Hematocrit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hematocrit
Diagnostics
Illu blood components.svg
Blood components
MeSH D006400
MedlinePlus 003646

The hematocrit (Ht or HCT, British English spelling haematocrit), also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally 45% for men and 40% for women.[1] It is considered an integral part of a person's complete blood count results, along with hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, and platelet count. Because the purpose of red blood cells is to transfer oxygen from the lungs to body tissues, a blood sample's hematocrit—the red blood cell volume percentage—can become a point of reference of its capability of delivering oxygen. Additionally, the measure of a subject's blood sample's hematocrit levels may expose possible diseases in the subject. Anemia refers to an abnormally low hematocrit, as opposed to polycythemia, which refers to an abnormally high hematocrit.[2] For a condition such as anemia that goes unnoticed, one way it can be diagnosed is by measuring the hematocrit levels in the blood.[3] Both are potentially life-threatening disorders.

Etymology[edit]

The term hematocrit comes from the Ancient Greek words haima (αἷμα, "blood") and kritēs (κριτής, "judge"). Together, hematocrit means "to separate." [4][5] It was coined by Magnus Blix at Uppsala in 1891 as haematokrit,[6][7][8] modeled after lactokrit, which was used in dairy farming.[citation needed]

Measurement methods[edit]

Packed cell volume diagram

The packed cell volume (PCV) can be determined by centrifuging heparinized blood in a capillary tube (also known as a microhematocrit tube) at 10,000 RPM for five minutes.[9] This separates the blood into layers. The volume of packed red blood cells divided by the total volume of the blood sample gives the PCV. Since a tube is used, this can be calculated by measuring the lengths of the layers.

With modern lab equipment, the hematocrit is calculated by an automated analyzer and not directly measured. It is determined by multiplying the red cell count by the mean cell volume. The hematocrit is slightly more accurate as the PCV includes small amounts of blood plasma trapped between the red cells. An estimated hematocrit as a percentage may be derived by tripling the hemoglobin concentration in g/dL and dropping the units.[10]

There have been cases in which the blood for testing was inadvertently drawn proximal to an intravenous line that was infusing packed red cells or fluids. In these situations, the hemoglobin level in the blood sample will not be the true level for the patient because the sample will contain a large amount of the infused material rather than what is diluted into the circulating whole blood. That is, if packed red cells are being supplied, the sample will contain a large amount of those cells and the hematocrit will be artificially very high. On the converse, if saline or other fluids are being supplied, the blood sample would be diluted and the hematocrit will be artificially low.[citation needed]

There are some risks and side effects that accompany the tests of hematocrit because blood is being extracted from subjects. Subjects may experience a more than normal amount of hemorrhaging, hematoma, fainting, and possibly infection.[11]

While known hematocrit levels are used in detecting conditions, it may fail at times due to hematocrit being the measure of concentration of red blood cells through volume in a blood sample. It does not account for the mass of the red blood cells, and thus the changes in mass can alter a hematocrit level or go undetected while affecting a subject's condition.[12]

Another way of measuring hematocrit levels has been through optical methods such as spectrophotometry has also been developed.[13] Through differential spectrophotometry, the differences in optical densities of a blood sample flowing through small-bore glass tubes at isobestic wavelengths for deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin and the product of the luminal diameter and hematocrit create a linear relationship that is used to measure hematocrit levels.[14]

Levels[edit]

Hematocrit, the volume percentage of red blood cells, can vary from the determining factors of the number of red blood cells. These factors can be from the age and sex of the subject.[15] Typically, a higher hematocrit level signifies the blood sample's ability to transport oxygen,[16] however could be an indicator of other health conditions. Thus, tests on hematocrit levels are often carried out in the process of diagnosis of such conditions.[11] Hematocrit tests may also be conducted prior to surgery.[4]

Hematocrit level changes have been tested to possibly signal hemorrhage.[17]

Hemoglobin level is related to hematocrit in that health conditions of subjects that accompany abnormal hematocrit levels are the same.[15]

It has been reported that there is possibly an "optimal hematocrit level" which is due to the role hematocrit levels play in oxygen transportation by blood. Optimal hematocrit levels have been studied through combinations of assays on blood sample's hematocrit itself, viscosity, and hemoglobin level.[16]

Elevated[edit]

Generally at both sea levels and high altitudes, hematocrit levels rise as children mature.[18]

A rise in hematocrit level could be a result of a fall in plasma levels.[2]

In cases of dengue fever, a high hematocrit is a danger sign of an increased risk of dengue shock syndrome. Hemoconcentration can be detected by an escalation of over 20% in hematocrit levels that will come before shock. For early detection of dengue hemorrhagic fever, it is suggested for hematocrit levels to be kept under observations at minimum every 24 hours, however for in the case of dengue shock syndrome or critical cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, every 3–4 hours.[19]

Polycythemia vera (PV), a myeloproliferative disorder in which the bone marrow produces excessive numbers of red cells, is associated with elevated hematocrit.[citation needed]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other pulmonary conditions associated with hypoxia may elicit an increased production of red blood cells. This increase is mediated by the increased levels of erythropoietin by the kidneys in response to hypoxia.[citation needed]

Professional athletes' hematocrit levels are measured as part of tests for blood doping or erythropoietin (EPO) use; the level of hematocrit in a blood sample is compared with the long-term level for that athlete (to allow for individual variations in hematocrit level), and against an absolute permitted maximum (which is based on maximum expected levels within the population, and the hematocrit level that causes increased risk of blood clots resulting in strokes or heart attacks).[citation needed]

Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use can also increase the amount of RBCs and, therefore, impact the hematocrit, in particular the compounds boldenone and oxymetholone.[citation needed]

Dehydration may also be a cause of a elevated hematocrit level.[11]

Capillary leak syndrome also leads to abnormally high hematocrit counts, because of the episodic leakage of plasma out of the circulatory system.[citation needed]

Sleep apnea has been known to cause elevated hematocrit levels.[citation needed]

Hematocrit levels also have reported to be influenced by social factors that influence subjects. In the 1966-80 Health Examination Survey, there was a small rise in mean hematocrit levels in female and male adolescents that reflected a rise in annual family income. Additionally, a higher education in a parent has been put into account for a rise in mean hematocrit levels of the child.[20]

Lowered[edit]

The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the red cell distribution width (RDW) can be quite helpful in evaluating a lower-than-normal hematocrit, because they can help the clinician determine whether blood loss is chronic or acute, although acute blood loss typically does not manifest as a change in hematocrit, since hematocrit is simply a measure of how much of the blood volume is made up of red blood cells. The MCV is the size of the red cells and the RDW is a relative measure of the variation in size of the red cell population. A low hematocrit with a low MCV with a high RDW suggests a chronic iron-deficient anemia resulting in abnormal hemoglobin synthesis during erythropoiesis. One unit of packed red blood cells will elevate the hematocrit by about 3%.[citation needed]

Decreased hematocrit levels could indicate life-threatening diseases such as leukemia.[21] When the bone marrow no longer produces normal red blood cells, hematocrit levels deviate from normal as well and thus can possibly be used in detecting acute myeloid leukemia.[22] It can also be related to other conditions, such as malnutrition, water intoxication, anemia, and bleeding.[11]

Pregnant women often have additional fluid in blood and thus may also experience a small drop in hematocrit levels.[23]

At higher altitudes, there is a lower oxygen supply in the air and thus hematocrit levels may decrease.[24]

A low hematocrit level is a sign of a low red blood cell count. One way to increase the ability of oxygen transport in red blood cells is through blood transfusion, which is carried out typically when the red blood cell count is low. Prior to the blood transfusion, hematocrit levels are measured to help ensure the transfusion is necessary and safe.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Purves, William K.; Sadava, David; Orians, Gordon H.; Heller, H. Craig (2004). Life: The Science of Biology (7th ed.). Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. p. 954. ISBN 0-7167-9856-5. 
  2. ^ a b http://bme240.eng.uci.edu/students/06s/lbenson/page1.html[full citation needed]
  3. ^ http://bme240.eng.uci.edu/students/06s/lbenson/index.html[full citation needed]
  4. ^ a b http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=167&ContentID=hematocrit[full citation needed]
  5. ^ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hematocrit[full citation needed]
  6. ^ Blix, M.; Hedin, S. G. (1891). "Der Haematokrit" [The Haematokrit]. Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie (in German) 30 (1): 652–4. doi:10.1007/BF01592182. 
  7. ^ Hedin SG. "The Haematokrit: a New Apparatus for the Investigation of Blood". Skandinavisches Archiv für Physiologie 2: 134–140,1891. 
  8. ^ Medicine and the Reign of Technology, Stanley Joel Reiser, Cambridge University Press, February 27, 1981, p. 133
  9. ^ "Hematocrit". Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers. 
  10. ^ "Hematocrit (HCT) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV)". 
  11. ^ a b c d http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003646.htm[full citation needed]
  12. ^ Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, Volume 1. Front Cover. John P. Greer. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
  13. ^ http://www.google.com/patents/US6606509[full citation needed]
  14. ^ Lipowsky, Herbert H.; Usami, Shunichi; Chien, Shu; Pittman, Roland N. (1982). "Hematocrit determination in small bore tubes by differential spectrophotometry". Microvascular Research 24 (1): 42–55. doi:10.1016/0026-2862(82)90041-3. PMID 7121311. 
  15. ^ a b http://www.drkaslow.com/html/blood_cell_counts.html[full citation needed]
  16. ^ a b Birchard, Geoffrey F. (1997). "Optimal Hematocrit: Theory, Regulation and Implications". Integrative and Comparative Biology 37: 65–72. doi:10.1093/icb/37.1.65. JSTOR 3883938. 
  17. ^ Thorson, Chad M.; Ryan, Mark L.; Van Haren, Robert M.; Pereira, Reginald; Olloqui, Jeremy; Otero, Christian A.; Schulman, Carl I.; Livingstone, Alan S.; Proctor, Kenneth G. (2013). "Change in hematocrit during trauma assessment predicts bleeding even with ongoing fluid resuscitation". The American surgeon 79 (4): 398–406. PMID 23574851. 
  18. ^ Góñez, C; Donayre, M; Villena, A; Gonzales, G. F. (1993). "Hematocrit levels in children at sea level and at high altitude: Effect of adrenal androgens". Human biology 65 (1): 49–57. PMID 8436390. 
  19. ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215840-workup[full citation needed]
  20. ^ "Programs, Practices, People". Public Health Reports 90 (4): 376–83. 1975. PMC 1437747. 
  21. ^ http://udel.edu/~kschieff/leukemiadiagnosis.html#References
  22. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adultAML/Patient/page1#_3[full citation needed]
  23. ^ https://mychart.inova.org/mychart/krames/html/99,LTO-hematocrit.html[full citation needed]
  24. ^ Zubieta-Calleja, G. R.; Paulev, P. E.; Zubieta-Calleja, L; Zubieta-Castillo, G (2007). "Altitude adaptation through hematocrit changes". Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. 58 Suppl 5 (Pt 2): 811–8. PMID 18204195. 
  25. ^ http://web.squ.edu.om/med-Lib/MED_CD/E_CDs/anesthesia/site/content/v03/030784r00.HTM[full citation needed]

External links[edit]