Venezuela for up to seven.[92]

Others[edit]

Dhruv civil variant

A civilian Dhruv was leased to the Israeli Defense Ministry in 2004; IAI has also made use of the Defense Ministry's Dhruv for marketing and public relations purposes.[93][94] Indian diplomats unsuccessful encouraged Israel to purchase the Dhruv.[32] In July 2006, Air Force Commander of India Shashindra Pal Tyagi commented that India would purchase as many as 80 Mi-17 helicopters if Russia in turn bought Dhruv helicopters in exchange.[95]

In early 2004, the first foreign order for the Dhruv was placed by Nepal for two Dhruvs.[96] In August 2008, a deal was reportedly finalised with Turkey for three Dhruvs for US$20 million; Turkey plans to buy as many as 17 helicopters in medical assistance role.[92][97] The Dhruv has also been offered to Malaysia,[98] Indonesia is also evaluating Dhruv for the Indonesian Army.[99]

In 2007, Amnesty International stated it possessed evidence that India planned to transfer two Dhruvs to Burma, and pointed to the use of European-sourced components as a possible violation of the European Union (EU) Arms Embargo of Burma.[100][101][102] The Indian government disputed Amnesty's claims and denied any wrongdoing.[103]

In April 2010, the Indian Navy gifted a Dhruv to the Maldives National Defence Force for conducting search and rescue and medical evacuation,[104] a second Mk.III equipped with a weather radar was donated in December 2013. The first helicopter is based at Addu Atoll and the second will be based at Hanimaadhoo.[105]

Variants[edit]

Military variants[edit]

Mk.1
The initial configuration with a conventional cockpit with mechanical gauges and Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turboshaft engines. A total of 56 delivered to the Indian military.[106] Manufacturing began in 2001.[107]
Mk.2
Similar to the Mk.1, except has the newer HAL-IAI glass cockpit. A total of 20 delivered to the Indian military.[106] Manufacturing began in 2007.[107]
Mk.3
An improved version equipped with Shakti engines, new electronic warfare (EW) suite and warning systems, automatic chaff and flare dispensers, and improved vibration control system.[108] The first batch were inducted into service in 2012.[109]
HAL Rudra
Also known as Dhruv-WSI (Weapons System Integrated)

Civil variants[edit]

Dhruv (C)
Also known as ALH-Civil, a Turbomeca TM333-2B2-powered 12-seat helicopter, type certificate issued on 31 October 2003.[110]
Dhurv (CFW)
A Turbomeca TM333-2B2-powered 12-seat helicopter fitted with wheels, type certificate issued on 20 April 2005.[110]
Dhurv (CS)
A Turbomeca TM333-2B2-powered 12-seat helicopter fitted with skids, type certificate issued on 30 July 2004.[110]
Garuda Vasudha
A Dhruv outfitted with a heliborne geophysical survey system (HGSS).[70]

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

Operators of HAL Dhruv in 2009
A Dhruv, in Sarang display markings, at Aero India 2011
Two Sarang Dhruvs performing close flight manoeuvres
 India
 Israel
   Nepal
 Ecuador
 Suriname
 Mauritius
 Maldives

Civil operators[edit]

HAL Dhruv air ambulance in Bangalore, India
 India
 Turkey
  • Turkish health services - operates 3[97]
 Peru
  • Peruvian health services - 2 on order.[91]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • In November 2005, a Dhruv crash-landed in Andhra Pradesh, causing the entire fleet to be grounded; the subsequent probe found a fault with the helicopter's tail rotor blades, which has since been corrected.[23][24]
  • On 2 February 2007, during rehearsals prior to Aero India, a HAL Dhruv of the Sarang helicopter display team of the Indian Air Force crashed, killing co-pilot Squadron Leader Priye Sharma and wounding the pilot Wing Commander Vikas Jetley.[121] After being in a coma for almost four years, Vikas Jetley died in January 2011.[122] The helicopter team continued to perform in the air show.[123]
  • In October 2009, an Ecuadorian Air Force Dhruv flew into terrain while attempting formation flight with two other helicopters near Quito. The remaining six aircraft were grounded during the investigation, which later concluded pilot error to be the cause.[124]
  • In February 2010, an Indian Air Force Dhruv was forced to make a crash landing after suffering a loss of power while rehearsing for the "Vayu Shakti" air power show; both pilots survived.[23]
  • On 21 April 2011, four army personnel were killed when a Dhruv crashed in north Sikkim. Initial reports appeared to point to weather as the cause, but a court of inquiry was established to ascertain the exact cause.[125]
  • On 19 October 2011, an Indian Border Security Force (BSF) Dhruv crashed in north-east India, resulting in the deaths of the three crew on board. Immediately following the crash, the remaining five Dhruvs of the CRPF were grounded.[126]
  • On 15 January 2012, a BSF Dhruv crashed onto the runway at Raipur airport during a test flight, there were no deaths but all five of the crew onboard were injured.[127]
  • On 22 February 2014, an Ecuadorian Air Force Dhruv often used as a presidential transport crashed in the region of Chimborazo. The pilot Capt. Fabian Pazos Narvaez survived, but three military officials died. The incident is under investigation.[128][129]
  • On 25 July 2014, a Indian Air Force Dhruv crashed near Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh, India. All 7 on board were killed. The incident happened around 5pm after the chopper lost the link with both the Bakshi-Ka-Talab (BKT) Air Traffic Control (ATC) as well as the one in Lucknow airport. The chopper was tracked from ATC of air force station in Delhi until evening when suddenly the link with the aircraft was lost. A Mayday call from the pilots appeared to highlight a mechanical failure as the cause. The IAF has ordered a court of inquiry to establish the cause of the crash.[130]

Specifications (Dhruv)[edit]

Data from Indian Army,[1] Crawford,[131] HAL[132]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2 pilots
  • Capacity: 12 passengers (14 passengers with high density seating) or 4 stretchers.
  • Length: 15.87 m (52 ft 0.8 in)
  • Rotor diameter: 13.20 m (43 ft 3.7 in)
  • Height: 4.98 m (16 ft 4.06 in)
  • Disc area: 137 m² (1,472 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 2,502 kg (5,515 lb)
  • Useful load: 2,600 kg (5,731 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 5,500 kg (12,125 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Shakti turboshafts, 1,000 kW each (1,400 shp[133])
    Alternate engine: 2 x Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turboshaft, 746 kW (1,000 shp) each

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b "Equipment: Dhruv". Indian Army. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  2. ^ Jane's All the World 's Aircraft (95th year of issue 2004-2005. ed.). Coulsdon: Janes Information Group. 2004. ISBN 0710626142. 
  3. ^ [1] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, October 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Siddiqui, Huma (15 July 2008). "HAL on a Dhruv ride in LatAm". The Financial Express. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  5. ^ Shukla, Ajai (9 February 2009). "HAL to hand over first export Dhruvs". Business Standard. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c Hirschberg 2011, p. 49.
  7. ^ Datta 2008, p. 12.
  8. ^ a b c Jackson 2003, p. 185.
  9. ^ Khan 2004, p. 248.
  10. ^ Kahn 2004, pp. 248–249.
  11. ^ a b Jackson 2003, p. 184.
  12. ^ a b "HAL Dhruv (India), Aircraft – Rotary-wing – Civil/military". Jane's. 13 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "Dhruv on wings at Paris". Business Line. 5 July 2005. 
  14. ^ "Aero India – HAL to target maritime contract". Flight International. 15 February 2005. 
  15. ^ Standing Committee of Defence 2007, p. 24.
  16. ^ "Dhruvs with Shakti engine and weapons make maiden flight". HAL. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  17. ^ Sharma, Ravi (19 July 2007). "Shakti-powered ALH to fly on August 1". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  18. ^ "Army to soon get indigenous weaponised chopper Advanced Light Helicopter 'Rudra'". The Times of India. 5 September 2011. 
  19. ^ Standing Committee of Defence 2007, p. 45.
  20. ^ "Weaponised version of Dhruv makes maiden flight". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 17 August 2007. 
  21. ^ Standing Committee of Defence 2007, pp. 24–25.
  22. ^ "Indigenous combat copter takes to skies". The Times of India. 24 May 2010. 
  23. ^ a b c "IAF's Dhruv helicopter crash-lands in Jaisalmer". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 27 February 2010. 
  24. ^ a b "Dhruv to resume service soon". Outlook India. 10 March 2006. 
  25. ^ Standing Committee of Defence 2007, p. 71.
  26. ^ a b Egozi, Arie (6 January 2011). "IAI to help India develop unmanned Dhruv". Flight International. 
  27. ^ Shukla, Ajai (7 March 2011). "In Siachen, Dhruv proves a world-beater". Business Standard. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  28. ^ Waldron, Greg (12 July 2011). "India certifies first Dhruv simulator". Flight International. 
  29. ^ Kristnan M., Anantha (13 August 2010). "India Develops Oxygen System for High-Altitude Helo Flights". Aviation Week. 
  30. ^ "HAL making 159 Dhruvs for Indian Army". Business Standard. 1 February 2012. 
  31. ^ Taylor 1998, p. 298.
  32. ^ a b Datta 2008, p. 14.
  33. ^ "Lord wins Dhruv active vibration control deal". Flight International (3–9 February 2004): p. 27. 
  34. ^ "Equipment: Dhruv". Indian Army. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  35. ^ "Indigenous? Dhruv advanced light helicopters are '90% foreign'". The Times of India. 6 August 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Shukla, Ajai, "Indian Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter gets Italian makeover ", Business Standard, 12 September 2010.
  37. ^ "Hindustan Aeronautics sees spike in light combat helicopter orders". The India Times. 1 June 2011. 
  38. ^ "Lessons learnt from ALH Project". Aero India. 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.  alternate copy.
  39. ^ "Peru, Ecuador Place Orders for HAL Dhruv ALH Helicopters". India Defence. 29 June 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  40. ^ "Dhruv helicopter display in Farnborough Air Show". The Economic Times. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  41. ^ Shukla, Ajai (9 September 2008). "Light Combat Helicopter to fly soon: India's New Helicopters: Part II". Business Standard. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  42. ^ "HAL’s Dhruv gets CCS approval". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 23 December 2007. 
  43. ^ a b Mishra, Bibhu Ranjan; Bose, Praveen (17 August 2007). "HAL likely to get Rs420 crore order for air ambulances". Business Standard. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  44. ^ "Dhruv helicopter set to fly in Siachen", NDTV, 3 September 2007
  45. ^ "Dhruv clears trials to fly high in Siachen", The Times of India, 20 February 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  46. ^ "Bangalore ALH pilots fly high", The Times of India, 8 October 2007.
  47. ^ Rao, Radhakrishna (15 July 2009). "Indian report slams performance of HAL's Dhruv helicopter". Flight International. 
  48. ^ Shukla, Ajai (7 March 2011). "In Siachen, Dhruv proves a world-beater". Business Standard. 
  49. ^ Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), India
  50. ^ Govindasamy, Siva (13 November 2007). "Indian navy opens up utility helicopter requirement". Flight International. 
  51. ^ "Navy has not rejected Dhruv: Defence Minister". Zeenews.com. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  52. ^ Sakhuja 2011, p. 106.
  53. ^ "Navy plans to ditch Dhruv helicopters". Hindustan Times. 12 June 2008. 
  54. ^ a b Navy keen on weaponised Dhruv
  55. ^ ALH squadron adds to Navy's fire power
  56. ^ "Our Products". Helicopter Division Bangalore. HAL. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  57. ^ "NDMA to get 12 ALHs". Deccan Herald. 20 January 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  58. ^ a b Pubby, Manu (10 August 2008). "India bags $20 mn helicopter contract". The Indian Express. 
  59. ^ "Proposed Airworthiness Directive". Directorate General of Civil Aviation. 22 March 2011. 
  60. ^ Kristnan M., Anantha (24 March 2011). "India DGCA wants all Dhruv Civil Variants Inspected". Aviation Week. 
  61. ^ "Earthquake in Sikkim: Over 5,000 troops, 9 choppers dispatched to quake-hit areas". The Economic Times. 19 September 2011. 
  62. ^ Gupta, Amit (22 October 2011). "State copter out of action, pilots idle – On 9-month upkeep break". Calcutta, India: Telegraph India. 
  63. ^ "SOS to Centre for MI-17s". Calcutta, India: Indian Telegraph. 19 October 2011. 
  64. ^ Dholabhai, Nishit (20 October 2011). "Glare on chopper operator – Pawan Hans-run copters involved in six accidents this year". Calcutta, India: Indian Telegraph. 
  65. ^ "MHA plans to buy, wet-lease choppers as Dhruv fleet grounded". Hindustan Times. 1 February 2012. 
  66. ^ a b "Happy hours in HAL over Dhruv’s Char Dham Op". The New Indian Express. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  67. ^ Kumar, Vinay (20 June 2013). "Dhruv helicopters fly high in Uttarakhand". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  68. ^ "How brave, tireless pilots fought to give Uttarakhand a sheltering sky". NDTV. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  69. ^ Dutta, Sujan; Dholabhai, Nishit (14 July 2013). "Dhruv delivers but doubters persist Copter comes good in hills". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  70. ^ a b "Advanced light helicopter 'Garuda Vasudha' dedicated to nation". Business Standard. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  71. ^ "Garuda Vasudha to detect deep-seated mineral deposits in the country". Deccan Herald. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  72. ^ a b "HAL copter to add teeth to GSI mineral search". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  73. ^ Unnithan, Sandeep (14 February 2004). "Getting A Boost". India Today. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  74. ^ Singh, Jangveer (17 June 2005). "Dhruv, IJT attract buyers in Paris". The Tribune. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  75. ^ Singh 2008, p. 536.
  76. ^ "DRDO looks beyond HAL for Tejas production". Business Standard. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  77. ^ "HAL Bags Order from Ecuador". Pib.nic.in. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  78. ^ "HAL to hand over first export Dhruvs". Business Standard. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  79. ^ "Ecuador Place Orders for HAL Dhruv ALH Helicopters". Indian Defence. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  80. ^ "La FAE defiende a los helicópteros Dhruv". Elcomercio.com. 29 July 2011. 
  81. ^ "Ecuador to return 6 Indian Dhruv choppers". OneIndia News. 30 October 2009. 
  82. ^ "Probe finds pilot error caused Dhruv crash in Ecuador". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 15 December 2009. 
  83. ^ "HAL plans treat for Aero India". Business Standard. 4 February 2011. 
  84. ^ "India’s ‘Dhruv’ Helicopter falls under the Scanner as Ecuador Expresses Dissatisfaction". DefenceNow. 29 July 2011. 
  85. ^ Moss, Trefor (5 August 2011). "Pakistani Schadenfreude". The Diplomat. 
  86. ^ "Indian Dhruv helicopters dismally fail in Ecuador". Associated Press of Pakistan. 27 July 2011. 
  87. ^ "La FAE defiende a los helicópteros Dhruv". El Comercio. 19 July 2011. 
  88. ^ "Chile inks contract with Bell for 412". Dallas Business Journal. 12 December 2007. 
  89. ^ "Indian Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopters Demonstrated to Chilean Air Force, Army, and Naval Aviation units". Israel Aerospace Industries. 25 July 2004. 
  90. ^ "US pressure robs chopper order from Hindustan Aeronautics". The India Times. 4 May 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  91. ^ a b Bose, Praveen and Ravi Menon (24 June 2008). "HAL secures copter order from Peru". Business Standard. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  92. ^ a b "HAL in negotiations with S American countries". Business Standard. 16 July 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  93. ^ O'Sullivan, Arieh (26 May 2005). "Defense Ministry leases Indian-made chopper to ferry VIPs". The Jerusalem Post. 
  94. ^ Sinha, Rakesha (18 December 2004). "Dhruv to spread wings in Israel fleet this January". The Indian Express. 
  95. ^ Gritskova, Alexandra (11 July 2006). "Military Cooperation, Russian MI-17 to Land in India". Kommersant. 
  96. ^ India to sell 2 Advanced Light Helicopters to Nepal. Islamic Republic News Agency, 11 February 2004.
  97. ^ a b Pubby, Manu. "India bags $20 mn helicopter contract". The Indian Express. (online edition). 10 August 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
  98. ^ "HAL hopes to see Dhruv copters on Malaysian shopping list". Business Line. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  99. ^ "HAL aircraft to fly in Ecuador skies". Sify.com. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  100. ^ "'Threat' to EU-Burma embargo", BBC News, 16 July 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  101. ^ "Indian helicopters for Myanmar: making a mockery of the EU arms embargo?". Amnesty International, 16 July 2007.
  102. ^ Letter to the President of the EU Council of Ministers
  103. ^ Taipei Times, p. 5, 17 July 2007. Quote: A government source who asked not to be named, denied any wrongdoing and said India "does not attach much credence to reports by Amnesty International. India does give defense hardware support to Myanmar but the equipment is not offensive … and not top of the line technology," said the source, asserting that Myanmar was helping in the battle against insurgents in India's northeast. Another Indian official, who also spoke on condition of anonymity, said that the technology concerned was for communications only and not for offensive operations.
  104. ^ "HAL Dhru to Maldives". airforcenews.ru. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  105. ^ a b Anandan, S. (15 December 2013). "India donates second naval Advanced Light Helicopter to Maldives". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  106. ^ a b Hirschberg 2011, p. 50.
  107. ^ a b "Dhruv - Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)". IDP Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2013-06-15. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  108. ^ "HAL To Deliver More Dhruv Mk. 3 Helicopters". Aviation week. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  109. ^ "Dhruv MkIII Inducted Into Indian Air Force". DefenceNow. 9 February 2012. 
  110. ^ a b c DGCA Type Certificate Data Sheet No, 5-8/96-RD
  111. ^ "Dhruv MkIII Inducted Into Indian Air Force". defencenow.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  112. ^ "HAL to hand over 2 Rudra helicopters to Indian Army during Aero India 2013". asian-defence-news. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  113. ^ "BSF gets Rs360 crore for raising 29 new battalions". Livemint.com. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  114. ^ "Indian Naval Aviation - Part 2". acig.org. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  115. ^ a b "Indian report slams performance of HAL's Dhruv helicopter". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  116. ^ K. Gopinathan."HAL to supply 7 Dhruv helicopters to Ecuador". The Hindu, 27 June 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
  117. ^ "India ready to deliver three copters to Suriname army". Stabroek News. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  118. ^ "Mauritius Police’s new Dhruv arrives from India". helihub.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  119. ^ a b "HAL dhruv gets ccs approval". Chennai, India: hindu.com. 23 December 2007. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  120. ^ "HAL delivers Dhruv to Jharkhand". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 3 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  121. ^ "Before show, showpiece crashes". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). 3 February 2007. 
  122. ^ "Sarang loses it soul, four years after crash". DNA Syndication. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  123. ^ "Sarang Incident". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 3 February 2007. 
  124. ^ "Pilot at fault for Dhruv crash in Ecuador: Probe". The Times of India. 16 December 2009. 
  125. ^ "Wreckage of Dhruv, bodies of 4 personnel found". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 22 March 2011. 
  126. ^ Lal, Manohar (21 October 2011). "After crash, CRPF grounds Dhruv copters". The Times of India. 
  127. ^ "5 hurt as BSF chopper "Dhruv" crashes at Raipur airport". United News India. 15 January 2012. 
  128. ^ http://zeenews.india.com/news/world/presidential-helicopter-crashes-in-ecuador-three-dead_913208.html
  129. ^ "3 Die in helicopter crash in Ecuador". Fox News. 21 February 2014. 
  130. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/IAF-helicopter-crashes-in-Uttar-Pradesh-7-dead/articleshow/38996532.cms
  131. ^ Crawford 2003, p. 39.
  132. ^ http://www.hal-india.com/helicopter/products.asp
  133. ^ "Safran Group". Turbomeca. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  134. ^ http://www.indiastrategic.in/topstories1200_ALH_touches_20000_feet.htm
Bibliography

External links[edit]