Paramakudi

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Paramakudi
Town
Paramakudi is located in Tamil Nadu
Paramakudi
Paramakudi
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Coordinates: 9°32′38″N 78°35′28″E / 9.544°N 78.591°E / 9.544; 78.591Coordinates: 9°32′38″N 78°35′28″E / 9.544°N 78.591°E / 9.544; 78.591
Country  India
State Tamil Nadu
District Ramanathapuram
Area
 • Total 16 km2 (6 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 95,579
 • Density 16,448/km2 (42,600/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 623701-623707
Telephone code 04564
Vehicle registration TN 65
Website municipality.tn.gov.in/paramakudi/

Paramakudi is a town, a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The river Vaigai flows through Paramakudi on its way to the Bay of Bengal. It is the Political and Revenue headquarters of Ramanathapuram district.[1] As of 2011, the town had a population of 95,579.

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census, Paramakudi had a population of 95,579 with a sex-ratio of 966 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[2] A total of 9,292 were under the age of six, constituting 4,800 males and 4,492 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 14.5% and .08% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the town was 81.44%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[2] The town had a total of 23504 households. There were a total of 35,561 workers, comprising 825 cultivators, 881 main agricultural labourers, 6,682 in house hold industries, 23,453 other workers, 3,720 marginal workers, 113 marginal cultivators, 209 marginal agricultural labourers, 496 marginal workers in household industries and 2,902 other marginal workers.[3]

Location[edit]

Paramakudi is the gateway for entrants to Madurai, Sivagangai and Ramanathapuram districts from north and west. The town started its developments earlier than 1866 Paramakudi is the taluk Headquarters from the year 1918 (i.e. from the date of formation of Ramanathapuram District.). The Paramakudi town consist of two separate settlements viz., Paramakudi and Emaneswaran from the first half of this century. These settlements were classified as separate towns in the census records from 1901 to 1961 and then they were merged to form the present municipal town in 1964. The River Vaigai separates Paramakudi and Emaneswaram. Paramakudi is situated on the southern bank of the river and the Emaneswaram is the other way around.

Paramakudi was constituted as a third grade municipality in the year 1964 and upgraded as Second Grade municipality with effect from 1.5.1974 and again upgraded as first grade municipality with effect from 22.5.1998. The area of the town is 13 km2. The strength of the council is 36

The nearest towns include Ilaiyangudi, Ramanathapuram, and Sivagangai. The town is at the junction of three districts: Ramnathapuram, Sivagangai and Virudunagar. Paramakudi is 69 km east of Madurai, en route to Rameswaram.

History[edit]

In the late 12th and early 13th century, this province was ruled by Hazrat Sulthan Syed Ibrahim shaheed of Ervadi. Later on His heirs were ruling the province following a peace treaty with the sethupathis. From then, until the early 15th century the present territories of Ramanathapuram district — comprising the taluks Tiruvadanai, Paramakudi, Kamuthi, Mudukulathur, Ramanathapuram and Rameswaram — were included in the Pandyan Empire. For a short period, this area had been under the Chola Dynasty when Rajendra Chola I brought it under his territory in 1063 AD.

In 1520 CE, the Nayaks of the Vijayanagara Empire — Maravar chieftains or Sethupatis who had been subordinate to the Pandyan Kings — took this area under their control from the Pandyan Dynasty and reigned till the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, family disputes over succession resulted in the division of Ramanathapuram. With the help of the King of Thanjavur in 1730 CE, one of the chieftains deposed the Sethupathi and became the Raja of Sivaganga. Acting upon the weakness of the Nayak rulers, the local chieftains (Palayakarars) became independent; the Raja of Sivagangai and the Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram were prominent among them. In 1730, Chanda Shahib of Karnataka captured Ramanathapuram. In 1741 the area came under the control of the Marathas and then under the Nizam in 1744 CE. Dissatisfied with the Nawab’s rule, the chieftains revolted, led by the last ruling Nayak, against the Nawab in 1752. By that time, the throne of Karnataka had two rivals, Chanda Shahib and Muhammed Ali, and this district was part of Karnataka. The British supported Chand Sahib, whilst the French supported Muhammed Ali. This paved the way for a series of conflicts in the southern part of the continent.

In 1795, the British deposed Muthuramalinga Sethupathi and took control of the administration of Ramanathapuram. In 1801 Mangaleswari Nachiyar was made the Zamindar of Sivaganga. After the passing of the Queen Velu Nachiyar, the Maruthu brothers took charge by paying regular revenue to the East India company. In 1803 the Maruthu Pandiyar of Sivaganga revolted against the British in collaboration with Kattabomman of Panchalamkurichi. Colonel Agnew captured and hanged the Maruthu brothers and made Gowri Vallabha Periya Udaya Thevar as Zamindar of Sivaganga. After the fall of Tippu Sultan, the British took control and imprisoned the Nawab. In 1892 the Zamindari system was abolished and a British collector was appointed for administration.

In 1910, Paramakudi was formed from portions of Madurai and Tirunelveli districts, with J.F. Bryant as the first collector. During the British period this district was called “Ramnad”; the name continued after independence. Later the district was renamed as Ramanathapuram to be in conformity with the Tamil name for this region.The another name of Paramakudi is also called us Parambai. Parambai that means the vaigai river cross the town.That means face of the vaigai.So called as the name. Historically the area was ruled by the Pandyan Dynasty and later by King Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram. According to the ancient epic Ramayana, Lord Rama started his battle against Ravana at Sethu Canal, which is 90 minutes travel from here.

Paramakudi consists of two formerly separate settlements, Paramakudi and Emaneswaran, which merged to form the present municipal town in 1964.

Geology[edit]

Most of the area is covered by the unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary age except in the northwestern part, where isolated patches of Archaen Crystallines and Tertiary sandstone are exposed. The Archaeans are mainly represented by the Charnockite Group of rocks comprising garnetiferrous granulite and the Khondalite Group of rocks made up of quartzite of genesses.

The Tertiary sandstone (Cuddalore Formation) comprise pinkish, yellowish, reddish (variegated colours) medium to coarse grained sandstone and clay stone. It is overlain by thin alluvium and exposed towards north of Vaigai River.

Detached exposures of laterite and lateritic soil are seen in the northwestern part of the district.

A major part of the district is covered with the fluvial, fuvio-marine, Aeolian and marine sediments of Quaternary age. The fluvial deposits which are made up of sand, silt and clay in varying degree of admixture occur along the active channels of Vaigai, Gundar, Manimuthar and Pambar rivers. They have been categorized into levee, flood basin, channel bar/ point bar and paleo-channel deposits. The paleo channel deposits comprise brown coloured, fine to medium sands with well preserved cross-beddings.

The fluvio-marine deposits are exposed in the Vaigai delta as deltaic plain, paleo-tidal and dune flat deposits. The deltaic plain and dune flats comprise medium, Grey brown sands. The paleo tidal flat deposits include black silty clay, black clay and mud. In Rameswaram Island, the fluvio-marine deposits include indurated sand and dune sands.

The Aeolian deposits comprise red sands which are in nature of ancient dunes and occur over a 3.2 km wide and 8 km long stretch and lie parallel to the sea coast. These are separated by marshy deposits of black clays. The sands are underlain by calcareous hardpan. In Rameswaram Island also brown sand deposits occur around Sambaimadam on either side of NH 49 west of the town.

The marine formation comprises coastal plain deposits of sand and clay in varied proportion. Marine calcareous hardpan occurs as low terraces and platforms, with admixture of quartz, limonite and garnet concentration.

Economy[edit]

Paramakudi is an important commercial center. Cotton and chili peppers are the main cultivated crops in the villages surrounding the town. The price of chili in the state is decided by the commission agents in this town. Other agricultural pursuits include rice, bananas, and market gardening. Village people also raise cows, cattle and goats to earn their living. People of the Sourastras caste engage in weaving cotton, artsilk, pure silk sarees and cloths.

Health[edit]

Both for Education and Health, Ramanathapuram has been divided into two districts, as it covers a huge area. So we have Paramakudi District for Health. Recently, a young and energetic Doctor, Dr. Rakesh Sebastin, MBBS, has been appointed as the District Training Officer for Paramakudi Health District. He is supervising all the Primary Health Centers and interacting with their respective doctors as to how they can be well prepared during epidemic situation and best serve when deadly Dengue fever attacks people. Dr. Rakesh has attended workshops on Hospital Administration and Epidemics organized by the Government of Tamil Nadu. His dedicated service has been much appreciated by the people.

Civic Administration[edit]

Paramakudi is a First Grade municipality. After shifting the district headquarters' offices from Paramakudi to Ramanathapuram, the town is lack of growing.The gauge conversion of the railway from Madurai to Rameswaram and from Tiruchi to Rameswaram connects the town to all major Indian cities. Ramanathapuram district was a larger district in Taminadu, and later some of its portions were removed to create Sivaganga district

Politics[edit]

Paramakudi assembly constituency (SC) is part of Ramanathapuram (Lok Sabha constituency)

Transport[edit]

The town is located on south east Tamil Nadu and connected by NH 49 it connects Kochi and Rameswaram this road also connects Paramakudi with Chennai, Madurai, Theni, Pondicherry, Aruppukottai, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari. The town is connected well by railroads with major cities in India through Madurai Junction and Tiruchirappalli Junction from Rameswaram.It is the high revenue collecting railway station in the district. Consistent demands have been raised from public for operating daily overnight train from Coimbatore.

Education[edit]

In the town, there is an arts college run by the government, which offers five UG and Two PG courses (MBA & M.Sc. computer science), and an evening college(Alagappa University evening College)and the classes are being conducted in Sourashtra higher secondary school. Govt.Arts college, Paramakudi has one of the best colleges in Tamil nadu. Sri Muthalamman Polytechnic College offers diploma courses. For higher studies, the students are supposed to go to other towns and districts. Two government schools and four aided schools offer secondary and higher secondary education. The engineering college is Ganapathy Chettiar College of Engineering.

Culture[edit]

The Chitra Festival is held annually in Paramakudi. The festival celebrates a visit by Thirumal to the Vaigai River on the full moon day of the month of Chithirai (around May). According to the tradition, on this day, Sri Sundara Raja PERUMAL in the form of Kallalagar (a god who blessed the thieves) visited the Vaigai River in a golden chariot having 1000 wheels. Meenakshi is getting married to Shiva and PERUMAL pays a visit to that function. On his way he blesses the thieves. This is the incident commemorated the festival. This celebration spans 10 days.This temple is maintained and governed by the SOURASHTRA BRAHMIN community of Paramakudi.

Another important festival is, Panguni festival for Sri Muthalamman Temple in which the main deity is Goddess Sri Muthalamman during the Tamil month panguni(March & April). This temple is worshipped not only by Hindus but by all other religious people. The car procession will be held followed by paalkudam festival in which the devotees offer lakhs of liters of milk to the goddess. This festival will be celebrated for 12 days. This temple is maintained and governed by the chettiar community of Paramakudi.

And Kaman Pandigai is another festival which is mostly celebrated only by saurastrians.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Paramakudi - Tamilnadu". Tamilnadu.com. 17 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Paramakudi". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 

External links[edit]