Hydrogen station

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Hydrogen fueling nozzle

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept.[1] The stations are usually intended to power vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices.[2] Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers dispense the fuel by the kilogram.[3]

Costs[edit]

Hydrogen station pump

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, this does not begin to replace the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars in the United States alone according to Joseph Romm in 2004.[4] The cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fuelling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[5][6]

Hydrogen filling stations[edit]

  • In Germany as of September 2013 there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel station in operation.[7] Most but not all of these stations are operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[8] The stations nationwide are expanded to 50 by 2015 under a letter of intent[9][10] through its public private partnership Now GMBH.[11] program NIP[12] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euro.,[13] the H2 Mobility iniative wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2017 and to 400 stations in 2023 at a cost of €350 million Euro.[14]
  • Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[15] At the end of 2012 there where 17 hydrogen stations, 19 new stations are expected to be installed by 2015.,[16] the Government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of 460 million dollars covering 50% of the installation costs with the last ones operational in 2015.[17][18] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015.[19] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[20] expect to install an additional 20 stations.[21] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a JV to build 2 hydrogen stations to be ready by 2015.[22] A "task force" led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party was set up to guide the process.[23]

Hydrogen home stations[edit]

Hydrogen fueling pump

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

  • A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a reformer[53] and from the storage tank to a fuel cell microCHP system to produce heat and electricity for the house and the excess electricity to the grid to become part as a distributed generation resource.
  • Integrated systems that convert solar energy photoelectrochemically are more efficient than splitting water.[54]
  • January 2007 - Australia's [CSIRO] has developed a hydrogen homestation based on electricity from standard rooftop solar panels or a home wind turbine with an electrolyzer including compression and storage ready for use, the size of a filing cabinet, the expected market price would be $500 according to Sukhvinder Badwal. Extensive testing of the system will be going on for the next 2 years at RMIT University in Melbourne.[55][56]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantova (Italy) and Munich (Germany). Italy completed building a hydrogen filling station in Mantova on 21 September 2007 (see Zero Regio).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Personal hydrogen station
  2. ^ Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies HydroFILL intended for the powering of small devices
  3. ^ LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump
  4. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.  Chapter 5
  5. ^ Infrastructure and cost reduction key to European deployment of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles
  6. ^ PRESS RELEASE: Drive ‘n’ Ride 2013, Brussels
  7. ^ Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  8. ^ "The Clean Energy Partnership is growing: with new hydrogen filling stations, new regions and a new international automobile partner in Toyota" (Press release). Clean Energy Partnership. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  9. ^ The propagation of hydrogen stations
  10. ^ German Government announces support for 50 urban hydrogen refuelling stations
  11. ^ Bundesverkehrsministerium und Industriepartner bauen überregionales Tankstellennetz (German)
  12. ^ NIP
  13. ^ {German} Bundesregierung und industrie errichten netz von 50 wasserstoff-tankstellen
  14. ^ H2 Mobility initiative: Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  15. ^ JHFC
  16. ^ New Japanese joint venture to focus on hydrogen infrastructure
  17. ^ Initiative to Promote a Diffusion of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  18. ^ Hysut Japan
  19. ^ JX Energy Planning 40 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations in Japan by 2015
  20. ^ Developing hydrogen infrastructure ahead of the start of widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in 2015
  21. ^ Iwatani 2012
  22. ^ Japan: Air Liquide signs partnership with Toyota Tsusho for hydrogen supply of fuel cell electric vehicles
  23. ^ Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation
  24. ^ Recent achievements in hydrogen and fuel cells in Korea
  25. ^ Hynor Stations
  26. ^ Hydrogen Sweden
  27. ^ "Hydrogen car project begins". BBC News. 2008-04-17. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  28. ^ London hydrogen action plan 2010 2012
  29. ^ London’s ‘hydrogen network’ plans unveiled
  30. ^ LHNE project kick-starts UK hydrogen refuelling network
  31. ^ Is hydrogen the future of motoring?
  32. ^ Air products details plans for five London hydrogen fuelling stations
  33. ^ HyApproval - Handbook for the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations
  34. ^ "Hydrogen-filling station opens ... in Iceland". USA Today. April 25, 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  35. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  36. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam
  37. ^ Fuel cell scooters and solar hydrogen refuelling station launched in Hawaii
  38. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 1-57805-039-1. 
  39. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refueling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  40. ^ California's hydrogen transportation initiatives
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  43. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  44. ^ Idaho National Laboratory
  45. ^ EVermont renewable hydrogen fueling station
  46. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8
  47. ^ Jones, Nicola. "Whatever happened to the hydrogen highway?", Pique Publishing, February 9, 2012, accessed November 20, 2013
  48. ^ "Golden Horn Refuelling Station". 
  49. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power 67: 42. 
  50. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  51. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD)
  52. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power 39. Feb–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  53. ^ "Fuel cell". Honda. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  54. ^ John Gartner (December 7, 2004). Sunlight to Fuel Hydrogen Future. Wired magazine. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  55. ^ CSIRO Solar homestation
  56. ^ A Stand Alone 2 kW Class PEM Electrolyser Integrated with Solar PV System for Hydrogen Generation
  57. ^ HydroFILL
  58. ^ ITM Power Green-box
  59. ^ Daniel Nocera working on hydrogen station
  60. ^ Nico Hotz' hydrogen station
  61. ^ YouTube - Solar hydrogen home Michael Strizki
  62. ^ Stuart Island Energy Initiative
  63. ^ NFCRC: Hydrogen Program - Hydrogenics Home Fueler

External links[edit]