Holkham shown within Norfolk
|Area||23.92 km2 (9.24 sq mi)|
|- Density||10 /km2 (26 /sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||East of England|
|EU Parliament||East of England|
Holkham is a village and civil parish in the north-west of the county of Norfolk, England. Besides the small village, the parish includes the major stately home and estate of Holkham Hall, and an attractive beach at Holkham Gap. The three lie at the centre of the Holkham National Nature Reserve.
The parish has an area of 23.92 km2 (9.24 sq mi) and in the 2001 census had a population of 236 in 104 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk.
The village of Holkham is located on the coast road (the A149) between Wells-next-the-Sea and Burnham Overy Staithe. At one time the village was a landing with access to the sea via a tidal creek to the harbour at Wells. The creek succumbed to land reclamation, much of which created the grounds of the estate, starting in 1639 and ending in 1859 when the harbour at Wells was edged with a sea wall. The land west of the wall was subsequently turned to agricultural uses. Aerial photographs show traces of the creek in the topsoil, and the lake to the west of the hall appears to be based on a remnant of it. Now the village serves principally as the main entrance to the hall and deer park, and to Lady Anne's Drive which leads to the beach. Among the houses of the village are several estate-owned businesses, including a hotel ('The Victoria') and art gallery.
Holkham Hall is one of the principal Palladian houses of England, built for an ancestor of Thomas William Coke, noted agricultural innovator and later 1st Earl of Leicester of Holkham. The hall is still the home of the current Earl and is surrounded by an attractive park, with a herd of fallow deer, a lake that was once a tidal creek, several monuments and drives, and its own church. Both hall and park are open to the public.
From the main coast road Lady Anne's Drive, a toll road owned by the Holkham estate, crosses the reclaimed salt marshes to Holkham Gap. This is a gap in pine-fringed sand dunes which form the outer coastline. From here, an uninterrupted sandy beach runs both ways to Wells and Burnham Overy Staithe. To the west of the gap is a nudist section of beach.
A Holkham railway station was located about halfway along Lady Ann's Drive (to the east). The railway line through to Holkham was built in 1864. The line made up part of the Great Eastern Railway network, which ran from Wells-next-the-Sea station, through Holkham and on to Burnham Market railway station. The line was closed in 1952.
Holkham Pines is the name of the large belt of pine trees which runs west to east inland from the beach; the eastern end is known as Wells Woods. Holkham Freshmarsh is the name which refers to the series of wet meadows which sit inland from the pine belt, and north of the A149. They are bisected by Lady Ann's Drive, which gives access to the woods and the beach. The marshes are important for their wintering population of pink-footed geese, and have been designated a National Nature Reserve.
The last of the ancient Celts to inhabit East Anglia were the tribe of the Iceni. They are believed responsible for the earthworks of the Roman Iron Age visible in the marsh. A Roman road runs along the west side of the estate. Their provincial capital under Roman occupation was Venta Icenorum near Norwich.
By about 600 the distribution of cruciform brooches, a diagnostic of Anglo-Jutish society, show that the culture had displaced the Celtic on the east coast of Britain, including coastal East Anglia. A similar displacement was true of Saxon culture in southeast Britain, diagnosed by saucer brooches. Two bands of Saxons protruded into East Anglia, one down the rivers that empty into The Wash and the other into the centre.
In the 7th century the Germanic kings of these regions were being converted to Christianity. The Anglisc or Englisc of East Anglia may already by that time have been divided into the "North Folk" and the "South Folk." In 654 the Christian king of East Anglia, Anna of East Anglia, was killed in battle against the last pagan king of Mercia. So great was his Christian affirmation that his four daughters renounced the world and became saints. Numerous lives of the saints relate that the youngest, Saint Withburga, was raised at Holkham before she entered the religious life elsewhere in East Anglia. This is the first reference to Holkham. The saint died in 743.
A church on the grounds of the estate, still used for worship, commemorates the saint. It dates to the 14th century, received additions in the 15th-16th centuries and was renovated in 1868. The church was built over an earlier Saxon structure. The existence of the saint is attested by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which for the year 798 records that the body of Wihtburg, sister of St. Aethelthryth, was found to be uncorrupted at Dereham 55 years after her death.
The Chronicle and the historian, Bede, do not state the name of Holkham. It does appear as that in the Domesday Book, 1086, which means that it must precede Middle English. The element -ham is clearly identifiable as Old English, "village, manor, home." The Holk- remains unidentified. A suggestion has been made that it comes from *hoelig, "holy", in honor of the saint, but it would not have been named that before she was one.
Later Middle Ages 
Medieval manuscripts concerning Holkham have been edited by William Hassall and Jacques Beauroy.
- Several parts of the 1976 film The Eagle Has Landed, starring Michael Caine, Donald Sutherland and Robert Duvall, were filmed on Holkham Beach and in the pinewoods.
- The final scenes of Shakespeare in Love (1998) were filmed on the beach.
- The music video for "Pure Shores", by All Saints, for the 2000 film The Beach, was filmed here.
- A number of beach scenes for the Avengers episode "The Town of No Return" (1965) were filmed at Holkham Gap.
- Parts of the ITV1 drama Kingdom, featuring comedian Stephen Fry, were filmed on Wells and Holkham Beaches.
- Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council (2001). "Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes". Retrieved 2005-12-02.
- "Multimap.com". Retrieved 2007-01-31.
- "The Victoria At Holkham - History". Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
- See also List of Closed Railway Stations, etc., below.
- See under External links below.
- Historical Atlas page 24.
- Historical Atlas Page 31.
- The question of the origin of Norfolk and Suffolk is like that of the origin of Holkham. The names appear with modern meanings in the Domesday Book but not in earlier sources, although some of the monastic records imply an early distinction. The etymology is not of much help as the segments from which the names are formed are exactly the same in either Old English or Old Norse: "north", "south", and "folk." There are advocates of an early, Anglo-Saxon view, and of a later, Old Norse view.
- The etymology is given under tkei in the American Heritage Dictionary.
- Stirling, page 14.
- Hassall, W.; Beauroy, J. (1993). Lordship and Landscape in Norfolk 1250-1350: The Early Records of Holkham. Oxford.
- Holkham Estate film location
- Falkus, Malcom; Gillingham, John (1987). Historical Atlas of Britain. Crescent Books. ISBN 0-517-63382-5.
- Stirling, Anna Maria Diana Wilhelmina Pickering (1908). Coke of Norfolk and his Friends. London, New York: John Lane, the Bodley Head. Available Google Books.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Holkham|
- Map sources for Holkham
- Information from Genuki Norfolk on Holkham.
- The Holkham Estate website
- DiCamillo companion guide - includes some good photos
- Holkham Camp Norfolk, roman-Britain.org
- North Norfolk History, article in the North Norfolk News.
- Place names based on a Scandinavian personal name element, Viking.no site