|Elevation||42.6 m (139.8 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1:1.082 ♂/♀|
Ilaiyangudi,(Tamil: இளையான்குடி) also spelled Ilayangudi or Ilaiyangudi, is a taluk headquarters and Sub Town situated 21 km south-east of Manamadurai, in Sivaganga district, India. Sivaganga is around 37 km north-west. Nearest airport is at Madurai. Paramakudi Junction Railway Station serves Ilaiyangudi.The nearest Town is Paramakudi which is 11 km away. Ilayangudi is 66 km from Karaikudi and 70 km from Madurai.
Islam was introduced to Ilayangudi during the 6th and 7th century by Arab traders. Now majority of the people living here are Muslims. The old Muslim community of this town is engaged in different trades such as textile weaving, transportation and plantation of betel leaves and it also has various esteemed educational institutions of Sivaganga district. Kadai theru is the heart of the Sub town and is famous for shops and retail outlets.
As of 2001[update] India census, Llayangudi had a population of 19,100. Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. Llayangudi has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 72%. In Llayangudi, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Ilayangudi Muslim people are divided into four predominant Jamaths  as follows
- Nesavu Kaarargal (Nesavuppattadai) - Who was dealing the textile weaving
- Eruthu Kaarargal (Melappattadai) - Who were dealing Business and Transportation
- Kodiya Kaarargal (Salai Hanafi pattadai) - Who was dealing the Betel leaves farming
- Sonavargal (Salai Safi pattadai) - They are also called Salai Nesavupattadai too
Ilaiyangudi is a taluk headquarters town of a total area of 16.4 km2 having 18 wards. Ilaiyangudi is also famous for their traditional Islamic Foods. A good number of shops, business outlets, banks, playgrounds, associations, societies, constructions, brick chambers, Xerox shops, marriage halls, computer centres, hardware shops, cycle shops, audio-video shops, photo studios, printing press, play stations etc. are there in Ilaiyankudi.
There are also many (Mosque)Masjids in the town. All basic amenities are there in the town such as, Women's Hospital,which was constructed by Late. P.N.Pakeer Rowther during 1935 inaugurated by Madras Presidency Health Minister (currently this hospital is being reinstalled with bigger facilities by Govt of Tamil Nadu), Pachayath, Bus Station, Government Departments, Police Station, Post Office,Ilayangudi Higher Secondary School was started by Ilayangudi Muslim Educational Association by its founder Khalifa. K.M. Abdul Kareem, as a supplementary higher school for their Rahmaniya Elementary school, established during 1914. A massive Structure for School had been donated during 1954 by Late Oppadaiyar K.M.Sultan Aludeen & Sons, on the ground of 14.5 acre donated by Sivagangai King Shamnugaraja. The land was registered to Khalifa. Abdul Kareem by Sivaganga Dynasty initially, later transferred to Ilayangudi Muslim Educational Association, which is a registered body by the Companies Act and Dr.Zakir Hussain College Estd 1970 by Al Haj V.M.Peer Mohamed donated 2.78 acres of land to this college and also donated the First Building and was the Founder Correspondent of this college of Ilayangudi..
The population consists of a majority Muslims, there are also minority non Muslims such as Hindus Komutti Chettiars (Manjupusum Chettiyars) and Christians living in peace. The town is famous for Muslim festivals.
A water reservoir is situated on the north-west side of the town known as "samuthram" having its source from a river passage known as "kanmaai" from vaigai.The "samuthram" is a major source of water for the town and is also used for other purposes like swimming, washing clothes, fishing etc.The "samuthram" and "kanmaai" adds to the beauty of the town and it is seen filled during monsoons. The ancient landmark of this town is Thevoorani which is located on the heart of the downtown and its banks are decorated with INP Thozhugai Medai Pallivasal and Rajendra Chooleeswara Temple. The water channel from Kanmaai travels towards northwest and reaches to Thevoorani and proceeds towards Poochiyendal Kanmaai.
"Kadai theru “is the heart of the city and is famous for shops and retail outlets while "kanmaai karai" is a leisure zone and is having teashops are open till midnight. The famous hotels include "Kansa Hotel","Ibrahim hotel","Salai Kaka Hotel", "United hotel" etc. These hotels are famous for parrata(locally called Parrota) and "Kadai" and chalna (a kind of curry).The streets are seen with people even at midnight going for tea shops or chatting and roaming around in groups. Singarathoppu and Alankarathoppu are the major entertainment outlets for younger people offering various sports facilities particularly football and football coaching for teenagers. There are few Libraries available in the Town run by District Authority and Jamath Trusts.
Ilaiyankudi is located at  It has an average elevation of 43.6 m (143 ft)..
Ilayangudi is surrounded by more than 30 villages among them Pudur, Sodukudi, Karunchuthi, Keelayur, Malli pattinam, Thiruvallur are Muslim dominated villages and other villages are dominated by Maravar,Konars,Udaiyaar and pallars. All of these villages livelihood thrives from Ilayangudi town. The notable surrounded villages are Karumpakootam, Keeranur, Kongampatti, Idayavalasai, Pavandan, Manikkavasaga Nagar, Melayur, Nagamugundhangudi, Peachatthai,Seethoorani, Ariyandipuram, Kannamangalam, Thayamangalam, Melayur, Athikarai, Alimadurai, Meiyananthal,Kottaiyur,Sirupalai, Perumbalai, Aranaiyur, etc.
The first migration of Muslims into Ilaiyangudi Township started between 14th and 15th century AD. But there is a room to believe that a section of Muslim population already existed in Ilaiyangudi. They were the people who changed their faith and embraced Islam during 7th and 8th centuries from Jainism. Nesavu (Textile weaving) was the major trade done by Samanars during the Kalapirar Dynasty. The oldest Jamats are still recognized as Nesavupattadai Jamaths in Ilayangudi, Salaiyur and Sodugudi.
The Muslims who migrated to Ilaiyangudi were from Sevaleperi, Udangudi, Ulakkudi, Sundrapandipuram, Thenmalai, Kadaiyanallur and Thanjavoor. They were first settled in a place called Thuraiyan Pacheery, where the sweet water was available (near the main bazaar - Kadai Road). During that time, that place was occupied by Pallars. With the help of the Pallars, new Muslim migrant settlements were formed and slowly the Pallars left and settled them in further south, the present Idaiyavalasai.
There is a story to support migration of first settlement of Muslims in Ilaiyangudi. There was a great draught in southern part of the Tamil Nadu during AD 14th Century. Around 40 families left in search of fertile land; finally they reached Ilaiyangudi and settled themselves there. The first mosque in Ilaiyangudi was built somewhere between AD15th Centuries around AD 1450. This Mosque was called as keela pallivaasal. This was located in Thuraiyan Pacherry Settlement area. This is recorded in Madurai District Court, Appeal no.72 of AD 1828. The Ilaiyangudi Muslims were performing three major trades for their survival. Textile Weaving, Transportation by Bullock Carts and Betel Leaves Plantation. Based on their trade each Jamath were called as nesavu pattadai, eruthu pattadai and kodikal pattadai.
The full fledged Nesavu Pattadai mosque was built during AD1816, in the location where they were offering prayers since AD 1553 with a Medai. This land was awarded as bounty to Sage sehappa owlia by Pandiya King Sadasivarayar during AD 1553. The present melapallivasal was constructed during AD 1744 in the west side of the old Keela Pallivasal. That's how it got its name as Mela Pallivasal meaning west mosque.
There are two more mosques built in Salaiyur during AD 1775 (Shafi) and AD 1811 (Hanafi). During Muslim migration the town was so small having restricted boundaries around the Thearar Oorani area. When Muslim settlement occupied the outskirt in Thuraiyan Pacherry, the wealthy and educated people moved towards North side of the town.The North Side of the town was constructed with well planned straight roads and better living conditions.
The Ilayangudi roots can be traced from BC 3rd and 2nd Century. The full-sized Mahavira image outside the present Rajendra Choleeswarar Temple proves that this ancient township of Southern Tip was influenced by Jainism for thousands of years.
Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism attained Nirvana in BC 527. The eighth successor of Mahavira, Bhatira Baghu Munivar, was the Religious Chieftain of Chandragupta Maurya, who sent Vaisaga Munivar to south to spread Jainism in Pandiya and Chola countries.
During BC 3rd Century Buddham introduced to Tamil Land by Empiror Ashoka through his brother Mahendirar. Unlike Jainism, Buddha Statue is not found in Ilayangudi, but the Public Water Tank is still called as Therar Oorani. Thearar is Tamil term for Buddhist Monk. This leads us to conclude that there could have been a Buddha Vikar near Thearar Oorani that time.
The present Sivan temple was built by Chola King Rajendra Cholan (AD 1012-1044). The temple is called as Rajendra Chola Eswara Temple. This temple might be an old Zain Temple and later converted as Shivite Temple by the King. The present Manju Puthur Chettiyars (Local Chettiyars of Ilayangudi) were Jains originally and later converted to Saivam. When the temple was converted to Hindu Temple, the Mahavira Statue was kept outside temple, while Hindu gods were placed inside. There is an old 11th Century Stone Edict belongs to Chola Dynasty.
Ilayangudi is known as PULAMAI PERUR meaning literates town. Ilayangudi delivered lot of Poets, Wisemen, Writers etc. In Tamil literature, we can find many poets praised the talents of Ilayangudians and their contribution to the Tamil Literature. Zawwadu Pulavar, famous poet of yesteryears, who lived in Emeneshwaram near Paramakudi, praised Ilayangudians in his various poems.
The above poets lived in Ilayagudi during 18th, 19th & 20th centuries. They have written various poems & essays. We have collected very few of them which were printed and preserved.
Thenmalaikhan Mathura Kavi Batcha Pulavar lived approx. during 1860-1930. He was titled as Mathura Kavi by Sivagangai Raja as his poems were so sweet. He was rewarded with a Pattayam by his dynasty. Mathura Kavi was ancestor for Late. Calcutta. T.S.Abdul Rahim, Late. T.M. Meera Hussain and T.S. Jainulabdeen (Thablic). There is a memorial Madarasa Building in the name of Mathura Kavi at Ilayangudi built by his grandson Late. T.S. Abdul Rahim.
Nagaimani Maalai Collection of poems written praising Nagoor Meeran Shahib by Thenmalaikhan Mathurakavi Batcha Pulavar during Hijri 1314 Ramalan Month.(approx. During AD. 1892, 110 years ago). The first print was published by Karaikal. K.S. Syed Ibrahim Rawoother in his Mohamed Samadani Press in Karaikal. The second publish was during Hijri 1383 Rabiul Awwal - AD 1963 July by Madurai A.M. Abdul Jabbar (Pagavi) in his Quraniya Press in Madurai. Pillai Thzamil Collection of poems written by Mathurakavi narrating Nagoor Shahul Hameed's childhood incidents, published during AD1892 in Madurai Pandiyan Press. The second publish was during AD 1963 July in Quraniya Press Madurai. This book also contains four more short poems such as Kalithurai, Nagai Patthu, Nagai Kochagam and Nagai Thiruvasagam. Arul Mani Malai This poems were written in praise of Karaikal. Hazarat Shahu Ali Masthan Oli Shahib by Mathurakavi. This poems were published during Hijri 1314 in By Karaikal Kadir Mohideen in Mohamed Samadani Press. Second edition was during AD 1963 in Quraniya Press, Madurai. Thirukarana Vannangal These poems were written by Mathura kavi and published during AD 1895 in Karaikal Samadani Press.
Second edition was published during AD 1963 in Quraniaya Press in Madurai. Deen Vilakka Vannam These poems were written by Mathura Kavi praising Ervadi. Hazarat Syed Ibrahim Sahid, published during AD 1895 in Samadani Press, Karaikal. The second edition was in Quraniya Press during AD1963. Pancha Rathina Vannangal This book was not published by Mathurakavi and handwritten copies were preserved in his house. Many chapters were lost by termites, rest of the poems were published during AD 1963 in Quraniya Press Madurai.
Madaru Pulavar lived in Ilayangudi approximately during early 19th Century. He descended from Noordeen family. The is ancestor of Capt. N.A.Ameer Ali. To dignify his work Ilayangudi Panchayat Board named one street in his name.
He wrote KUTHUBU MANI MALAI, this book was written praising Mohideen Abdul Kadir Jailani. This book was published during 1922 by Thubash. T.K. Mohamed Ibrahim of Abiramam-Natham, who is a relative of Madaru Pulavar in Manonmani Vilasam Press in Madurai.
Katchi Pillaiyammal was daughter of Lukman Rawoother who spend his life in search of wisdom. Katchi Pillaiyamal written poems mostly about wisdom related subjects. She is the first recorded female poet of Ilayangudi.
Seeniyaval Rawoother is the brother-in-law of Kuppapitchai Ambalam. He has written this Singara Vazhi Lavani praising the Ilayangudi town and describing the various landmarks of Ilayangudi. This Book was published during 1918 in Sivagangai Sri Kala Press.
There are many living poets in Ilayangudi such as:
Thai. Ka. Kader Gani Pulavar. Sheiko @ S.M.S. Mohamed Kassi Porkizhi Kavingar Hidayathulla alias ex Shanmugam Kavingar. V.M. Shajahan Gani (He married in Ilayangudi)
Also, there are lot of Pudu Kavingargal in Ilayangudi who did not come to light.
Ilayangudians played a major role in Indian Politics and Independence.
Late. Allama Karim Gani  veteran Scholar and Information Minister of Netaji BAMA Ministry of INA was hailing from Sodugudi-Ilayangudi. He was serving as advisor to Nethaji during Independence struggle.
During the 4th Assembly Election, Ilayangudi was created as 197th Constituency of Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by the Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 1965, while the number of territorial constituencies in Tamil Nadu was increased to 234. The 2009 Assembly Election was the last election for Ilayangudi assembly constituency. Mr.S.Mathiyarsan from DMK was the last MLA of Ilayangudi. Ilayangudi Assembly Constituency has been merged with Manamadurai(SC) Reserved Constituency by Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituency Order 2008, by Election Commission of India.
Late. P.N.Abuthalib was Joint Secretary of Indian Union Muslim League and served as a faithful advisor to Qaiet-e-Millath Ismail Sahib.
Late . Hajee. V.M.PEER MOHAMED, the great scholar, statesman, administrator, philanthropist, businessman of Ilayangudi. He is the founder of Dr. Zakir Hussain College. Founder of Girls School in Ilayangudi. Above all he was the great Trustee of INP Jamath.
Late. T.K.A. Dewan Mohamed, IAS, was the first IAS officer from this town who contributed in various administrative levels in Govt of Tamil Nadu including Collector and Additional Chief Secretary.
Late. Capt. T.K.S. Mohamed Iqbal IPS, who was killed along with Rajiv Gandhi was the first IPS officer of this town, who served the Indian Army as Captain during 1972 Pakistan war.
Ilayangudi is the one of the most educated Muslim towns of Tamil Nadu. These are the some of the educational institution of the town.
1. Rahmanniya Elementary School (popularly known as Sanga Pallikoodam) established during 1914.
2. Ilayangudi Higher Secondary School,
3. Government Girls High School,
4. Melapallivasal Girls Higher Secondary School,
5. INP Metriculation School,
6. Iqra Metriculation School,
7. Hamidiyya Higher Secondary School, Salaiyur,
9. Muslim Nalvali abiviruthi School, Salaiyur,
10. St. Anne's Matric Hr.sec school, Mallipattinam,
11. Al Ameen Buhari Technical Institute,
12. Dr. Zakir Hussain College
13. J T R Matriculation school,
Sal Sabeel Trust established during early 90's in Mallipattinam, Ilayangudi is the leading Charitable Trust managing Orphan Child of Islamic faith. The trust is managing more than 100 children boarding, lodging and their education. Mr.Sheik Kutty (Haji JANAB Sheik Mohideen), well known philanthropist is Chairman of the Trust.
Sal Sabeel is taking care of orphans of Islamic society by providing them Food, Shelter, and Education (both academic and Islamic). The organization is well known for its simplicity and efficient management. Since it is raised and managed on the basis of Islamic faith, they do not accept non Islamic earning as donation.
In 2013 the Sal Sabeel Orphanage is undertaken by TAMIL NADU THOWHEED JAMA'ATH. And also TNTJ management launch OLD AGE HOME for orphans named as AR RAHIM MADHARASA. They upgrade the orphanage,run successfully and served the people world wide.
There is an Arabic Madarasa in Pudur Road between Salaiyur and Pudur to teach Arabic and Islamic values. This Arabic College is built in a land donated by Thappathai.Naina Mohamed for the noble cause. Teaching includes memorizing Holy Quran.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Indian Encyclopedia, Tamil Nadu District Encyclopedia - Ramanathapuram(1961-68), by Dr.A.Ramasamy, M.A., M.Lit., PHd (London)., Published by Tamilnadu Government,1990
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ilaiyankudi
- Islamiya Kalai Kalanchiyam, Part-II, by AbdurRahim, Published by Universal Publishers & Book Sellers, 155-156, Ankappanaikken Street, Chennai 600 001
- The Indian National Army and Japan By Joyce C. Lebra
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-12.