|Nickname(s): Maruthu Land ( மருதுபூமி )|
|• Collector & District Magistrate||V Rajaraman IAS|
|• Total||4,189 km2 (1,617 sq mi)|
|• Density||274.7/km2 (711/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||[[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]|
|Sex ratio||M-49%/F-51% ♂/♀|
|Climate||Very dry and hot with low humidity (Köppen)|
|Precipitation||875.2 millimetres (34.46 in)|
Sivaganga District (Tamil: சிவகங்கை மாவட்டம்) is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The city of Sivaganga is the district headquarters. It is bounded by Pudukkottai district on the Northeast, Tiruchirapalli district on the North, Ramanathapuram district on South East, Virudhunagar district on South West and Madurai District on the West.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Administration
- 4 Economy
- 5 Places of interest
- 6 Rulers of Sivangangai
- 7 Geography
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 References
Sivaganga District has been carved out from composite Ramnad District as per G.O. MS. No. 1122 Rev. Dept. Dated. 6.7.84 and the District was functioning from 15.3.85 as per G.O Ms.No. 346 Rev. dept. Dated: 8.3.85.
According to the 2011 census Sivaganga district has a population of 1,341,250, roughly equal to the nation of Swaziland or the US state of Maine. This gives it a ranking of 360th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 324 inhabitants per square kilometre (840 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 16.09%. Sivaganga has a sex ratio of 1,000 females for every 1,000 males, and a literacy rate of 80.46%.
The district had a population of 1,150,753 with male population 565,594 and female 585,159 (as of 2001). The rural population is 826,427 and the urban population is 324,326. It is 28.22% urbanised. It has a population density of 274.7. The district has a literacy of 52.5%, below the average for the state. Tamil is the principal language spoken in the district. Hindus formed the majority of the population.
Sivaganga is the district headquarters. The district has 6 taluks in 2 revenue division.
|Revenue Division||Taluks||No. of revenue villages|
|Sivaganga||4 (Sivaganga, Manamadurai, Ilayankudi, Thiruppuvanam)||267|
|Devakottai||3 (Devakottai, Karaikudi, Tiruppattur)||255|
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Sivaganga one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the six districts in Tamil Nadu currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The vast majority of the workforce is dependent on agriculture (72.8%). The principal crop of Sivaganga district is paddy. A majority of the district has red soil. The other crops that are grown are sugarcane, groundnut, pulses, millets and cereals. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University plans to set up the State's first Red Soil Dryland Research Centre in Sivaganga district soon.
The Spices Board will setting up a new spices park at Sivaganga on an invest of Rs. 180 million. As of December 2010[update] this park is expected to be operational by March 2011. It would be immensely helpful to farmers of chilli, turmeric, medicinal plants and tamarind, as the focus would be to export their products. The proposed spices park would establish machinery for cleaning, sorting, grading, packaging, storing, sterilising and other work. The focus would be to encourage chilli, a leading crop in Ramanathapuram, Sivaganga and nearby districts, and turmeric crops. Medicinal plants, being raised in and around Madurai district, would also get a boost, as it was planned to patronise farmers of medicinal plants.
The Sakthi sugar factory is also located in Sivaganga. It has capability of produce more than 5,000 tons of sugar per day. It provides employment to more than 1,000 labourers directly and indirectly.
Solar power farm
Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited has commissioned a 5 MW grid connected solar PV project at Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu. The project was awarded to Sapphire Industrial Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of MBCEL, through a competitive bidding process conducted by the Tamil Nadu Renewable Development Agency. The project is implemented under the 50 MWp generation based incentive scheme of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.
Places of interest
Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary
Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary is near to Tirupattur. This sanctuary attracts a number of migratory birds such as white ibis, asian openbill stork and night heron. Besides, endangered species such as painted stork, gray heron, darter, little cormorant, little egret, intermediate egret, cattle egret, common teal, spotbill, pintail and flamingos flock here.
The best season to visit is November to February.
Chettinad is the homeland of the Nattukottai Chettiars (Nagarathar), a prosperous banking and business community. It is well known for its Chettinad cuisine which is very hot and spicy. It is one of the south Indian cuisines that has a large number of specialty restaurants. A typical meal will have meat, served on a banana leaf, with a large number of courses.
Also, the old Chettiar mansions are rich in heritage, art and architecture. Kanadukathan has one such beautiful palatial house. The affluence of the chettiars are shown off in their palatial houses. Carved teak wood doors and frames, marble floors, granite pillars, Belgian mirrors and Italian tiles are the norms.
Other places of interest
- Anjanamaar Panch Shaheedh Waliyullah dargah, Kannaar Street, Manamadurai.
- Hazrat Syed Salaar Sha Shaheed Waliyullah, Raziyallah ta'ala anhu dargah, Pallichandai.
- Ariyakudi the south tirupathi is just 3 km from karaikudi.it is 400 years old,must visit and worth to visit temple.you can offer the tonsure,anga pradakshana,kalyana utsav prayed to thirupathi venkateswara swamy
- Koviloor Temple, Karaikudi
- Kandadevi Temple
- Idaikattur Church
- Kollangudi Vettudaiyar Kaliamman Temple
- Kaleeswarar Temple
- Nagarasivan Temple
- Kundrakudi Temple
- Kollakalaiamman Temple
- Kallal Somasundaram Soundara Nayagi Temple and its Masimaham Festival mostly in the month of February every year.
- Panchabhutheswaram, known as Vedhiyanendal vilakku, 5 km from Manamadurai is on the way to Paramakudi via Elaiyankudi, the route in which Lord Rama went to Sri Lanka to confront Ravanan. This place is known for its hard cut-rock (granite) temple dedicated to Shri Maha Panchamukha Prathyangira Devi. It houses the big deity of shri Maha Panchamukha Prathyangira Devi. There are two more sannidhies for Lakshmi Ganapathi and Sornagarshna Bhairavar. It has come in a total area of about 5.5 acres (22,300 m2). Soon within the temple premises, ten more sannidhies are going to come for Dasamaha Vidya. Non-stop annadharmam right from 2000 since inception.
- Madapuram Badrakali amman temple, Madapuram
Rulers of Sivangangai
The Kingdom of Ramnad originally comprised the territories of Ramnad, Sivaganga and Pudukottai of today. Regunatha Sethupathy alias Kilavan Sethupathy, the 7th King of Ramnad reigned between 1674 and 1710. Kilavan Sethupathy, came to know of the bravery and valour of Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai, 4 Kilometres from Sholapuram near Sivaganga.
The King assigned to Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai a portion of land sufficient to maintain 1,000 armed men. Vijaya Regunatha Sethupathy became the 8th King of Ramnad in 1710 after the death of Kilavan Sethupathy. The King gave in marriage his daughter Akilandeswari Nachiar, to Sasivarna Thevar, the son of Nalukottai Peria Oodaya Thevar. The King gave Sasivarna Thevar lands as dowry, free of taxation, sufficient to maintain 1,000 men. He placed him in charge of the fortresses of Piranmalai, Tiruppathur, Sholapuram and Tiruppuvanam as well as the harbour of Thondi. Meanwhile Bhavani Sankaran, the son of Kilavan Sethupathy conquered Ramnad territory and arrested Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy, the 9th King of Ramnad. Bhavani Sankaran proclaimed himself as the Rajah of Ramnad. He became the 10th king of Ramnad and he reigned from 1726 to 1729. He quarrelled with Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai and drove him out of his Nalukottai Palayam. Kattaya Thevan, the brother of the late Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy fled from Ramnad and sought refuge with the Rajah of Tanjore Tuljaji. While Sasivarna Thevar was passing through the jungles of Kalayarkoi, he met a gnani (sage) named Sattappiah, who was performing Thapas (meditation) under a jambool tree near a spring called 'Sivaganga'. The deposed king prostrated himself before him and narrated all the previous incidents of his life. The Gnani whispered a certain mantra in his ears (Mantra Opadesam) and advised him to go to Tanjore and kill a ferocious tiger which was kept by the Rajah especially to test the bravery of men. Sasivarna Thevar went to Tanjore. There he became acquainted with Kattaya Thevan a refugee like himself. Satisfied with the good behaviour of Sasivarma Thevar and Kattaya Thevan, the Rajah of Tanjore wanted to help them to regain the States again, ordered his Dalavoy to go with a large army to invade Bhavani Sankaran. Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevan at once proceeded to Ramnad with a large army furnished by the king of Tanjore. They defeated Bhavani Sankaran at the battle of Uraiyur and captured Ramnad in 1730. Thus Kattaya Thevan became the 11th King of Ramnad.
1st Rajah Sasivarna Thevar (1730–1750)
Kattaya Thevan divided Ramnad into five parts and retained three for himself. He granted the two parts to Sasivarna Thevar of Nalukottai conferring on him the title of "Rajah Muthu Vijaya Regunatha Peria Oodaya Thevar".
2nd Rajah — Muthu Vaduganatha Peria Oodaya Thevar (1750–1772)
Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar died in or about the year 1750. He was succeeded by his only son, Muthu Vaduganatha Peria Oodaya Thevar. He was the second Rajah of Sivaganga. His wife Rani Velu Nachiar acted as "friend, Philosopher and guide" to him. Tandavaraya Pillai was the able minister of Sivaganga country. Muthu Vaduganatha Peria Oodaya Thevar granted commercial facilities to the Dutch only after the English rejected a similar offer, made to Colonel Heron. Further the aim of the English was to oblige the ruler of Sivaganga to serve the Nawab or to pay tribute to him or to dissuade them from establishing relations with foreign powers like the Dutch. A two pronged offensive was made by the English. Joseph Smith from the east and Benjour from the west invaded Sivaganga Palayam in June 1772. The country was full of bushes of cockspur thorn, though there were villages and open spaces here and there. Rajah Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, in anticipation of the invasion, erected barriers on the roads, dug trenches and established posts in the woods of Kalayarkoil. On 21 June 1772, the detachment of Smith and Benjour effected a junction and occupied the town of Sivaganga. The next day, the English forces marched to Kalayarkoil and captured the posts of Keeranoor and Sholapuram. Now, Benjour continuing the operations came into conflict with the main body of the troops of Sivaganga on 25 June 1772. Muthu Vaduganatha Rajah with many of his followers fell dead in that heroic battle. The heroic activities shown in the battle field by Velu Nachiar is praised by the Historians. The widow queen Velu Nachiar and daughter Vellachi Nachiar with Tandavaraya Pillai fled to Virupakshi in Dindigul. Later they were joined by the two able Servaigarars Periya Marudu and Chinna Marudhu.
3rd Rani Velu Nachiar (1772–1780)
Rani Velu Nachiar and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and Marudhu Brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga and rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by Marudu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached whereby Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.
The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to Marudhu Brothers to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Marudu brothers are the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They are native of Kongulu street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.
Servaikaran was the caste title and Marudu the family name. The Marudu Brothers served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar. Later they were elevated to the position of Commanders. Boomerangs are peculiar to India. Two forms of this weapons are used in India. These weapons are commonly made of wood. It is crescent-shaped on end being heavier than the other and the outer edge is sharpened. Their name in Tamil is Valari stick. It is said that Marudu Brothers were experts in the art of throwing the valari stick. It is said that Marudus used Valari in the Poligar wars against the English. The Marudu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered the Nawab's territories. The Nawab on 10 March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29 April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. It was defeated by a large body of Marudu's troops. He was in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with Marudhus. After the execution of Kattabomman in 17 October 1799 at Kayattar, Chinna Marudhu gave asylum to Kattabomman's brother Oomadurai (dumb brother). He issued an epoch-making Jumboo Deweepa proclamation to the people in the island of Jamboo the peninsular South India to fight against the English whether they were Hindus, Mussalamans or Christians. At last the Marudhu Pandiyars fell a victim to the cause of liberating the motherland from the English supremacy. Marudu Pandiyan the popular leader of the rebels, together with his gallant brother Vellai Marudu were executed on the ruins of fort at Tiruppathur in Sivaganga District on 24 October 1801. They showed their determination and spirit at the outset of the final struggle of 1801 by setting their handsome village Siruvayal on fire to prevent its being made use of by the English forces.
Marudu brothers were not only warriers and noted for bravery, but they were very great Administrators. During the period from 1783 to 1801, they worked for the welfare of the people and the Sivaganga Seemai was reported as fertile. They constructed many notable temples (i.e. Kalayarkoil) Ooranis and Tanks.
After, so many successions of legal heirs ruled the estate, lastly, Sri D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah succeeded to the estate of late Sri. D. Shanmuga Rajah and he was the Hereditary Trustee of Sivaganga. Devasthanam and Chatrams consisting of 108 temples, 22 Kattalais and 20 Chatrams. Sri. D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah died on 30 August 1986, leaving a daughter named Tmt. Maduranthagi Nachiyar as his heir. At present, Tmt. Maduranthagi Nachiyar is administering the Sivaganga Estate, Sivaganga Devasthanam and Chatram of Sivaganga Royal Family now. Based on the "District Gazette" 1990 of Ramanathapuram, and the history of Sivaganga maintained by Samasthanam, Sivaganga District has been formed mostly with an area of entire Sivaganga Zamin and part of Ramnad Zamin.
Sivaganga district of Tamil Nadu spreads over 4,189 km². The geographical position of Sivaganga district is between 9° 43' and 10° 2' North Latitude and between 77° 47' and 78° 49' East Longitude. It is bounded on the north and northeast by Pudukkottai District, on the southeast and south by Ramanathapuram District, on the southwest by Virudhunagar District, and on the west by Madurai District, and on the northwest by Tiruchirappalli District.
- List of Indian districts
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sivaganga district.|
- Additional Collector. "Employment report of Sivaganga District". Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "2011 Census of India" (Excel). Indian government. 16 April 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Swaziland 1,370,424"
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. "Maine 1,328,361"
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- The Economic Times (17 December 2010). "Interview to ET by VJ Kurien, Chairman, Spices Board". The Economic Times.
- Moserbaer Projects Private Limited (2010). "Moser Baer Projects Private Limited — Divisions — Solar Power — Projects". Moserbaer Projects Private Limited.
- Tamil Nadu Forest Department (2010). "VETTANGUDI BIRD SANCTUARY". Tamil Nadu Forest Department.
||Tiruchirappalli district||Pudukkottai district|
|Virudhunagar district||Ramanathapuram district|