Hydrogen station

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Hydrogen fueling nozzle

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept.[1] The stations are usually intended to power vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices.[2] Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers[3] dispense the fuel by the kilogram.[4]

Hydrogen filling stations[edit]

Hydrogen station pump
  • Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[5] At the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations, 19 new stations are expected to be installed by 2015.,[6] the Government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of 460 million dollars covering 50% of the installation costs with the last ones operational in 2015.[7][8] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015.[9] and another 60 in the period 2016-2018[10] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[11] expect to install an additional 20 stations.[12] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a JV to build 2 hydrogen stations to be ready by 2015.[13] Osaka Gas planned 2 stations for 2014-2015.[14] A "task force" led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party was set up to guide the process.[15]
  • In Germany as of September 2013 there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel station in operation.[16] Most but not all of these stations are operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[17] The stations nationwide are expanded to 50 by 2015 under a letter of intent[18][19] through its public private partnership Now GMBH.[20] program NIP[21] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euro.,[22] the H2 Mobility iniative wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2017 and to 400 stations in 2023 at a cost of €350 million Euro.[23]
  • South Korea had 11 hydrogen stations in operation in 2014 another 10 stations are planned for 2020.[34]
  • UK - In 2011 the first public station in Swindon opened.[35] In 2014 HyTec opened the London Hatton Cross station.[36] Bedfordshire and Stratford are going public before 2016.[37] The HyFive project has 3 stations planned for London in 2015.[38] On 9 October 2014 the Government announced funding of £11 million to have 15 public hydrogen refuelling stations at the end of 2015.[39]
  • Norway's first Hynor hydrogen fueling station was opened in February 2007.[40] which is part of the Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership with Hydrogen link network and Hydrogen Sweden.[41]
  • June 2008 - The HyApproval project, FP6 N° 019813 developed a universal handbook to facilitate the approval process of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS) in Europe.[42]
  • Iceland opened the first commercial hydrogen station in 2003 as part of the country's initiative to implement a hydrogen economy.[43]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[44][45] In 2012 Aloha Motor Company opened its hydrogen station in Honolulu[46]
  • Canada, five stations have been built in British Columbia since 2005, one each in Whistler, at the University of British Columbia, in Burnaby, and two that were later moved to Surrey. There are no official plans to build any more fuelling stations In Canada as the project ended in March 2011.[47]
  • Turkey, UNIDO launched in May 2010 on behalf of the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, a call for tender related to the supply and installation by the end of 2011 of a hydrogen production, storage and filling facility on the Golden Horn, in Istanbul. This station will be used for the refueling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat as well as for that of a hydrogen internal combustion bus.[48]
  • The Netherlands had its first public refueling stationed opened on September 3rd 2014 in Rhoon near Rotterdam. The station uses hydrogen from the pipeline from Rotterdam to Belgium. 2 private stations in Amsterdam and Arnhem are going public before 2017, Helmond is not open for public access.[49]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

Hydrogen fueling pump
Main article: Hydrogen highway

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantova (Italy) and Munich (Germany). Italy completed building a hydrogen filling station in Mantova on 21 September 2007 (see Zero Regio).

Costs[edit]

See also: Hydrogen fuel

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, this does not begin to replace the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars in the United States alone according to Joseph Romm in 2004.[50] The cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fuelling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[51][52]

Hydrogen home stations[edit]

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

  • A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a reformer[57] and from the storage tank to a fuel cell microCHP system to produce heat and electricity for the house and the excess electricity to the grid to become part as a distributed generation resource.
  • Integrated systems that convert solar energy photoelectrochemically are more efficient than splitting water.[58]
  • January 2007 - Australia's [CSIRO] has developed a hydrogen homestation based on electricity from standard rooftop solar panels or a home wind turbine with an electrolyzer including compression and storage ready for use, the size of a filing cabinet, the expected market price would be $500 according to Sukhvinder Badwal. Extensive testing of the system will be going on for the next 2 years at RMIT University in Melbourne.[59][60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Personal hydrogen station
  2. ^ Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies HydroFILL intended for the powering of small devices
  3. ^ SAE International publishes new standard, SAE J2601, to establish worldwide basis for H2 fueling of fuel cell electric vehicles
  4. ^ LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump
  5. ^ JHFC
  6. ^ New Japanese joint venture to focus on hydrogen infrastructure
  7. ^ Initiative to Promote a Diffusion of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  8. ^ Hysut Japan
  9. ^ JX Energy Planning 40 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations in Japan by 2015
  10. ^ JX Nippon Oil to build 100 hydrogen stations in Japan
  11. ^ Developing hydrogen infrastructure ahead of the start of widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in 2015
  12. ^ Iwatani 2012
  13. ^ Japan: Air Liquide signs partnership with Toyota Tsusho for hydrogen supply of fuel cell electric vehicles
  14. ^ Osaka Gas to build two hydrogen stations for fuel-cell cars
  15. ^ Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation
  16. ^ Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  17. ^ "The Clean Energy Partnership is growing: with new hydrogen filling stations, new regions and a new international automobile partner in Toyota" (Press release). Clean Energy Partnership. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  18. ^ The propagation of hydrogen stations
  19. ^ German Government announces support for 50 urban hydrogen refuelling stations
  20. ^ Bundesverkehrsministerium und Industriepartner bauen überregionales Tankstellennetz (German)
  21. ^ NIP
  22. ^ {German} Bundesregierung und industrie errichten netz von 50 wasserstoff-tankstellen
  23. ^ H2 Mobility initiative: Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  24. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 1-57805-039-1. 
  25. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refueling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  26. ^ California's hydrogen transportation initiatives
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  29. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  30. ^ Idaho National Laboratory
  31. ^ EVermont renewable hydrogen fueling station
  32. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8
  33. ^ California investing nearly $50 million in hydrogen refueling stations
  34. ^ Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Korea
  35. ^ Is hydrogen the future of motoring?
  36. ^ "Continuing HyTEC progress in London for hydrogen fueling". Fuel Cells Bulletin 2014 (5): 6–7. 2014. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(14)70135-X. ISSN 1464-2859. 
  37. ^ LHNE project kick-starts UK hydrogen refuelling network
  38. ^ Three new hydrogen refuelling stations for London
  39. ^ Multi-million pound fund to get hydrogen cars moving
  40. ^ Hynor Stations
  41. ^ Hydrogen Sweden
  42. ^ HyApproval - Handbook for the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations
  43. ^ "Hydrogen-filling station opens ... in Iceland". USA Today. April 25, 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  44. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  45. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam
  46. ^ Fuel cell scooters and solar hydrogen refuelling station launched in Hawaii
  47. ^ Jones, Nicola. "Whatever happened to the hydrogen highway?", Pique Publishing, February 9, 2012, accessed November 20, 2013
  48. ^ "Golden Horn Refuelling Station". 
  49. ^ http://mobilityintransition.blogspot.nl/2014/09/first-dutch-public-hydrogen-station.html
  50. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.  Chapter 5
  51. ^ Infrastructure and cost reduction key to European deployment of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles
  52. ^ PRESS RELEASE: Drive ‘n’ Ride 2013, Brussels
  53. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power 67: 42. 
  54. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  55. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD)
  56. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power 39. Feb–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  57. ^ "Fuel cell". Honda. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  58. ^ John Gartner (December 7, 2004). "Sunlight to Fuel Hydrogen Future". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  59. ^ CSIRO Solar homestation
  60. ^ A Stand Alone 2 kW Class PEM Electrolyser Integrated with Solar PV System for Hydrogen Generation
  61. ^ HydroFILL
  62. ^ ITM Power Green-box
  63. ^ Daniel Nocera working on hydrogen station
  64. ^ Nico Hotz' hydrogen station
  65. ^ YouTube - Solar hydrogen home Michael Strizki
  66. ^ Stuart Island Energy Initiative
  67. ^ NFCRC: Hydrogen Program - Hydrogenics Home Fueler

http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/07/prweb12042788.htm

External links[edit]