Hong Kong legislative election, 2012

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Hong Kong legislative election, 2012
Hong Kong
2008 ←
members
9 September 2012 (2012-09-09)
members elected
→ 2016

All 70 seats to the Legislative Council
  First party Second party Third party
  Tam Yau Chung.jpg Alan Leong Kah-kit.jpg Albert Ho Chun Yan.jpg
Leader Tam Yiu-chung Alan Leong Albert Ho
Party DAB Civic Democratic
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy Pro-democracy
Leader's seat New Territories West Kowloon East District Council (Second)
Last election 10 seats, 22.92% 5 seats, 13.66% 8 seats, 20.63%
Seats before 10 5 8
Seats won 13
(9 GCs + 4 FCs)
6
(5 GCs + 1 FC)
6
(4 GCs + 2 FCs)
Seat change Increase3 Increase1 Decrease 2
Popular vote 366,140 255,007 247,220
Percentage 20.22% 14.08% 13.65%
Swing Decrease2.70% Increase0.42% Decrease6.98%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Chan Yuen Han FTU 20070211 01.jpg Miriam Lau Kin Yee.jpg Lee Cheuk-yan 2012.jpg
Leader Chan Yuen-han Miriam Lau Lee Cheuk-yan
Party FTU Liberal Labour
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy
Leader's seat District Council (Second) Hong Kong Island
(lost)
New Territories West
Last election 4 seats, 5.70% 7 seats, 4.33% new
Seats before 4 3 3
Seats won 6
(3 GCs + 3 FCs)
5
(1 GC + 4 FCs)
4
(3 GCs + 1 FC)
Seat change Increase2 Increase2 Increase1
Popular vote 127,857 48,702 112,140
Percentage 7.06% 2.64% 6.19%
Swing Increase1.36% Decrease1.64% N/A

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  人民力量主席劉嘉鴻.jpg Leung Kwan-yuen Andrew.JPG Regina Ip at VP New Year Fair 2009.jpg
Leader Christopher Lau Andrew Leung,
Jeffrey Lam &
Lau Wong-fat
Regina Ip
Party People Power Economic Synergy NPP
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island
(lost)
Industrial (First),
Commercial (First)
& Heung Yee Kuk
Hong Kong Island
Last election new new new
Seats before 2 4 1
Seats won 3
(3 GCs + 0 FC)
3
(0 GC + 3 FCs)
2
(2 GCs + 0 FC)
Seat change Increase1 Decrease1 Increase1
Popular vote 176,250 5,717 68,097
Percentage 9.73% 0.32% 3.76%
Swing N/A N/A N/A

LegCoElection2012.svg

Elected candidates by each geographical constituency

President before election

Tsang Yok-sing
DAB

Elected President

Tsang Yok-sing
DAB

The 2012 Hong Kong Legislative Council Election was held on 9 September 2012 for the 5th Legislative Council (LegCo) since the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

The election was for the new total of 70 seats in LegCo, ten more than previously, with 35 members elected in geographical constituencies through direct elections, and 35 members in functional constituencies.[1] Under new arrangements agreed in a contentious LegCo vote in 2010, five District Council (Second) functional constituency seats each represent all 18 District Councils of Hong Kong voted for by all resident voters in Hong Kong (who did not have a vote in any other functional constituency).[2]

New structure of the Legislative Council[edit]

Geographical constituencies[edit]

Under the constitutional reform package passed in 2010, this election saw LegCo increase its total size from 60 seats to 70 seats, half of which are geographical constituencies (GCs) and half functional constituencies (FCs). The GC seats are returned by universal suffrage, with the Kowloon West constituency once again returning five seats, while the Hong Kong Island, Kowloon East, and New Territories West constituencies each gain one new seat and New Territories East, the second largest constituency, gaining two extra seats.[3] The election uses a system of party-list proportional representation, with seats allocated by the largest remainder method using the Hare quota as the quota for election.

Geographical constituencies No. of seats
2008 2012 Change
Hong Kong Island 6 7 +1
Kowloon West 5 5 ±0
Kowloon East 4 5 +1
New Territories West 8 9 +1
New Territories East 7 9 +2
Total 30 35 +5

Functional constituencies[edit]

While the electoral methods in the 30 'traditional' FC seats remain unchanged, the five new seats form a new constituency called the District Council (Second), for which candidates may be nominated by the District councillors and are elected by all registered voters who are not in any 'traditional' FC,[4] creating the largest constituency with a total of more than 3.2 million eligible electors.[5] The vote counting system used is the same as that in the GCs: the party-list proportional representation with the largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Eligibility[edit]

An electoral advertisement on a tram

Right to vote[edit]

As at 9 September 2012, a person has the right to vote in a Legislative Council election if he/she fulfils all of the below criteria :[6]

  • Hong Kong permanent resident (regardless of nationality),
  • ordinarily resides in Hong Kong,
  • holds a Hong Kong identity card or another identity document,
  • has registered to vote on or before 16 May 2012,
  • aged 18 or above on 25 July 2012,
  • not a member of any armed forces nor found to be incapable under the Mental Health Ordinance (Cap. 136), by reason of mental incapacity, of managing and administering his/her property and affairs.

Right to stand[edit]

To stand as a candidate in a geographical constituency, a person must fulfil all of the below criteria:[7]

  • a Hong Kong permanent resident with Chinese citizenship,
  • does not have any foreign citizenship nor the right of abode in any country outside China,
  • aged 21 or above on the date of nomination,
  • a registered voter on the date of nomination,
  • has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for the 3 years immediately preceding the date of nomination,
  • not a member of any national, regional or municipal legislature, assembly or council of any place outside Hong Kong, other than a people’s congress or people’s consultative body of the People’s Republic of China, whether established at the national or local level,
  • not a member of any armed forces nor found to be incapable under the Mental Health Ordinance (Cap. 136), by reason of mental incapacity, of managing and administering his/her property and affairs,
  • submits a nomination form to the returning officer on or before 31 July 2012.

Pre-election issues[edit]

New leadership under Leung Chun-ying[edit]

As Leung Chun-ying sworn in on 1 July, he sought a foothold in the Legislative Council against his defeated rival, Henry Tang.[8] The Tang supporter for the Financial Services functional constituency, Chim Pui-chung, decided to withdraw his nomination for reelection on 27 July, while Christopher Cheung Wah-fung, who voted for CY Leung and was also a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, decided to run in the constituency.[9]

Other Leung's supporters including Martin Liao Cheung-kong, Ng Leung-sing and Ma Fung-kwok also ran in other functional constituencies, replacing the original pro-Tang legislators Philip Wong, David Li and Timothy Fok.

On the day CY Leung assumed the Chief Executive, there were about 400,000 participants in the July 1 marches, the biggest anti-government rally in recent history.

Moral and National Education controversy[edit]

Moral and civic education was one of the four key tasks in the 2001 curriculum reform undertaken by the Education and Manpower Bureau (superseded by the Education Bureau in 2007), and its framework was revised by the Education Bureau in 2008. On 13 October 2010, Chief Executive Donald Tsang stated in the "Policy Address 2010-2011" that moral and national education would replace MCE in order to "strengthen national education". The government planned to introduce the new subject in primary schools in 2012 and secondary schools in 2013.

In July 2012, the "Civil Alliance Against the National Education" (民間反對國民教育科大聯盟) was formed. On 29 July 2012, 30 organisations protested in a march. According to the organisers, more than 90,000 protesters, including many parents with their children, participated in the march. [10]

Members of the student activist group Scholarism (學民思潮) began their occupation of the Hong Kong government headquarters on 30 August 2012. Fifty members occupied the public park beneath the government offices, of which three began a hunger strike. The goal of the protest was, expressly, to force the government to retract its plans to introduce Moral and National Education as a compulsory subject. The initial planned length of the occupation was three days.[11] On 3 September 2012 the Civil Alliance Against National Education announced that they would continue their occupation of the government headquarters indefinitely.[12] On 7 September, up to 120,000 people attended a demonstration outside the government headquarters; police said there were 36,000 attendees at 9:30 pm.[13][14][15]

Following opposition from the public, the government postponed the commencement of the subject by introducing a three-year trial run period, such that the schools were allowed to commence the latest in 2015.[16]

Overview of outcome[edit]

Leaflets of the Hong Kong Island candidates in a mailbox in Central.

The election was marked with the record of 287 candidates. 67 lists with a total of 216 candidates contested the 35 geographical constituencies, while 53 candidates contested in the traditional functional constituencies, in which 16 of them returned to LegCo uncontested.[17]

The largest pro-democracy party, the Democratic Party, suffered the largest defeat since its creation in 1994, while the radical democrats League of Social Democrats and the newly formed People Power doubled their votes. Despite the addition of five new geographical constituency seats, the pan-democrats won one seat fewer than in the 2008 poll; infighting within the camp was blamed.[18] Audrey Eu and Tanya Chan, the incumbent Civic Party legislators, placed second on the lists in Hong Kong Island and New Territories West both received over 70,000 votes, far more than other lists, but still were not reelected.[19] (see 2012 Hong Kong legislative election in Hong Kong Island and New Territories West)

The Beijing-loyalist Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong remained the largest party, winning 13 seats in total. All the lists in the geographical constituencies were elected as they split their candidates into several lists to avoid wasting votes under the largest remainder method.[20]

Due to the elections results, Albert Ho, the leader of the Democratic Party, resigned as the leader, citing failure to present a united front for the pan-democratic camp, failure to retain seats from the previous elections, and infighting between pro-democracy parties. Miriam Lau, the leader of the Liberal Party, also resigned as leader, citing her failure to win a seat in this election and a need for new leadership in the party.[21]

Nine of the 16 uncontested functional constituency seats went to the Liberal Party, Economic Synergy and nonpartisan Lam Tai-fai from the "Tang camp", who are mostly the business and commercial sectors.

Leung's supporters took several seats in the functional constituencies. Pro-Leung Lo Wai-kwok defeated incumbent Raymond Ho Chung-tai who nominated Henry Tang in the CE election and pro-democrat Albert Lai in the Engineering sector. In Tourism, Architectural, Surveying and Planning and Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication constituencies, Yiu Si-wing, Tony Tse Wai-chuen and Ma Fung-kwok were also elected. Leung's backers Ng Leung-sing and Martin Liao Cheung-kong won seats unopposed to the finance and commercial (second) functional constituencies respectively.

The acting president of the Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union Ip Kin-yuen and Civic Party Dennis Kwok retained their seats in the traditionally pro-democracy Education and Legal sectors. Cheung Kwok-che of the Labour Party and nonpartisan Joseph Lee Kok-long also secured their seats in the Social Welfare and Health Services constituencies. In addition, the pan democrats gained two more seats in Information Technology and Accountancy with newcomers Charles Mok and Kenneth Leung.

The pan-democrats won three out of five seats in the new District Council (Second) functional constituency with Albert Ho and James To from the Democratic Party and Frederick Fung from the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood. The Beijing loyalists could only won two seats with Chan Yuen-han of Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions and Starry Lee of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong each got one seat. Veteran Lau Kong-wah became the only DAB candidate who was placed first on a candidate list but lost in the election (see 2012 Hong Kong legislative election in District Council (Second)).

5th Legislative Council of Hong Kong seat composition by party.svg

Before election:

23 37
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing

Change in composition:

27 43
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing


e • d Summary of the 9 September 2012 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Political affiliation
Popular
votes
% of Votes
Change in
% of vote
Seats
Traditional
FCs
Popular
votes
% of
Votes
Seats
Total
seats
Net change
in seats
Geographical Constituencies District Council (Second) FC
Civic 255,007 14.08 +0.42 5 1 - - - 6 +1
Democratic 247,220 13.65 -6.98 4 - 545,308 34.26 2 6 -2
People Power 176,250 9.73 N/A 3 - - - - 3 +1
Labour 112,140 6.19 N/A 3 1 - - - 4 +1
LSD 87,997 4.86 -5.24 1 - - - - 1 0
NWSC 43,799 2.42 -0.38 1 - - - - 1 0
ADPL 30,634 1.69 -1.10 0 - 262,172 16.47 1 1 0
Neo Democrats 28,621 1.58 N/A 1 - - - - 1 +1
Democratic Alliance 2,896 0.16 N/A 0 - - - - 0 0
PTU - - - - 1 - - - 1 0
Independent democrats 33,988 1.87 - 0 3 - - - 3 -
Total for Pro-democrats 1,018,552 56.24 -3.26 18 6 807,480 50.73 3 27 +4
DAB[table 1] 366,140 20.22 -2.70 9 3 476,875 29.96 1 13 +3
FTU 127,857 7.06 +1.36 3 2 246,196 15.47 1 6 +2
NPP 68,097 3.76 N/A 2 - - - - 2 +1
Liberal 48,702 2.69 -1.64 1 4 - - - 5 +2
KWND 34,548 1.91 N/A 1 - - - - 1 0
Civil Force[table 1] [table 2] 23,988 1.32 N/A 0 - - - - 0 0
Third Force 16,767 0.93 N/A 0 - - - - 0 0
Economic Synergy 5,717 0.32 N/A 0 3 - - - 3 -1
FLU - - - - 1 - - - 1 0
New Forum[table 2] - - - - 1 - - - 1 +1
Pro-Beijing Independents 80,671 4.45 - 1 10 - - - 11 +2
Total for Pro-Beijing camp 772,487 42.66 +2.91 17 24 723,071 45.43 2 43 +6
Non-aligned others 19,945 1.10 - 0 0 61,321 3.85 0 0 -
Total 1,815,448 Turnout 52.25 35 30 1,591,872 Turnout 49.44 70 -
  1. ^ a b Note: the votes gained by Lau Kong-wah who represents both DAB and Civil Force banner is counted into DAB in this table.
  2. ^ a b Note: the votes gained by Scarlett Pong who represents both Civil Force and New Century Forum is counted into Civil Force in this table.

Election results by Geographical Constituency[edit]

Constituency Elected members
Hong Kong Island                  
Kowloon West                  
Kowloon East                  
New Territories West                  
New Territories West                  

Votes gained by each party by districts[edit]

District
DAB FTU NPP LP Others Pro-Beijing
Total
Civic DP PP Lab LSD Others Pan democrats
Total
Pro-Beijing camp Pro-democracy camp
Central and Western 22.75 9.06 9.06 5.60 0.57 44.18 21.85 13.80 4.96 9.39 0.85 4.75 55.60
Wan Chai 21.80 5.02 10.94 6.79 0.57 45.11 23.11 12.22 5.11 8.84 0.73 4.79 54.81
Eastern 20.78 9.38 8.66 5.40 1.24 45.46 21.26 11.19 5.85 9.79 1.05 5.82 54.42
Southern 21.14 8.63 9.64 4.41 0.50 44.32 20.21 13.60 5.91 9.32 0.93 5.60 55.57
Total for Hong Kong Island 21.29 8.26 9.16 5.35 0.90 44.96 21.31 12.26 5.64 9.53 0.96 5.21 54.91
Yau Tsim Mong 22.71 - - - 16.08 38.78 17.96 18.10 16.75 - - 7.89 60.69
Sham Shui Po 19.12 - - - 14.40 33.53 14.88 11.90 16.68 - - 22.68 66.12
Kowloon City 20.20 - - - 18.88 39.08 16.76 17.49 16.49 - - 9.89 60.63
Total for Kowloon West 20.41 - - - 16.50 36.91 16.34 15.52 16.62 - - 13.20 62.72
Wong Tai Sin 13.37 16.97 - - 11.59 41.92 14.06 17.52 12.91 - 9.96 2.51 56.97
Kwun Tong 19.04 12.42 - - 14.95 46.41 15.05 13.80 12.82 - 9.29 1.47 52.42
Total for Kowloon East 16.65 14.34 - - 13.54 44.52 14.63 15.37 12.86 - 9.57 1.91 54.33
Tsuen Wan 23.20 5.04 11.75 - 1.92 41.91 20.43 10.03 8.72 5.92 1.56 8.90 55.55
Tuen Mun 22.63 7.78 6.43 - 5.66 42.50 14.36 13.65 9.47 9.18 1.98 6.50 55.15
Yuen Long 25.84 5.87 7.40 - 8.35 47.45 12.43 8.87 9.31 10.10 2.05 7.05 49.81
Kwai Tsing 19.28 8.27 6.84 - 4.60 38.98 12.40 14.38 8.09 7.22 1.80 15.14 59.02
Islands 25.40 9.26 5.59 - 6.38 46.64 17.46 9.47 8.77 6.42 1.61 6.96 50.69
Total for New Territories West 22.83 7.07 7.58 - 5.53 43.01 14.48 11.77 8.90 8.22 1.86 9.36 54.58
North 26.13 5.87 - 8.22 4.02 44.24 4.58 17.21 8.82 8.36 11.17 4.86 55.00
Tai Po 21.10 5.07 - 6.56 7.39 40.11 7.20 12.58 9.19 9.32 10.62 10.37 59.27
Sai Kung 15.72 5.39 - 4.80 19.57 45.49 6.92 12.40 7.34 6.46 9.60 11.25 53.97
Sha Tin 16.54 5.02 - 7.23 11.86 40.64 8.08 15.92 8.01 9.54 10.46 6.46 58.47
Total for New Territories East 18.75 5.26 - 6.67 11.68 42.36 7.05 14.67 8.19 8.53 10.39 8.08 56.90
Total 20.22 7.06 3.76 2.69 8.93 42.66 14.08 13.65 9.73 6.19 4.86 7.90 56.24

Votes summary[edit]

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).
Popular vote
DAB
  
20.22%
Civic
  
14.08%
Democratic
  
13.65%
People Power
  
9.73%
FTU
  
7.06%
Labour
  
6.19%
LSD
  
4.86%
NPP
  
3.76%
Liberal
  
2.69%
NWSC
  
2.42%
New Dynamic
  
1.91%
ADPL
  
1.69%
Neo Democrats
  
1.58%
Civil Force
  
1.32%
Third Force
  
0.93%
Econ Synergy
  
0.32%
YTDA
  
0.16%
Independent
  
7.43%

Seats summary[edit]

Seat
DAB
  
18.57%
Civic
  
8.57%
Democratic
  
8.57%
FTU
  
8.57%
Liberal
  
7.14%
Labour
  
5.71%
People Power
  
4.29%
Econ Synergy
  
4.29%
NPP
  
2.86%
LSD
  
1.43%
NWSC
  
1.43%
New Dynamic
  
1.43%
ADPL
  
1.43%
Neo Democrats
  
1.43%
Independent
  
24.29%

Retiring incumbents[edit]

The election results were announced in the AsiaWorld-Expo.

Thirteen incumbents chose not to run for re-election. Paul Chan's Accountancy seat was vacant since 29 July 2012 and Chim Pui-chung withdrew his nomination on 27 July 2012.

Constituency Departing incumbents Party
Hong Kong Island Kam Nai-wai Democratic
Kowloon East Fred Li Wah-ming Democratic
New Territories West Cheung Hok-ming DAB
New Territories East Andrew Cheng Kar-foo Independent
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan DAB
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee Civic
Accountancy Paul Chan Mo-po Independent
Labour Li Fung-ying FLU
Commercial (Second) Philip Wong Yu-hong Nonpartisan
Finance David Li Kwok-po Nonpartisan
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Nonpartisan
Sports, Performing Arts,
Culture and Publication
Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Nonpartisan
Textiles and Garment Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun Economic Synergy

Incumbents defeated[edit]

Twelve incumbents lost re-election.

Party Name Constituency Remarks
Civic Tanya Chan Hong Kong Island placed second of the list
Audrey Eu Yuet-mee New Territories West placed second of the list; running for Hong Kong Island in the last election
DAB Lau Kong-wah District Council (Second) running for New Territories East in the last election
Democratic Cheung Man-kwong Kowloon West placed second of the list;
running for Education constituency in the last election
Lee Wing-tat New Territories West
Wong Sing-chi New Territories East
FTU Pan Pey-chyou Hong Kong Island placed second of the list; running for Labour constituency in the last election
Ip Wai-ming New Territories East running for Labour constituency in the last election
Liberal Miriam Lau Kin-yee Hong Kong Island running for Transport constituency in the last election
Professional Forum Raymond Ho Chung-tai Engineering
Patrick Lau Sau-shing Architectural, Surveying and Planning
Independent Samson Tam Wai-ho Information Technology

Candidates lists and results[edit]

Geographical Constituencies (35 seats)[edit]

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Results of the Geographical Constituencies
Hong Kong Island (香港島)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Nonpartisan Hui Ching-on 2,980 0.90
 
2 Democratic Sin Chung-kai Yeung Sum, Chai Man-hon, Cheng Lai-king, Leung Suk-ching, Hui Chi-fung 40,558 12.26
 
1
3 Independent Lo Wing-lok 16,900 5.11
 
4 People Power Christopher Lau Gar-hung, Shiu Yeuk-yuen, Jeff Au Yeung Ying-kit 18,667 5.64
 
5 DAB Christopher Chung Shu-kun Eddie Ting Kong-ho, Jennifer Chow Kit-bing, Kung Pak-cheung, Ngan Chun-lim, Kenny Lee Kwun-yee, Cheng Chi-sing 33,901 10.25
 
1
6 Independent Ng Wing-chun 422 0.13
 
7 Labour Cyd Ho Sau-lan Cheng Sze-lut, Chung Chung-fai 31,523 9.53
 
1
8 NPP Regina Ip Lau Suk-yee Wong Chor-fung, Tse Tsz-kei 30,289 9.16
 
1
9 FTU Wong Kwok-hing Pan Pey-chyou, Chu Ting-lok, Stanley Ho Ngai-kam, Chan Chi-hang 27,336 8.26
 
1
10 Civic Chan Ka-lok Tanya Chan 70,475 21.31
 
1
11 Nonpartisan Ho Kar-tai 343 0.10
 
12 DAB Jasper Tsang Yok-sing 36,517 11.04
 
1
13 Liberal Miriam Lau Kin-yee, Shiu Ka-fai, "Micheal" Lee Chun-keung 17,686 5.35
 
14 LSD Avery Ng Man-yuen 3,169 0.96
 
TOTAL (Quota: 47,252 votes, 14.29%) 330,766 100.0
 
7
Kowloon West (九龍西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Independent Wong Yee-him 3,746 1.61
 
2 Democratic "Helena" Wong Pik-wan Cheung Man-kwong, Li Yiu-kee, Yuen Hoi-man, "Michelle" Chong Miu-sheung 36,029 15.52
 
1
3 ADPL Tam Kwok-kiu, Liu Sing-lee, Rosanda Mok Ka-han,Wong Chi-yung, Austen Ng Po-shan 30,364 13.2
 
4 Independent democrat Wong Yat-yuk 2,399 1.03
 
5 DAB "Ann" Chiang Lai-wan Chris Ip Ngo-tung, Vincent Cheng Wing-shun, Chan Wai-ming, "Sam" Lam Sum-lim 47,363 20.41
 
1
6 People Power Wong Yuk-man Yim Tat-ming, Chau Tsun-kiu, Lau Tit-wai 38,578 16.62
 
1
7 Awakening Association Lam Yi-lai, Simon Ho Ka-kuen, Au Wing-ho, Lee Ka-wai 859 0.37
 
8 KWND Leung Mei-fun Yang Wing-kit, Wai Hoi-yinh, Leung Man-kwong 34,548 14.89
 
1
9 Civic Claudia Mo Man-ching Joe Wong Tak-chuen 37,925 16.34
 
1
TOTAL (Quota: 46,416 votes, 20.00%) 232,081 100.0
 
5
Kowloon East (九龍東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Civic Alan Leong Kah-kit Jeremy Jansen Tam Man-ho 41,669 14.63
 
1
2 FTU Wong Kwok-kin Kan Ming-tung, Mok Kin-wing, Ho Kai-ming 40,824 14.34
 
1
3 LSD Andrew To Kwan-hang 27,253 9.57
 
4 Nonpartisan Kay Yim Fung-chi, Chan Heung-yin 3,263 1.15
 
5 Democratic Wu Chi-wai Mok Kin-shing, Hon Ka-ming 43,764 15.37
 
1
6 DAB Chan Kam-lam Joe Lai Wing-ho, Hung Kam-in, Wilson Or Chong-shing 47,415 16.65
 
1
7 Independent Paul Tse Wai-chun 38,546 13.54
 
1
8 People Power Wong Yeung-tat, Chan Sau-wai 36,608 12.85
 
9 Independent Tam Heung-man 5,440 1.91
 
TOTAL (Quota: 56,956 votes, 20.00%) 284,782 100.0
 
5
New Territories West (新界西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 DAB Leung Che-cheung Tsang Hin-keung, Lui Kin, Christina Maisenne Lee, Wong Wai-ling, Chui Kwan-siu 33,777 6.79
 
1
2 FTU Alice Mak Mei-kuen "Michael" Luk Chung-hung, Manwell Chan, Kot Siu-yuen, Tang Cheuk-him 35,239 7.08
 
1
3 Democratic Josephine Chan Shu-ying, Zachary Wong Wai-yin, Li Hung-por, Catherine Wong Lai-sheung, Ho Hang-mui 25,892 5.20
 
4 People Power Albert Chan Wai-yip Jacqueline Chan So-ling, Raymond Lai, Tong Wing-chi 44,355 8.91
 
1
5 Democratic Alliance Mak Ip-sing 2,896 0.58
 
6 LSD Tsang Kin-shing 9,280 1.86
 
7 Civic Kwok Ka-ki Audrey Eu Yuet-mee 72,185 14.51
 
1
8 NPP Michael Tien Puk-sun Clarice Cheung Wai-ching, "Legward" Wong Cheuk-kin, Ho Kin-cheong 37,808 7.60
 
1
9 Nonpartisan "Junius" Ho Kwan-yiu 10,805 2.17
 
10 Independent Chan Yut-wah 11,997 2.41
 
11 NWSC Leung Yiu-chung Wong Yun-tat 42,799 8.60
 
1
12 DAB/NTAS Chan Han-pan Poon Chi-shing, Nixie Lam Lam, Chan Chun-chung, Law Kwan, Leung Kar-ming, Tsang Tai 36,555 7.35
 
1
13 Third Force Chan Keung, Ting Yin-wah, So Ka-man, Chow Ping-tim, Tang Ka-leung, Nancy Poon Siu-ping, Raju Gurung 16,767 3.37
 
14 Democratic Lee Wing-tat, Lam Lap-chi, Lai King-wai 32,792 6.59
 
15 Labour Lee Cheuk-yan Tam Chun-yin 40,967 8.23
 
1
16 DAB Tam Yiu-chung Lung Shui-hing, Yip Man-pan, Mo Shing-fung 43,496 8.74
 
1
TOTAL (Quota: 55,401 votes, 11.11%) 498,610 100.0
 
9
New Territories East (新界東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 LSD Leung Kwok-hung 48,295 10.39
 
1
2 FTU Ip Wai-ming, Wong Wang-to, Ching Ngon-lai, Kan Siu-kei, Kent Tsang King-chung, Cheung Kwok-wo 24,458 5.26
 
3 Democratic Emily Lau Wai-hing Ricky Or Yiu-lam, Frankie Lam Siu-ching, Lam Wing-yin 37,039 7.97
 
1
4 Independent Angel Leung On-kay 1,077 0.23
 
5 Civil Force/New Forum Scarlett Pong Oi-lan, Lanny Tam, Law Kwong-keung, Chan Kwok-tim, So Chun-man, Lam Chung-yan, Leung Ka-fai, Chan Man-kuen, Tang Wing-cheong 23,988 5.16
 
6 DAB Elizabeth Quat Chong Yuen-tung, Li Sai-wing, Philip Li Ka-leung, Tung Kin-lei, Ki Lai-mei, Wong Ping-fan 46,139 9.93
 
1
7 People Power/Frontier Ray Chan Chi-chuen Erica Yuen Mi-ming 38,042 8.19
 
1
8 Economic Synergy Yau Wing-kwong, Tong Po-chun, Chan Cho-leung, Pang Shu-wan, Lau Wai-lun, Shing Kwok-chu, Man Chen-fai, Tang Kwong-wing, Lok Shui-sang 5,717 1.23
 
9 DAB Chan Hak-kan Luk Kwok-fan, Wong Pik-kiu,Larm Wai-leung, Clement Woo Kin-man, Yiu Ming 40,997 8.82
 
1
10 Labour Cheung Chiu-hung Kwok Wing-kin 39,650 8.53
 
1
11 Democratic Richard Tsoi Yiu-cheong, Au Chun-wah, Mak Yun-pui, Kwong Mei-na 10,028 2.16
 
12 Neo Democrats Gary Fan Kwok-wai Yam Kai-bong, Leung Li, Leung Wing-hung, Kwan Wing-yip, Yau Man-chun, Cheung Kam-lun, Cheung Kwok-keung, Michael Yung Ming-chau 28,621 6.16
 
1
13 Liberal James Tien Pei-chun Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee, Leung Chi-wai, Liu Kwok-wah 31,016 6.67
 
1
14 Democratic Wong Sing-chi, Law Sai-yan 21,118 4.54
 
15 Civic Ronny Tong Ka-wah Alvin Yeung Ngok-kiu 32,753 7.05
 
1
16 Independent Raymond Ho Man-kit 2,875 0.62
 
17 Nonpartisan Pong Yat-ming 6,031 1.30
 
18 Independent Christine Fong Kwok-shan 24,594 5.29
 
19 Nonpartisan Chan Kwok-keung 2,327 0.50
 
TOTAL (Quota: 51,638 votes, 11.11%) 464,745 100.0
 
9

District Council (Second) Functional Constituency (5 seats)[edit]

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

District Council (Second) Functional Constituency (區議會(第二)功能組別)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
801 Democratic "Albert" Ho Chun-yan Kwong Chun-yu, Lam Siu-fai 228,840 14.38
 
1
802 Democratic James To Kun-sun Andrew Chiu Ka-yin, Au Nok-hin 316,468 19.88
 
1
803 Independent Pamela Peck Wan-kam 61,321 3.85
 
804 DAB/Civil Force Lau Kong-wah 199,732 12.55
 
805 ADPL Frederick Fung Kin-kee Hui Kam-shing 262,172 16.47
 
1
806 DAB Starry Lee Wai-king Hung Lin-cham, Chan Hok-fung, Chu Lap-wai, Ngan Man-yu 277,143 17.41
 
1
807 FTU Chan Yuen-han Dennis Leung Tsz-wing, Wong Yun-cheong 246,196 15.47
 
1
TOTAL (Quota: 318,374 votes, 20%) 1,591,872 100.0
 
5

Other Functional Constituencies (30 seats)[edit]

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[22]

Results of the Functional Constituencies (excluding District Council (Second))
Constituency Incumbent Result Candidate(s)
Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Lau Wong-fat (Economic Synergy)
uncontested
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan
(DAB)
Incumbent retired
DAB hold
Steven Ho Chun-yin (DAB) 85.37%
Chan Mei-tak 14.63%
Insurance Chan Kin-por Incumbent hold Chan Kin-por
uncontested
Transport Miriam Lau Kin-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for HKI GC
Liberal hold
Frankie Yick Chi-ming (Liberal)
uncontested
Education Cheung Man-kwong
(PTU/Democratic)
Incumbent ran for KLW GC
PTU hold
Ip Kin-yuen (PTU) 75.42%
Ho Hon-kuen 24.58%
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee
(Civic)
Incumbent retired
Civic hold
"Dennis" Kwok Wing-hang (Civic) 56.20%
Albert Wong Kwai-huen (Independent) 43.80%
Accountancy Vacant
Post last held by Paul Chan Mo-po
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Kenneth Leung Kai-cheong 46.76%
Nelson Lam Chi-yuen (Independent) 39.70%
Wong Wang-tai 8.11%
Peter Chan Po-fun 5.44%
Medical Leung Ka-lau Incumbent re-elected Leung Ka-lau 67.31%
Tse Hung-hing 32.69%
Health Services Joseph Lee Kok-long Incumbent re-elected Joseph Lee Kok-long (Independent) 76.01%
Alice Tso Shing-yuk 23.99%
Engineering Raymond Ho Chung-tai
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Lo Wai-kwok (Independent) 41.46%
Albert Lai Kwong-tak (Prof Commons/Civic) 28.79%
Raymond Ho Chung-tai 23.97%
Luk Wang-kwong 5.78%
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Patrick Lau Sau-shing
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Tony Tse Wai-chuen (Independent) 35.20%
Patrick Lau Sau-shing (Independent) 33.91%
Stanley Ng Wing-fai (Democratic) 30.89%
Labour (3 seats) Li Fung-ying (FLU) Incumbent retired
FLU hold
Poon Siu-ping (FLU)
uncontested
Ip Wai-ming (FTU) Incumbent ran for NTE GC
FTU hold
Kwok Wai-keung (FTU)
uncontested
Pan Pey-chyou (FTU) Incumbent ran for HKI GC
FTU hold
Tang Ka-piu (FTU)
uncontested
Social Welfare Cheung Kwok-che
(SWGU/Labour)
Incumbent re-elected Cheung Kwok-che (SWGU/Labour) 89.08%
Chan Yee-fei 10.92%
Real Estate and Construction "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent hold "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him (Independent)
uncontested
Tourism Paul Tse Wai-chun
(Independent)
Incumbent ran for KLE GC
Nonpartisan gain
Yiu Si-wing 56.48%
Freddy Yip Hing-ning 43.52%
Commercial (First) Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung (Economic Synergy)
uncontested
Commercial (Second) Philip Wong Yu-hong
(Business and Professional Alliance)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Martin Liao Cheung-kong
uncontested
Industrial (First) Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen (Economic Synergy)
uncontested
Industrial (Second) Lam Tai-fai Incumbent hold Lam Tai-fai
uncontested
Finance David Li Kwok-po Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Ng Leung-sing (Independent)
uncontested
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Christopher Cheung Wah-fung 44.83%
Vincent Marshall Lee Kwan-ho 43.53%
Frankie Yan Man-sing 5.39%
Tang Yu-lap 5.17%
Patrick Lam Tak-ming 1.08%
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Incumbent retired
New Forum gain
Ma Fung-kwok (New Forum) 65.37%
Chow Chun-fai 28.19%
"Jimmy" Siu See-kong 6.44%
Import and Export Wong Ting-kwong
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Wong Ting-kwong (DAB)
uncontested
Textiles and Garment Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent retired
Liberal gain
Chung Kwok-pan (Liberal) 56.07%
Henry Tan 43.93%
Wholesale and Retail Vincent Fang Kang
(Liberal)
Incumbent hold Vincent Fang Kang (Liberal)
uncontested
Information Technology Tam Wai-ho Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Charles Peter Mok (Independent) 57.82%
Tam Wai-ho (Independent) 42.18%
Catering Tommy Cheung Yu-yan
(Liberal)
Incumbent hold Tommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal)
uncontested
District Council (First) Ip Kwok-him
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Ip Kwok-him (DAB)
uncontested

Opinion polling[edit]

Seats gained by each party according to the opinion polling.

Poll source Sample size Date(s)
conducted
DAB DP Civ FTU Lib PP Lab LSD NPP Others Lead
Election result 1,815,448 9 Sep 9 4 5 3 1 3 3 1 2 4 1 seat over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 3,208 3–7 Sep 8 5 5 2 1 5 2 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,868 3–7 Sep 8 5 5 2 1 5 2 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,760 2–6 Sep 7 6 5 2 1 5 2 1 2 4 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,935 1–5 Sep 7 6 5 3 1 5 2 1 2 3 5 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,713 31 Aug–4 Sep 6 6 6 2 1 5 3 1 2 3 9 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,821 30 Aug–3 Sep 6 6 6 2 1 5 3 1 2 3 9 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,582 29 Aug–2 Sep 6 6 5 3 1 5 3 1 2 3 9 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,679 29 Aug–2 Sep 7 6 5 2 1 5 3 1 2 3 9 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,599 28 Aug–1 Sep 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 2 2 3 9 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,476 27–31 Aug 7 6 4 3 1 5 3 1 2 3 7 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,343 26–30 Aug 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 1 2 4 9 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,254 25–29 Aug 6 6 4 3 2 5 2 1 2 4 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 2,042 24–28 Aug 8 4 4 3 1 5 2 1 2 5 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,143 23–27 Aug 8 4 4 3 1 5 3 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,868 22–26 Aug 8 2 5 2 1 5 3 1 2 6 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,098 21–25 Aug 8 2 5 2 1 5 3 1 2 6 3 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,848 20–24 Aug 7 4 5 2 1 5 3 1 2 5 7 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,121 19–23 Aug 8 5 5 2 1 3 3 1 2 5 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,773 18–22 Aug 6 6 5 2 1 4 3 1 2 5 9 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,124 17–21 Aug 6 6 5 2 1 5 3 1 2 4 9 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,724 17–21 Aug 8 6 5 2 1 3 3 1 2 4 5 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,073 16–20 Aug 7 5 6 3 1 2 3 1 2 5 3 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,622 15–19 Aug 7 5 6 3 1 4 2 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,057 14–18 Aug 7 5 6 3 1 4 2 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,045 13–17 Aug 5 6 7 2 1 4 3 1 2 4 9 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,609 12–16 Aug 7 5 6 4 1 4 3 1 1 3 5 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,112 11–15 Aug 7 7 5 3 1 3 3 1 2 3 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,496 10–14 Aug 8 7 5 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 5 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,083 9–13 Aug 8 6 5 4 1 3 3 1 2 2 3 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,411 8–12 Aug 7 6 5 4 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 1,044 7–11 Aug 7 7 5 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,311 6–10 Aug 6 7 4 3 1 4 1 1 2 6 5 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP 939 5–9 Aug 6 5 6 4 2 2 1 1 2 6 1 seat over Pan-Dem
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,251 5–9 Aug 6 6 6 4 2 2 1 1 2 5 1 seat over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,211 4–8 Aug 6 6 5 4 1 3 2 1 3 4 3 seats over Pro-BJ
now TV/HKUPOP unknown 3–7 Aug 6 5 5 4 1 3 2 1 2 6 3 seats over Pro-BJ
Cable TV/HKUPOP 1,137 2–6 Aug 6 6 5 4 1 2 3 1 2 5 5 seats over Pro-BJ
Hong Kong Research Association 2,018 12–21 July 8 5 5 2 1 4 2 1 2 5 1 seat over Pro-BJ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hong Kong votes in key legislative elections". Al Jazeera English. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Maximiliano Herrera. "Electoral Calendar- world elections,US elections,presidential election,world parties". Mherrera.org. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  3. ^ "List of recommended geographical constituencies, Electoral Affairs Commission". Eac.gov.hk. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  4. ^ "Voter registration arrangements for District Council (second) functional constituency". Info.gov.hk. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  5. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". Voterregistration.gov.hk. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  6. ^ http://www.reo.gov.hk/pdf/reo1_form.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.eac.gov.hk/pdf/legco/2012lc/reo-n-gc-2012lc.pdf
  8. ^ "Beijing loyalists set LegCo poll fight". 2 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Backers of CY and Tang to get the lion's share". 10 September 2012. 
  10. ^ 9萬人上街反洗腦 BB車撞吳克儉落台, Apple Daily, 29 July 2012
  11. ^ "70多名學民思潮成員政總外紮營請願". 30 August 2012. 
  12. ^ 梁子健 (4 September 2012). "反國教大聯盟籌備罷課 香港特首回應:願對話 8000港人「鐵屋吶喊」". Sing Tao USA. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  13. ^ Shirley Zhao (8 September 2012), "Record-high turnout for anti-national education protests". Time Out
  14. ^ "團 體 稱 12 萬 人 集 會 反 國 教   警 方 稱 3 萬 6 千". RTHK. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  15. ^ "反國教集會大會宣布有十二萬人出席". Commercial Radio Hong Kong. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  16. ^ 教局跪低國民教育科推遲, The Sun, 27 January 2012
  17. ^ 287 validly nominated candidates for Legislative Council Election
  18. ^ "Pan democrats election setbacks blamed infighting". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  19. ^ "Civic Party defends election strategy despite two big losses". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  20. ^ "DAB fares best taking 13 seats thanks vote splitting tactic". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  21. ^ "TVB pearl newscast 10/9/2012". 
  22. ^ "2012 LegCo Election- Facts about the Election". Elections.gov.hk. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 

External links[edit]